The Maid of Orleans Or la Pucelle of Voltaire Translated Into English Verse with Notes with Notes, Explanatory, Critical, Historical and Biographical, by W. H. Ireland (vol. 2) (2024)

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"Zoilus, a sophist and grammarian of Amphipolis, flourished two hundred and fifty-nine years before the Christian æra, and became famous on account of his severe criticisms on the works of Isocrates and Plato, and the poems of Homer, for which he received the name of Homeromastic, or the chastiser of Homer. Zoilus, presented his criticisms to Ptolemy Philadelphus, who rejected them with indignation, though the author declared that he was starving for want. It was stated by some, that Zoilus was cruelly stoned to death, or affixed to a cross by order of Ptolemy, while others affirm that he was burnt alive at Smyrna; his name is generally applied to rigid critics, but all the works of this grammarian are unfortunately lost."---The Maid of Orleans Or la Pucelle of Voltaire Translated Into English Verse with Notes with Notes, Explanatory, Critical, Historical and Biographical by W. H. Ireland

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The Maid of Orleans Or la Pucelle of Voltaire Translated Into English Verse with Notes with Notes, Explanatory, Critical, Historical and Biographical (vol. 2) is a translation of La Pucelle by Voltaire by William Henry Ireland.

MEMBER OF THE ATHENEUM OF SCIENCES AND ARTS AT PARIS.Lugete Veneres Cupidinesque.CATULLUS.IN TWO VOLUMES.VOL II.LONDON:PRINTED FOR JOHN MILLER, 69, FLEET STREET;AND W. WRIGHt, 46, fleet street.1822.961844FundoAuriaπ148T(NazionaleNAPOLIB. IIILONDON:SHACKELL AND ARROWSMITH, JOHNSON'S COURT, FLEET STERET.ADVERTIsem*nTOFTHE EDITORS OF KEHL,TOTHE EDITION OF THE PUCELLE D'ORLEANS,OFMONSIEUR DE VOLTAIRE.THIS poem is one of the productions of Monsieur de Voltaire, which has at the same timeexcited the greatest degree of enthusiasm, and alsogiven rise to the most virulent declamations on thepart of its opponents. Upon the coronation ofMonsieur de Voltaire at the French Theatre, thespectators who accompanied him in multitudesto his hotel, sent forth with an equal degree ofeuthusiasm, the following exclamations. " Longlive the Henriade. -Long live Mahomet. -Longa 2iv ADVERTIsem*nT.live La Pucelle;" we therefore conceive that it maynot be deemed irrelevant to enter upon somehistorical details respecting this production.La Pucelle was commenced about the year1730, * and until the period when Monsieur deVoltaire took up his residence in the environs ofGeneva, was only known to the intimate friendsof the author, (who were in possession of manuscript copies of some of the cantos, ) and to thosesocieties in which Thiriot was in the habit ofreciting detached pieces.Towards the end of the year 1755, an editionappeared in print, which Monsieur de Voltaireimmediately hastened to disavow, and he was inevery respect authorized so to do; as this impression was not only produced from a manuscriptpurloined from the author or his friends, butcontained a great number of verses which were notof his own production; and others he could not

  • Voltaire was born at Paris in 1694, consequently he began

the present poem when thirty-six years of age.ADVERTIsem*nT.suffer to remain, because they bore an allusion tocirc*mstances completely reversed, of which several instances are adduced in the notes subjoinedto the poem. Morality sanctions a writer in thepublic disavowal of the rough draft of a worksurreptitiously obtained, and obviously publishedwith the intention of ruining the author's credit.This edition was attributed to La Beaumelle, †and the Capucin Maubert, who had sought refugein Holland, an enterprize which must have beenvery productive to those individuals in a pecuniary point of view, while it greatly exposed thereputation of Monsieur de Voltaire: these literarypirates, however, foundLeur bien premierement et puis le mal d'autrui.

  • The latter sentence refers to the French editions of the

Pucelle, having no reference whatsoever to the present translation .+ See Note 19, to Canto the VIth, and Note 22, to Cantothe XVIIIth, Vol. 2 .vi ADVERTIsem*nT.Abookseller named Grasset even had the effrontery to propose, to Monsieur de Voltaire, thathe should purchase one of the purloined copiesof his own production, at the same time holdingforth menaces respecting the danger to which hewould subject himself, in case of a refusal to become the possessor upon such terms; and it issingular that the celebrated anatomical poetHaller, a most zealous protestant, should havestood forth his patron against Monsieur de Voltaire.It will be seen by the letter of our author, ad-

  • Albert Haller, a celebrated physician, was born at Berne,

and at a very early period evinced considerable genius, but moreparticularly for poetry. His high reputation in process of timeprocured him a medical professorship at Gottingen, where heafterwards became president of the Academy, being likewise amember of most of the Learned Societies of Europe, but herefused the title of a Baron of the Empire which was tenderedto him. He died at Berne, at an advanced age, in 1775. Thepoems of Haller are descriptive and elegant, in addition to which,he published several valuable works on physic and surgery.ADVERTIsem*nT. viidressed to the French Academy, inserted in thefirst volume of the present translation, that theedition in question was published at Frankfort,although purporting to be from Louvaine, anda short time afterwards appeared two editionsprecisely the same, printed in Holland.The first editors, irritated at the disavowal ofMonsieur de Voltaire, which appeared in thepublic papers, reprinted La Pucelle in 1756, towhich they subjoined his renunciation, coupledwith other satirical pieces, in order to turn himinto ridicule; however, by thus openly avowingthemselves, they in a great measure obliteratedthe injury which had been intended towards theauthor.In 1757 appeared a London edition of thispoem, conformable with the foregoing and ornamented by engravings, executed after the wretched taste of the versification introduced by theeditors: new impressions then rapidly succeededeach other, and La Pucelle was printed at Parisfor the first time in 1759.viii ADVERTIsem*nT.It was not until 1762 that Monsieur de Voltaire published an edition of his work differingmost essentially from all those before enumerated,and which was reprinted in 1774 in quarto, withconsiderable alterations and additions, afterwhich latter impressions, still revised and corrected from various manuscripts, we now issueLa Pucelle to the public.

Several other booksellers in printing this poem,having carefully collected the numerous variations, we have felt ourselves called upon to adopta similar line of conduct in regard to the presentimpressions; nevertheless as in the course ofthese emendations there are some which it is impossible to regret, as not being from the pen ofMonsieur de Voltaire, but subjoined by theeditors to fill up chasms in the work which werenot completed by the author; we have conse-

  • Alluding to the French editions, containing what are denominated Les Variantes, and which are not inserted in the

present translation.ADVERTIsem*nT. ixquently thought ourselves justified in omittingthem, at least to a certain extent.The utter impossibility of destroying what hasbeen so very frequently issued from the press, *and the necessity of demonstrating to our readersthe interpolations of the first editors, being thesole motives which engaged us to preserve a certain number of these variations.It now becomes our task to defend La Pucelleagainst the attacks of those grave men who pardon Monsieur de Voltaire much less for havinglaughed at the expence of Joan of Arc, thanthey reprobate Peter Cauchon, ↑ Bishop of Beau-

  • It seems that Rabelais' advice could not be taken in respect to the annihilation of our Pucelle, who says " That all

wicked books should be bought up in order to stop new editions ." See vol . 1. p. 190. Paris Ed. 1694. I wonder if thewriter was thinking of his own Pentagruel at the time.+ Peter Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais, devoted to the Englishparty, proved one of the most implacable enemies of Joan ofArc, and officiated as principal judge upon that memorable trial.X ADVERTIsem*nT.vais, for having been chiefly instrumental incausing her to be burned alive at the stake.It appears to us that there are but two speciesof productions which can be prejudicial to pubIt was this ecclesiastic, together with the Bishops of Constance,and Lisieux, the Chapter of Notre Dame, six Licentiatesin Theology, and eleven Advocates of Rouen, who affixedtheir signatures to the infamous death warrant, which consignedto a cruel and untimely end, one of the most valiant heroinesthat ever graced the page of history.As a farther elucidation of this infamous transaction, takenfrom undoubted records, may not prove uninteresting, I shallhere subjoin them.Peter Cauchon and the Vice Inquisitor, without consultingthe judges, declared that the Pope was at too great a distance;and insisting upon an avowal, as well as the silence of Joan,they pronounced her condemnation, having the effrontery tostate that she refused submission to the Pope, which she had justbefore expressly notified.Joan interrupted the passing of sentence, to reiterate herfull submission to the church, and equally as it is stated , to allher judges. Upon this a retraction or abjuration was drawnADVERTIsem*nT. xilic morals; first, those wherein it is endeavouredto be proved that men may without scruple orshame commit crimes detrimental to morality,such as rape, adultery, and seduction, or similar-out, which she was made to pronounce; when taking advantageof her ignorance in not being able to read, another retractionwas annexed to this act, whereto they caused her to affix HERMARK, thus ratifying a confession of deeds to which she haduniformly pleaded not guilty; and upon this infamous treachery,the sentence of excommunication was withdrawn, being commuted to perpetual imprisonment with bread and water.Laverdy 114 to 118, Lenglet vol. 1 , pages 193 to 195,vol. 3, page 153, and Dartigny VII. 66.Being re-conducted to prison uniformly loaded with irons, theVice Inquisitor caused her to assume the female attire, leavingher former male habiliments in the dungeon.- Three daysafterwards, (the 27th of May, ) according to her own statement,the guards took away the woman's costume, consequently obliging her to re-assume the latter dress. This atrocity is not precisely proved; but that which appears incontestible is, the frequent attempts committed upon her person from the 23rd ofMay, compelling her to adopt a dress in which she was thebetter able to defend her chastity.Laverdy, 118, &c, 134, &c.-Lenglet, vol. 1. p. 196, 385.xii ADVERTIsem*nT.disgusting actions, which, without coming underthe denomination of crimes, dishonour those whocommit them; and secondly, productions thatenter into the detail of refinements in debaucheryand certain scenes that can only arise in the mostlibertinous imaginations.Works of this nature may certainly be pernicious, since it is to be feared, that they may renOn the 28th of May, the judges hastened to the prison inorder to have a conviction of the CRIME Joan had thus committed, concerning which they interrogated her; and upon the29th, having assembled part of their accomplices, they condemned.Joan to the fire without interrogatory, oath, admonition, &c.Therefore, according to the just remark by Laverdy, (page 123)" Afew minutes conversation sufficed without any otherform orprocess to condemn her to the most excruciating of tortures."But in reference to Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais, the primeinstrument in this barbarous proceeding, as Jeanne D'Arc didnot belong to his Diocese, nor was captured upon his Domains,she could not have legally been subjected to hisjurisdiction.See Voltaire's Dic: Philosoph: under the word Arc:Villaret, XV. 42: Laverdy 514; and Lenglet, vol. 1pago 129.ADVERTIsem*nT. xiiider young persons who peruse them with avidityinsensible to virtuous gratifications, and thattender and refined passion, which has its unpolluted source in nature.The Pucelle, therefore, does not deserve any ofthese reproaches; the highly wrought pictures ofthe passions of Agnes and Dorothy may amusethe imagination, but never can corrupt the heart,while the freer pleasantries scattered throughoutthe work, are by no means apologetic ofthe sceneswhich they depict, nor a representation of suchactions as may conduce to mislead the imagination.The present poem ought to be regarded in thelight of a work destined to inculcate lessons ofwisdom and common sense, under the mask offolly and voluptuousness. The author The may insome instances have wounded the taste, but hasnever injured the cause of morality.We do not pretend to offer this production asa catechism; it ranks under the same class withxiv ADVERTIsem*nT."those epicurean songs, those ebullitions composedfor the table, which celebrate a laxity of conduct,the gratifications of the voluptuary, and the delights of free society, animated by the gaiety of anentertainment. Have the authors of such compositions ever been arraigned for seeking to establishas an axiom, the necessity of neglecting everyduty; the passing life in the fond embraces of afemale; or in sharing the refinements of the festiveboard? Most undoubtedly not. They only endeavour to inculcate, that there is much more reasonand happiness derived, in devoting existence toscenes of soft voluptuousness, than in beingeternally occupied with the thoughts of cupidity,ambition, intrigue and hypocrisy.This species of exaggeration, which has itssource in enthusiasm, is essentially requisite topoetry. Will that epoch ever arrive when nothingshall be heard but the rigid language and severityof Reason? Why then should it not be permittedus to borrow other modes of expression, in orderto address those who do not comprehend such astyle ofwriting?ADVERTIsem*nT. XVBesides this amalgama of devotion, libertinismand warlike ferocity, depicted in La Pucelle, is theprecise image of the manners of those times.

According to our opinion, such is the light inwhich severe judges ought to regard the Maidof Orleans, and we trust they will therefore proveless eager to raise the voice in its condemnation.In short, had this poem only been instrumentalin preventing a single libertine from becomingsuperstitious and intolerant in his old age, it wouldhave done more real good than all its raillerieswill ever produce of evil. When we behold, uponthrowing an attentive glance at human nature,that the rights of man, and the sacred duties ofhumanity, are violated and attacked with impu-

  • In the annals of a Canon of Paris, who was a most zealous

Burgundian, we are told in direct terms, that several compilers ofthe history of France have had the kindness to copy; that underthe reign of Charles the Sixth, God afflicted the city of Pariswith a general cough, as a punishment for some little boys havingsang in the streets " Votre ✶✶✶ a la Toux: commere;votre *** ala Toux!!"xvi ADVERTIsem*nT.nity; that human wisdom is brutalized by error;that the rage of fanaticism, conquest or plunder,secretly actuates so many potentates; that a thirstfor ambition and avarice exerts its ravages withimpunity in every direction; while a preachergravely thunders his anathemas against the errorofvoluptuousness; it would be just like a physician, when called upon to administer to a manattacked with the plague, who should very gravelybegin, by occupying himself with the cure ofa corn.Perhaps it may not here be unnecessary to examine why so much importance is attached toan austerity of morals. First: -in a country wheremen are ferocious and bad laws exist, the love ortaste for pleasure produces great disorders; and ithas uniformly been found a much easier task tocompose fine declamatory harangues than to framewholesome edicts: secondly, old men, in whomis naturally vested all authority, and who directthe opinions, require nothing better than to declaim against those faults which appertain to different stages of life: thirdly, a freedom of moralsdestroys the ascendancy of women by preventingADVERTIsem*nT. xviithem from extending it beyond the duration oftheir personal attractions; and fourthly, men ingeneral are not assassins, robbers nor calumniators.It is consequently very natural that priests shouldprove desirous of exaggerating the errors in morality: from this there are few men exempt; nay,the majority feel a pride in committing them, orat least wish it to be supposed that they are desirous so to do. In consequence, every manwhose mind has imbibed scruples upon this subject, becomes the slave of priestly power.Churchmen may leave the consciences of thegreat in repose as to their crimes; and while inspiring them with remorse as to their pleasures,become their masters and govern them, thusconverting a voluptuary into a determined andbarbarous persecutor.Such is the only means they possess of maintaining the predominance over women, who, forthe most part have only to reproach themselveswith crimes of this description. By such conduct they cannot fail to ensure the power of governing with despotic sway, those who have either41 bxviii ADVERTIsem*nT.feeble minds, or ardent imaginations; and aboveall the aged, who, by way of expiating such pastfaults, which they are no longer able to commit,desire no better, than to disinherit their survivors, in order to enrich the priesthood.We must also observe, that these very faults areprecisely the same for which we may become rigidin performing the most trivial of sacrifices. Thereis no virtue so easy to practise, or which we maypretend to possess, as chastity; nor is there one,which is more compatible with the absence of allreal virtue and the re-union of every vice: wherefore, the very moment it is agreed upon that agreat importance shall be attached thereto, everyscoundrel will be sure to obtain at little or no costthe esteem of the public.In every country upon the surface of the globe,where purity, the offspring of simple nature, is heldin less repute than austerity of morals, you willthere be sure to find all the vices and crimes, nay,even those which are committed by unrestraineddebauchery.PREFACE,&c.

PREFACEOFDON APULEIUS RISORIUS, THE BENEDICTIN.LET us return thanks to that benificent heart,to which we are at length indebted for a Maid:this heroic and moral poem was composed aboutthe year 1730, as is well known to the learned, andappears obvious from several traits in the production. We are given to understand by a letter of1740, printed in the small treatise of a great princeunder the title of Le Philosophe sans Souci,* thata German Princess to whom the manuscript had

  • Alluding to a favourite palace called Sans Souci, built by

the King of Prussia for the purpose of enjoyingthe society of ourVoltaire, the Marquis D'Argens, Maupertuis, and other philosophical friends.xxii PREFACE.been lent merely for perusal, was so much edifiedby the circ*mspection that reigns throughout asubject so difficult, that she passed a whole dayand a night in causing it to be copied, and intranscribing, herself, all the most moral parts. Itis this identical copy which has at length come toour hands: detached pieces of the Pucelle havebeen frequently published, and the real amateursof sterling literature, have been much scandalizedon beholding it so dreadfully disfigured. Someeditors have given it in fifteen cantos, others insixteen and eighteen, while it has even beenextended to twenty-four, sometimes by dividingone canto into two, or in making good deficiencies, by the insertion of verses, which adrunken coachman quitting the public-housewould have disavowed.Wherefore, beholding Joan in all her purity, weare fearful of hazarding a bold judgment in givingthe name of the author to whom this epic flight isattributed. It is sufficient that the reader maybe able to elicit some instruction concerning themorality concealed under the allegories of thepoem; ofwhat avail is it to ascertain the author?PREFACE. xxiiiThere are many works which the wise and thelearned peruse with delight, without knowing bywhom they were written: instance the Pervigilium Veneris, the satire under the name ofPetronius, together with so many others.What gives us infinite consolation is, that therewill be found in our Pucelle, fewer passages of abold or free nature, than are to be met with in allthe great Italian writers who have adopted a similar style.Verum enim vero, to commence with Pulci, weshould be truly sorry had our discreet authoradopted those little liberties which were taken bythis Florentine Doctor in his Morgante. OurLuigi Pulci, who was a venerable Canon, com- *

  • Luigi, or Lewis Pulci, was an Italian poet of a noble

family, and born at Florence in 1432. The epic productionabove alluded to, and entitled Morgante Maggiore, comprises astrange and disgusting medley of sacred and obscene subjects: hewas also the author of a poem, written upon a tournament heldat Florence in 1468, which was called Giostra di Lorenzo deMedici. He died about 1487.See Roscoe's Life ofLorenzo de Medici.xxiv PREFACE.posed his poem about the middle of the fifteenthcentury, for Signora Lucrezia Tornabuoni, motherof Laurentius de Medici, sirnamed The Magnificent; and we are given to understand that theMorgante was sung at the table of that Lady. Itis the second epic poem which Italy has produced,and there have been great disputes among thelearned, whether the composition is really seriousor comic. Those who have conceived it to be ofthe former nature, ground their opinion upon theexordium accompanying each Canto, which commences with couplets from holy writ. For example, the argument of the first chapter runs asfollows:In principio era il verbo appresso a Dio;Fd era Iddio il verbo, e ' l verbo lui.Questo era il principio, al parer mio, &c.If the opening canto commences with theEvangelist, the conclusive one terminates with theSalve Regina;* which may justify the opinion of

  • Salve Regina are the first words of a prayer offered to the

Virgin by Catholics, which is generally sung at the momentwhen criminals are to be executed.PREFACE.- XXVthose who have conceived that the author hadwritten in a very melancholy mood; because atthat period the theatrical pieces performed inItaly were selected from The Passion and theActs ofthe Saints.*Those, on the other hand, who have treated theMorgante as a ludicrous effort, have merely considered some passages rather too bold, being astrain to which the poet sometimes abandonedhimself.Thus when Morgante enquires of Margutte ifhe be a Christian or a Mahometan;Ese egli crede in Cristo o in Maometto.Rispose allor Margutte, per dir tel tosto:

  • These pious mysteries were usually represented on festivals,

or to honour the reception of illustrious personages, and were performed by ecclesiastics or students in Theology, continuing frequently for a certain number of hours, during several successivedays: one mystery in particular, as appears from the recordshanded down in ancient chronicles, lasted no less than thirty-onedays, being entitled, The History ofthe Old and New Testament.xxvi PREFACE.Io non credo più al nero che al azzurro;Ma nel cappone, o lesso o voglia arrosto,

  • *

Ma sopra tutto nel buon vino hofede.

Or queste son trè virtù cardinale,La gola, il dado, el culo come io t'ho detto.You will be pleased to remark that Crescembini,who finds no difficulty in placing Le Pulci amongthe number of real Epic Poets, says to excusehim, that he was the most modest and well regulated writer of his time; il più modesto e moderatoscrittore. The fact is, he was the precursor ofBoyardo* and Ariosto; it is through him that aRoland, a Rinaldo, an Oliver, a Dudon becamecelebrated in Italy, and he is almost equal toAriosto for the purity of his style.

  • Mattheo Maria Boyardo, Count of Scandiano, and Governor

of Reggio, has given celebrity to his name, by the composition ofsome Latin and Italian poems; the principal of which is entitledOrlando Inamorato, written in imitation of the Iliad. Thispoem was completed by Ariosto, whose Orlando Furioso, is onlya continuation of the above Epic flight.PREFACE. xxviiThere has since been a very elegant editionconliceuza de superiori; whereof, I certainly wasnot the composer, and if the editor of ourPucelle spoke as impudently as Margutte, theson of a Turkish priest and a Greek nun, Ishould have taken especial care how I committed it to the press.Neither will there be found in Joan of Arc, thesame rash flights as are conspicuous in Ariosto;you will not there meet with a Saint John who isan inhabitant of the moon, and who is made tosayGli scrittori amo; efo il debito mioChe al vostro mondo, fue scrittore anchio;E ben convenne al mio lodato CristoRendermi guiderdon d'un si gran sorte, &c.This is jocose, and Saint John takes a liberty,which no Saint of La Pucelle would ever think ofhazarding. It should appear that the Saviour wasonly indebted for his divinity to the first chapter ofSaint John, and that he was flattered by the Evangelist: this discourse savours somewhat of Soci-xxviii PREFACE.nianism, whereas our discreet author on thecontrary takes very good care not to fall into asimilar excess.It is equally a source of great edification for us,that our modest poet has not imitated any of ourancient romances, of which the learned Huet,+

  • The Socinians were a sect so called from Selius Socinus,

their Author, who was afterwards promoted by Faustus Socinusat Sienna in 1555. He asserted that Christ was merely a man,having never had an existence before Mary; he denied the personality of the Holy Ghost, Original Sin, Grace, Predestination,the Sacraments and the immensity of God.+ Peter Daniel Huet was born at Caen in Normandy, in 1630,and studied mathematics under Mambrun, a Jesuit, and theGreek and Hebrew under Bochart, whom he accompanied in1652 to the court of Christina Queen of Sweden, who sought toengage him in her service, but he declined that honour. In 1661he published an excellent work entitled De Interpretatione, andin 1679, appeared his Demonstratio Evangelica which wasgreatly admired. His reputatinn then augmented to such adegree that he was appointed sub-preceptor to the Dauphin, having for his colleague the illustrious Bossuet. Huet then formedthe plan of publishing editions of the Classics, In Usum Delphini,superintending their execution himself. In 1661 appeared hisPREFACE. xxixBishop ofAvranches, and Abbe Lenglet* the compiler, have produced an history. Let any onesatisfy himself with reading Lancelot du Lac, +valuable edition of the works of Origen, and in 1698, he waspresented to the Abbey of Aunay in Normandy, and afterwardsnominated to the See of Soissons, which he exchanged for thatof Avranches. He then printed his censures on the Cartesian Philosophy, the fallacy of which he exposed; and in 1699 resignedhis Bishopric, and was presented to the Abbey of Fontenoy nearCaen, and died at Paris in 1721. Considering the number andexcellence of his works, Huet may be ranked as one of the mostlearned men that any age has produced, the following laboursfrom his pen having been translated into English:-On theOrigin of Romances; On the Situation of the Terrestrial Paradise; History of the Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients;and, Upon the Weakness ofthe Human Understanding.

  • Nicholas de Fresnoy Lenglet, was born at Beauvais in

1674, and became Secretary to the French Ambassador atCologne, and librarian to Prince Eugene; and in 1755, he wasburnt to death by falling into the fire at the age of eighty- one.His works are voluminous but incorrect, the best of his productions being, A Method for Studying History, which has beentranslated into English.† One of the ancient romances, containing very facetiousmatter, which was translated into English, forming one of theearliest specimens of British Typography.XXX PREFACE.selecting the chapter entitled-" How Lancelotslept with the Queen, and how Sir Lagant took herback again;" and then will appear the purity of ourauthor, when compared with those ofantiquity.Quid dicam of the marvellous history of Gargantua, * dedicated to Cardinal Tournon. It is well

  • Francis Rabelais, the author of Pentagruel, was the son of

an apothecary at Chinon in Touraine, and entered into theOrder of Cordeliers, but on account of an intrigue, was imprisonedin a monastery, from whence having effected his escape, he obtained permission of Pope Clement the Seventh, to quit hisfraternity. He then studied medicine at Montpellier, becameprofessor in 1531 , and was appointed physician to Cardinal deBellay, in whose suite he went to Rome, and upon his return toFrance, was rewarded with an Abbey, and the benefice of Meudon. About this period, he published his Pentagruel, whereinfigures the giant Gargantua, being a comic satire extremely licentious and obscene. Rabelais died in 1553, at the age ofseventy;he was also the author of some medical works, and numerousletters printed together in 5 vols octavo.It is utterly impossible for us, from motives of delicacy, to givean English translation of the above words, and yet every readermust allow that as the quotation of the head line of a chaptercontained in the work adverted to, it was impossible to alter theFrench term, without completely obliterating the force of thewriter's allusion.PREFACE. xxxiknown that the chapter of Torche-culs is one ofthe most modest contained in the whole work.We do not here speak of the moderns; we shallonly remark, that all the ancient tales imaginedin Italy and rendered into verse by La Fontaine, *are still less moral than our Pucelle. Be thishowever, as it may, we most sincerely wish all ourgrave critics the delicate sentiments of the lovelyMonrose; to our prudes, if any such there be, thenaïveté of Agnes and the tenderness of Dorothy;to our warriors the arm of the robust Joan; to the

  • John de la Fontaine was born at Chateau Thierry in 1621 ,

having been first educated at Rheims, and afterwards receivedinstruction under the fathers of the Oratory. He was a man ofsingular simplicity of manners, credulous, fearful, and uncommonly absent. For some time he resided with the IntendantFoucquet, from whom he received a pension, and was afterwardsin the service of Princess Henrietta ofEngland, after which helived with Madame de la Sabliere, and died in 1695. La Fontaine's tales are very licentious, but his fables are placed in thehands of youth, being extremely natural, poetic and entertaining;he also wrote a romance called Les Amours de Psyche, someComedies, Letters, &c . which are printed in his Miscellanies.xxxii PREFACE.Jesuits, a character similar to that of the goodConfessor Bonifoux; and to all such as keep anopen house, the attentions and savoir faire ofBonneau.We moreover believe that this little book is anexcellent specific against those vapours, which atthe present time afflict several ladies and Abbés;and if we should only have rendered such serviceto the public, we conceive that our time will nothave been mis- spent.HISTORICAL PROBLEM,&c. &c.

HISTORICAL PROBLEMRESPECTINGTHE EXECUTION OF LA PUCELLE D'ORLEANS.As it is impossible that any Englishman ofcommon feeling, or who advocates the cause ofjustice and humanity, can recur to the untimelyfate of Joan of Arc, as recorded in our Chronicles, without being impressed by horror anddisgust inspired by those sentiments whichshould lead every true patriot to endeavour towipe off an indelible stain that is attached to thehonour of his country, I have thought it but justto introduce the following statements, upon whichthe reader is left to draw his own conclusions.In the year 1683, appeared in the FrenchMercure Gallant for the month of November, ac 2xxxvi HISTORICAL PROBLEMletter addressed to Monsieur de Grammont, whichcreated a considerable sensation; as the authortherein asserted that Joan ofArc, better known under the title ofLa Pucelle d'Orleans, did not sufferdeath at the stake in the city of Rouen, upon thethe 30th of May, * 1431; but that having escapedthe power of the English, she was married in1436, to a gentleman of Lorraine, by whom shehad children; and in proof of this assertion hepublished the extract of a manuscript, which PereVignier of the Oratory, discovered at Metz,during a journey he performed in Lorraine withMonsieur de Ricey, who repaired thither in thecharacter of Intendant. This manuscript wassubsequently printed under the title of The Chronicle of Metz, composed by the Curate of SaintThiebaut of the same city, coming down tothe year 1445. Father Calmet has inserted it

  • President Henault dates this execution as having taken

place on the fourteenth of June, while Deserres, the historian ,ascribes it to the sixth of July; they are, however, both provedto be in error from the text of the process of Joan ofArc, whichconsigns her to the fire on the last day ofMay.RESPECTING JEAN D'ARC. xxxviiamong the documents in his History of Lorraine,and from thence it is extracted verbatim, takenfrom columns CXXI, and CXXII, of the secondvolume." L'An 1436, fut Sire Phelepin Marcoulz," Maistre Eschevin de Metz, Icelle année le 2066 jour de May, vint La Pucelle Jehanne, que" avoit esté en France à la Grange aux Hormes,66 près Saint Privey, et y fut amoinée pour parler" à aucuns de Seigneurs de Metz, et se faisoit66 appellé Claude, et le propre jour y vinrent ces" deux freres, dont l'un estoit Chevalier, ets'appelloit Messire Pierre, et l'autre Petit Jehan ""66 Escuyer, et cuidoient, qu'elle fut ars; et tan-" tost qu'ils la virent, ils la congneurent, et aussy" fist elle eulx. Et le Lundy 21 jour donditmois, ils l'amoinnont lor suer avecq eulx à6666 Bacquillon, et ly donnaist le Sire Nichole Lowe" Chevalier, un groussin du prix de 30 francs," et une paire de houzels, et Seignour AubertBoulay, ung chapperon, et Sire Nicole Groig-" nart une espée, et ladite Pucelle saillit sur" led, cheval tres habillement, et dict plusiours66xxxviii HISTORICAL PROBLEM" choises au Sire Nicole Lowe, dont il entendit" bien que c'estoit celle qui avoit esté en France,et fut recogneu par plusiours Enseignes pour" la Pucelle Jehanne de France, que amoinnast" sacrer le Roy Charles à Rheims; et volurent dire66 plusiours qu'elle avoit esté ars a Rouen en Nor-" mandie......... Et quant elle volt partir, plusiours" de Metz l'allont veoir à la dicte Marieulle, et6666l'y donnont plusiours juelz, et la recogneurent" ilz que c'estoit proprement Jehanne la Pucelle" de France, et doncq ly donnoit Jeoffrey Dexung cheval. Item, quand elle fut à Arelont," elle estoit tousjours de coste Madame de" Lucembourg, et y fut grant piece jusques à" tant le fils le Comte de Warnenbourg l'en-" moinnast à Coullougne..........Et puis s'en vint à" l'adite Arelont, et la fut faict le marriage de" Messire Robert des Hermoises Chevalier, et de" ladite Jehanne la Pucelle, et puis apres s'en" vint led, sieur des Hermoises avec sa femme laPucelle, demourer en Metz en la maison le dit" Sire Robert des Hermoises, qu'il avoit devant" Saincte Segoleine, et se tinrent la jusques tantqu'il lors plaisir."6666RESPECTING JEAN D'ARC. xxxix6666Thus Anglicised:" In the year, 1436, Sire Phelepin Marcoulz,was Prefect of Police of Metz, that same yearon the 20th day of May arrived Joan, the" Pucelle of France at la Grange aux Hormes,66 near Saint Privey, being led there to speak" to some of the noblemen of Metz, where she" assumed the name of Claude, and on the same66 day came her two brothers, one of whom, a" chevalier, bore the name of Messire Peter, and" the other, Little John the Esquire, who be-" lieved that she had been burned: but as soon66 as they saw her, they recognized her, as she" did them. And upon Monday, the 21st of the" said month, they conducted their sister to" Bacquillon, where Sir Nicholas Lowe, Knight,6666presented her with a mule of the value ofthirty francs, together with its housings, and" the Lord Aubert Boulay, gave her a cap, and" Sir Nicholas Groignart a sword, and the said" Pucelle went forth very dexterously upon the" said beast, and communicated many things to" the said Sir Nicholas Lowe, by which he knew" that she had been in France, being furtherxl HISTORICAL PROBLEM" recognized from many other circ*mstances, to" be Joan the Maid of France, who had led" King Charles to be crowned at Rheims, and" whom many had stated to have been burned" at Rouen in Normandy. And upon her departure several persons of Metz repaired to 66CC see her at the said Marieulle, and presented" her with many jewels, and ascertained that she" was truly, Joan the Maid ofFrance: and there" was given her by Geoffrey Dex, a horse:" Item, when she was at Arelont, she was always" at the side of Madame de Luxembourg, and66 great ceremonials took place until the son of" the Count de Warnenbourg accompanied her" to Coullougne......... And upon her return to Are-“ lont, the marriage was performed between Sir" Robert de Hermoises, Knight, and Joan la" Pucelle; after which this said Sieur des Her66 moises, with his wife La Pucelle resided in" Metz, in the house of Sir Robert des Her-" moises, situated before Saint Segoleine, where66 they continued during their pleasure. "This recital is corroborated by the contractof marriage of Robert des Hermoises with LaRESPECTING JEAN D'ARC. xliPucelle, which Father Vignier declares to haveseen among the title deeds of the family of DesHermoises, and also in a contract of sale, madeby Robert des Hermoises, Lord ofTrichiemont andJeanne du Lis, la Pucelle de France, wife of theaforesaid Trichiemont, of certain possessions whichhe had at Harancourt, which contract was datedthe 7th of November, 1436. In short, these circ*mstances are further strengthened by thedescendants of des Hermoises boasting themselvesin a legitimate line from La Pucelle.Subsequent to this period, fresh proofs havebeen discovered, according to Monsieur Palluche, *in support of the opinion of Father Vignier; forhaving had occasion to consult the ancient Registers of the Mansion House of Orleans, thatgentleman fell by chance upon that of JacquesL'Argentier for the years 1435 and 1436, whereinhe found under the article of the expenditure ofthe latter, as follows:

  • Monsieur de Palluche was a member of the Literary

Society of Orleans in 1740.xlii HISTORICAL PROBLEM" To Renaud Brune, the 25th day of July;" for giving drink to the messenger who brought" letters from Jehanne La Pucelle, who was on" his wayto Guillaume Bellier; Bailly de Troyes:“ —11f. 8d. par.”" To Jehan du Lils, brother of Jehanne La" Pucelle, on Tuesday the 21st day of August," 1436; * for a gift to him made, the sum of 12" liv.; forasmuch as the brother of the said“ Pucelle, came into the Chamber ofthe said city,66 requiring of the Procurators that they would" assist him with some money to return to his" sister; stating that he came from the King," and that his Majesty had ordered that he" should receive an hundred francs, and com-" manded that they should be counted, whereof" nothing was done, and twenty only were given," of which he had expended twelve livres," wherefore only eight remained, which was no" great things for him to return, considering" that he was five days on horseback; and this

  • Joan ofArc is stated to have perished the 30th of May, 1431 .

RESPECTING JEAN D'ARC. xliii6666was commanded in the chamber of the cityby the procurators, from which he received," 12 liv. pour ce 9 liv.: 12 S. par."I pass over some articles respecting the manner in which Jean du Lis, brother of La Pucelle,was feasted in Orleans, that I may at once cometo the point.66" At Cueur de Lils, the 18th day of October,1436, for a journey which he performed to" the said city, in his way to La Pucelle, who" was then at Arelon in the duch*ey of Louxem66 bourg, and for transporting letters of Jehanne" La Pucelle, whereof he had been bearer, for" the King at Loiches, where he was then resident, and which journey occupied him forty-" one days for the same. -6 liv.: par.66On continuing these researches, Monsieur dePalluche, found in the account of Gilles Marchousne, for the years 1439, and 1440, and furthersome articles dated, 28th, 29th and 30th July,1439, for wine and refreshments presented toDame Jehanne DES ARMOISES, and lastly:xliv HISTORICAL PROBLEM"" TO JEHANNE DARMOISES; for a present given" to her the first day of August, 1439; after" deliberation made by the council of the city;" and for the services rendered by her to the" said city during the siege, two hundred and" ten livres, par; for this, 210 liv .: par:""Testimonies of such a decisive nature are certainly calculated to raise inward doubts as to thecommonly received opinions of the death of LaPucelle in 1431. The account of the Curate ofSaint Thiebaut, and the extracts from the Archivesof the Mansion House of Orleans, are demonstrative, since it appears from thence, that LaPucelle, after having escaped from the English,it little matters how, visits Metz, where she wasbelieved to have previously suffered at Rouen;she is there recognized by many persons deserving of credit, and in particular by her two brothers. Is it possible that the latter could havebeen deceived in respect to their own sister;they, who had served with her in France? Johnthe elder, two months after having found hissister, proceeds to Lorraine in order to find theKing and confirm this discovery; he passesRESPECTING JEAN D'ARC . xlvthrough Orleans on returning to his sister, whothree years afterwards repairs herself to that city,where she should certainly be well known, andcontinues a resident in the town for five or sixdays; she is there recognized and treated at theexpence of the city, which, upon her departure,presents her with no inconsiderable sum; forat that period, two hundred and ten francs wereequivalent to one thousand seven hundred livres atthe present period. Can it be imagined that theinhabitants of Orleans were imposed upon, andthat ifthis Jeanne des Hermoises was an impostor,she could have carried on such imposition? Thefarce must soon have been discovered, as we shallpresently show.We will, however, give an additional proof ofthe opinion entertained at Orleans, that the Pucelle was still in existence. In this same accountof Gilles Morchousne, already quoted, is foundthis regular charge, two months anterior to thearrival of Jeanne des Hermoises.66" Ninepounds of wax to makefour tapers, andone flambeau for the obsequies of the defunctxlvi HISTORICAL PROBLEM" JehanneLa Pucelle in the church ofSaint Sanxom,of Orleans, upon the eve of the fête Dieu, 1439."Whereas no similar charge is to be found in theexpenses for 1440, nor during that year is any mention made ofcommemorating any such anniversary.We may still support the opinion of FatherVignier, by a further example. Charles Duke ofOrleans in 1443, presented L'Isle-aux Baufs nearOrleans to Peter du Lis, brother of La Pucelle,stating in such deed of gift, that:-" Whereas" the supplication of the said Messire Pierre, pur-"porting that in order to acquit himselfofhis Loy.866666alty to the King, our said Lord and the Dukeof Orleans; he quitted his country to join theirservice, in company with his sister Jehanne La" Pucelle, with whom and ever since HER ABSENCE" even to the present moment, he has exposed his66 body, and all he possesses in the said service."What means the term, 66 EVER SINCE HER ABSENCE," but that La Pucelle had only been absent, and not dead; a circ*mstance which Peterdu Lis her brother, would not have failed to express in his petition, had such been the fact, forRESPECTING JEAN D'ARC. xlviithe purpose of exciting more interest in the mindof the Prince. The pain of death, and in particular such torments as are commonly believed tohave attended the exit of La Pucelle, are muchmore touching than a simpleflight or absence.Lastly, it is necessary to remind the reader thatimmediately after the 30th of May, 1431: a report was prevalent that La Pucelle was not dead,and that the English had substituted in her placean unfortunate wretch, whose crimes merited thatdeath which they were desirous it should be believed the Pucelle had experienced; nay, evensome went so far as to state that she never fell intothe power of her enemies; let us now proceedto proofs.In the Chronicle of Lorraine, among the documents printed by Father Calmet, column ix,and which does not come down later than 1544,when speaking of the siege of Compeigne, he" That the Pucelle was there lost, and" that no one knew what became of her, many said" that she had been taken by the English, and was" carried to Rouen, where she was burned; othersstates:xlviii HISTORICAL PROBLEM.6666affirmed that none of the army had caused herdeath, because she attributed all the honour of" herfeats of arms to them. "The Chronicle of Metz is more decisive. -Column c. c. " The Pucelle was taken by the Eng-"lish and the Burgundians, who were enemies to" the GENTILLE fleur de Lys.......... After which she66 was sent to the City of Rouen in Normandy," and there was she at a scaffold burned in a fire,66 as it was said, BUT THE CONTRARY OF WHICHIS SINCE PROVED. " And lastly, in the journal °66of a Citizen of Paris, in the reign of Charles theSeventh, to the year 1449, printed in the history of Charles the Sixth, from the edition of theLouvre, it is stated: -" That after the executionofLa Pucelle, many persons who had been deceivedby her,* firmly thought that on account of hersanctity she had escaped the fire; and that another had suffered in her place, they believing that itwas herself."

  • The writer of this journal was a zealous Burgundian, and

consequently in the interest of the English faction.RESPECTING JEAN D'ARC. xlixIt even appears that from the time of the imprisonment of La Pucelle, reports were alreadyafloat which led to the belief that the periodwould arrive when her execution would not becredited; since an ocular witness deposed inthe course of the process respecting her justification in 1455, that when the execution tookplace at Rouen, The English being doubtfulleast reports should be disseminated in regard tothe Pucelle's not being dead, or that some otherhad been burned in her stead, caused the fire andwood to be withdrawn from behind the body afterher death, in order that it might be ascertained shewas dead." See MS. in the Chapter House ofOrleans.This latter statement, which appears at the firstglance to favour an idea that the Pucelle wasactually burned, will upon examination be foundsusceptible of a conclusion diametrically opposite.Is a person recently suffocated by a great fire,which has consumed all the habiliments, easily recognized? And the precaution adopted by theEnglish, to place upon the head of the suffererwhom they led to the stake an elevated mitre,d1 HISTORICAL PROBLEMby which she was disguised, and to cause to becarried before her a picture representing everything against her that was infamous; (Recherchesde Pasquier, page 164 ) , were not these, I say,so many methods resorted to, in order that theattention of the spectators might be diverted; ofwhom, a few excepted, some had never seen her,and others had merely caught a glance of herperson as she passed? Nothing more was required to lead into error, and make them believe that, which it was absolutely wished theyshould accredit.Some objections may here be raised: first, thatsupposing La Pucelle had escaped the cruelty ofthe English, it is impossible that some mentionof the fact should not have been made duringthe process of her justification, particularly afterthe examination of no less than one hundred andtwelve witnesses. It is easy to reply with Father Vignier, who raised the same objection, that- the commission of those whom Pope Calixtus theThird delegated to enquire into this affair in 1455,was not to demonstrate that La Pucelle had escaped from death at Rouen; but to enquire whe-RESPECTING JEAN D'ARC. lither they had been justified in condemning heras an heretic, a relapse, an apostate, and anidolatress; and although it appears more thanprobable, they were aware she had not beenburned, such a fact was unconnected with theircommission, and they consequently did not trouble themselves upon that head.The second objection relates to this statement,that about the same period when La Pucelle presented herself in Lorraine and at Orleans, twoother females were received by the people as LaPucelle, whose impositions were afterwards discovered; from whence it might be inferred thatJeanne des Hermoises was a similar adventress,even supposing her not to have been one of thosein question: -let us examine the proofs.On perusing the journal for the life of Charlesthe Seventh already quoted, we find that-" In the year 1440, the Parliament and the University caused a woman to be brought to Paris,6666 following the men in arms, believed by many to" be Jehanne La Pucelle, and who on that account"had been very honourably received at Orleans,lii HISTORICAL PROBLEM" which woman was publicly shown at the palace on" the marble stone in the great court, and being" there examined as to her life and her estate, was" recognized as not being La Pucelle, and as hav6666ing been married." The other impostor is mentioned in a manuscript at the royal library,written at the period of Charles the Seventh, intitled: Examples des Hardiesses de plusieursRois et Empereurs;' where it appears, according to Pere Labbe, 180. Among others, I wastold by the said Lord (M. de Boissy, ) that tenyears after the sentence at Rouen in 1441 , wasbrought to the King another supposed Pucelle, whomuch resembled the first, and who was desirous thathe should believe from reports spread that it wastheformer one resuscitated. The King, upon hearing this, ordered that she should be conducted to- his presence." But that his Majesty said to her," Pucelle, myfriend, you are right welcome, in thename of God, who knows the secret which is between you and me."-When most miracuously, afterhearing only these words, this false Pucelle threwherself on her knees before the King, entreatingmercy, and forthwith confessed all her treasons,none of which however were judged too rigorously."RESPECTING JEAN D'ARC. liiiWe will now proceed to examine these facts.In the first recital there are traits which bearno analogy whatsoever to Jeanne des Hermoises;for the woman there spoken of was a followerof soldiers, calling herself a maid; which had noreference whatsoever to Jeanne des Hermoises,who avowed herself a married woman, by assuming the appellation of her husband; who repaired to Orleans with her domestics only: sincein all the registers of Morchouasne, not a syllable is said of her being in company with men atarms, captains, or officers, and much less withsoldiers like the female mentioned in the journal;a circ*mstance claiming particular notice; assuch conduct would have been disgusting in amaid who had espoused a gentleman and a chevalierof lineage which had uniformly ranked as one ofthe most honourable in Lorraine. Secondly, we .may add, that if they were able at Paris, and atthe Court, to distinguish one of these warriorsfrom the real Pucelle, it was much easier to havemade that discovery at Metz, and Arelont, as beingso much nearer to the country of La Pucelle, aswell as at Orleans, which had been the first andgreat theatre of her noble exploits; while theliv HISTORICAL PROBLEMtestimony of Peter and John du Lys in favour ofJehanne des Hermoises, whom they recognized fortheir sister, proves an argument, in opposition towhich it is very difficult to offer any reply.A third objection may be started; that if LaPucelle escaped from the English, would she nothave fled to the court, or to the army; andwould not the King have rewarded the serviceswhich she had rendered him? Yet nothing appears strange in all this; for, by the manner inwhich Jean du Lys her brother was received atLoches in 1436, according to his own recital in apassage before quoted, it appears manifest thatlittle faith was then attached to his statement.But to reply more fully, let it be rememberedwhat jealousy had been excited against the Pucelle by those who were nearest the King's person,and above all in George de la Trimouille, his favourite, who to use the words of the Chronicle ofMetz:-" Was little loyal to the said King, his" Lord, harbouring great envy of the feats she," La Pucelle, performed, and was the cause of herbeing taken." The credit of this nobleman was 66RESPECTING JEAN D'ARC. lvso powerful as to prevent the monarch from recognizing La Pucelle, who was supposed to havesuffered; and in regard to the gratitude of Charlesthe Seventh, where shall we trace upon his receiving news of the execution of La Pucelle,that he ever had recourse to the Lex talionis inregard to the English and Burgundians of rankwho fell into his hands? Can it be proved thathe avenged a death which dishonoured him? Itmust be allowed that the conduct of this princewas the same under both circ*mstances, and thatthe reasons by which he was governed, had theirorigin in the same principle: the jealousy of hiscourtiers was the sole source.It is, I conceive, useless here to speak of a girlwhom the young Count de Virnenbourg pretendedabout the year 1473, to be the Pucelle of Orleans,whom God had resuscitated in order to establish inthe Episcopal see of Treves Uldaric de Mandencheit, and whose imposition was discovered bythe Inquisitor of Cologne, who caused her arrestation, and would have tried her, had not theCount found means to effect her escape, and thusby flight rescued her from that death, which a lifelvi HISTORICAL PROBLEM, &c.marked by infamy had merited. The periodwhen this third imposter flourished, is too farremoved to have any reference to those of whomwe have spoken, much less to Jeanne, the wifeofJean des Hermoises, whose disorderly course oflife it is first requisite to substantiate ere she canbe confounded with the person in question; thisassuredly cannot be done, and what we haveadvanced respecting the other two, may withmuch more reason be applied to this third mentioned adventress.I shall conclude by stating, that as the arrivalof La Pucelle in France is one of those events inwhich many persons have thought that theycould trace an hidden source; it is not unlikelybut a similar circ*mstance appertains to her execution, the secret of which may at some futureperiod be fully exemplified, and in such expectation let us remain satisfied with the reasons thusadduced:-FOR HARBOURING DOUBTS UPON THESUBJECT.TABLE OF CONTENTSΤΟVOLUME THE SECOND.CANTO XI.ARGUMENT.Convent sacked by the English-Battle between Saint George ofEngland, and Denis the patron Saint of FranceNotesPage.- 1- 19CANTO XII.ARGUMENT.Monrose kills the Almoner. -Charles discovers Agnes, who consoled herself with Monrose in the Castle of CutendreNotesCANTO XIII.- 25- 41ARGUMENT.Departure from the Castle of Cutendre. -Combat between Joan andJohn Chandos. -Singular Law of Arms, whereto the Maid isobliged to submit. -Vision of Father Bonifoux, and the miraclewhich saves Joan's pudicityNotes4765lviii TABLE OF CONTENTS.CANTO XIV.ARGUMENT.Affront offered by John Chandos to the devout Dorothy.-Combatbetween Trimouille and Chandos. -The valiant Chandos diesby the hand of DunoisNotesCANTO XV.Page.· 79- 95ARGUMENT.Splendid feast at the Mansion House of Orleans, followed by ageneral assault. -Charles attacks the English, together with whathappens to the lovely Agnes and the companions of her journey 103Notes ·- 113CANTO XVI.ARGUMENT.How Saint Peter appeased Saint George and Saint Denis, promisinga noble recompense to him who should produce the best Ode.-Death of the lovely RosamoreNotesCANTO XVII.ARGUMENT.How Charles the Seventh, Agnes Sorel, Joan, Dunois, La Trimouille, all became fools, and the manner in which they regained their senses by the exorcism of the Right ReverendFather Bonifoux, the King's ConfessorNotes·- 117- 135- 139- 157TABLE OF CONTENTS. lixCANTO XVIII.ARGUMENT.Disgrace of Charles and his Golden TroopNotesCANTO XIX.Page.- 167- 181ARGUMENT.Death of the brave and tender Trimouille, and of the charmingDorothy. The obdurate Tyrconnel becomes a Monk of theOrder of Chartreux ·NotesCANTO XX.ARGUMENT.How Joan fell into a strange Temptation. -Tender temerity of herAss, and the noble resistance of our MaidNotesCANTO XXI.191205- 215- 231ARGUMENT.The chastity of Joan demonstrated. -Malice of the Devil. - Rendezvous given to Talbot, by the wife of Louvet the President.-Services rendered by brother Lourdis. -Charming conduct ofthe discreet Agnes. -Repentance of the Ass. -Exploits ofJoan.-Triumphs ofthe good King Charles the SeventhNotes- 241- 261

THEMAID OF ORLEANS.CANTO XI.ARGUMENT.CONVENT SACKED BY THE ENGLISH -BATTLE BETWEEN ST. GEORGEOF ENGLAND, AND DENIS, PATRON SAINT OF FRANCE.Now, free from useless preface I shall tell,Howthe two lovers in their cloister'd cell ,With joys forbidden, both alike oppress'd,Extended near each other, sunk to rest;Enjoying that sweet sleep the weary own,When Morpheus on their lids erects his throne.Sudden a dreadful din drives sleep afar,On all sides gleams the horrid torch of war; le vlod (TDeath, ghastly death, then blazes to their view,As streams of blood the convent's site bedew; andThis troop marauding of Britannia's soil,Gaul's ranks had beaten in a recent broil;bi

કમળ( જો કVOL. II. B2. THE MAID OF ORLEANS.The conquer'd, sword in hand, scour'd o'er the plain,By victors follow'd, who pursu'd amain;Striking and crying, almost out of breath66 Agnes restore, or instant meet your death."But naught knew any creature of the Fair,Till hoary Colin, who of flocks had care,Bespoke them thus:-" Sirs, yesterday my sight" Was struck with paragon of beauty bright,"Who, tow'rd the dusk, pass'd yonder convent gate.""Anon! " the English cried, with souls elate,""Tis Agnes there's no doubt: -By Heavens! ' tis she;" Let's on. " The cruel cohort instantly,Gain'd ofthe convent wall the holy steep:Thus raging wolves, rush ' midst a flock of sheepOf dormitory, they each cell inspect; ¹The chapel, caves, no corner they neglectThese enemies of such as laud Heav'n's name,View all, devoid of scruple, or of shame;Ah! sisters, Anna, Ursula, Marton,Why raise your eyes-where would ye fly anon?Poor moaning doves, why seek the holy place,Trembling, confounded, ye the shrine embrace;That holy altar fear'd, and found to beThe sacred safe-guard of your chastity;Amidst this direful peril, what are vows?Ye supplicate in vain your Heav'nly spouse.Before his shrine, nay, even in his view,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 3Poor flocks your cruel ravishers pursue,To profanate that faith so pure and bless'd,Which your sweet lips with innocence profess'd.Some readers, of earth's worldly race the sons,Immodest souls, the enemies of nuns;Sarcastic jokers, dare with playful wit,Poor violated dames, with tauntings hit;Let them say on. - Alas! my sisters dear,How dreadful ' tis, such tender hearts to jeer;For timid, harmless, beauties, framed like ye,To strive from homicidal arms to flee;Disgusting kisses on your lips to feel,From felons reeking with gore's smoking seal,Who by an act ferocious and abhorr❜d—The eyes on fire, lips that blaspheme the Lord,Mingling the outrage with voluptuous glow,Thus seek with brutal love your overthrow;Whose poisonous breath infects the zephyrs bland:The bristly beard-the hard infuriate hand,The hideous form: -arms black, with gore impress'd,Appear to strike with death where they caress'd;In fine, they seem'd to these strange frenzies given,Fiends; violating Angels, bless'd of Heaven!Crime had already to their shameless view,Ting'd fronts of each chaste fair with crimson hue;Sister Ribondi, so devout and sage,2B 2THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Was doom'd to meet fierce Shipunk's carnal rage.Wharton, vile infidel -bold Barclay too,Poor sister Amidon, alike pursue.They weep, they pray, and swear; press, push and run;When in the tumult's seen Besogne the nun,With Bard and Parson fighting, who employ,All means to put in force their lustful joy,Both ignorant, that Besogne is-a boy:Nor was't thou, Agnes, ' midst this sorrowing band,To be neglected by despoiler's hand;Tender, enchanting object, ' twas thy lot,Always to sin, whether thou wouldst or not; ³The murd'rous chief of this obdurate crew,Courageous victor, he sped after you;While troops obedient, in their passions still,Resign'd this honour, to his potent will.Yet Fate tho' harsh, will sometimes deign befriend,And of our woes at length proclaim the end;For as these gentlemen of Britain's Isle,With foul pollution thus, had dar'd defile,Of the Saint Sion, this most sacred place,From Heav'n's high vault Gaul's patron full of grace,Good Denis; to bright virtue always kind,Found means to ' scape from thence and leave behindFierce turbulent St. George, of France the foe;From Paradise he bent his course below.But, in descending to our earthly sphere,THE MAID OF ORLEANS.5No more on sun-beam did our sage appear,Since too apparent then his course had been,He went the god of mystery to win; ¹Sire, sage, and cunning, foe of noise and light,Who flies on ev'ry side, and goes by night,He favours, (and ' tis pity) rogues that steal;But leads the man impress'd by wisdom's seal:To church and court, he hies; at all times there.While anciently of love he had the care:He first envelop'd in a cloud obscure,Good Denis; and forthwith commenced his tour,By secret path, which no one yet had gone,Whisp'ring quite low, and sideway moving on.The faithful guardian of Gaul's goodly set,Not far from Blois, the maid of Orleans met;Who, of gross muleteer the back bestrode,Advancing gently by a secret road;Off'ring up prayers that some adventure kind,Might lead her in the end her arms to find;When Denis from afar beheld the maid,With tone benign the gentle patron said:"Welcome my virgin! welcome Joan, who brings," Succour alike to maidens and to Kings,"Come lend thine aid to chastity at bay," And curb anon of furious lust the sway;" Come! that thine arm avenging lily's flow'r,May save my tender flock in this dread hour;6 THE MAID OF ORLEANS."Yon convent view: --they violate-time flies,"Come then, my maid: "-He spoke and Joan straighthies,While Gaul's dear patron, as her squire in rear,With lusty stripes, whips on the muleteer.Here then thou art my Joan, 'midst this foul crew,Who with the nuns their recreant acts pursue.Joan was in cuerpo, when a Briton's eyes,"With look unblushing, greet the wish'd for prize;He covets her, and thinks some maiden gay,Has sought the sisters to enjoy the fray;Then flies the fair to meet, and forthwith seeks,To taint her modesty with loathsome freaks;When straight the scimitar's keen blow replies,Smack on his nose, and low the monster lies:Swearing that oath by Frenchmen all rever'd,Expressive word—to pleasure's feats endear'd;Word by profane and vulgar tongues reveal'd,With scorn pronounc'd, when they to passion yield.Trampling his corpse, with crimson current died,Joan to this wicked people forthwith cried;66 Cease, cruel troop, leave innocence alone," Fell violaters; fear just Heav'n-fear Joan. ”Each miscreant bent on sin and void of shame,Heard nought, attentive only to his dame;Thus asses will ' mid flow'rs their course pursue,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 7Spite of the cries of man and master too.Joan, who their deeds audacious thus descries,Transported feels a saintly horror rise;Invoking Heav'n, and back'd by Denis' pow'r,With glave in hand, of blows she deals a shower,From nape to nape, and thence from spine to spine,Cutting and slashing with her blade divine:Transpiercing, for intended crime the one,Another striking for offences done;Miscreants bedewing with a sanguine flow,Each for profaning gentle nun:-laid low,Whose soul thus speeding by foul transport fed,Dying in sinful joy, to Satan sped.Unblushing Wharton whose illicit fire,Had to its acme spurr'd his soul's desire;Obdurate Wharton prov'd the only knight,Who now from shackles free, stood bold, upright;Then seiz'd his arms and with undaunted look,Awaiting Joan, a different posture took.O! thou great saint, the state's protecting shield,Denis, who saw this well contested field,Deign to my faithful muse those feats indite,Which Joan enacted to thy reverend sight;Joan trembled first and cast a wond'ring stare:" My saint, dear Denis, what do I see there?66 My breast plate, all those arms which destiny,8 THE MAID OF ORLEANS." Ordain'd as presents thou shouldst give to me,“ On that Hell harden'd back now strike my view," He wears my helm and under vestments too."Joan reason'd justly, she had truth to quote;For when sweet Agnes swapp'd her petticoat,And in these arms was cap-a-pie equipp'd,Whereof by rude John Chandos she was stripp'd;Sir Isaac Wharton, Chandos knight, anon,Seizing this coat of mail, had put it on.O Joan of Arc, of Heroines the flow'r,For arms divine you fought with matchless pow'r;For thy great monarch Charles so long abused,An hundred benedictine nuns misus'd,"For Denis, charg'd their chastity to shield,Denis, who saw her dauntless dare the fieldWith broad-sword striking hard her own breast plate,And shaded by its plume, the helm on pate:In Etna's gulfs which fire and forge contain,Of sooty Vulcan and his one eye'd train:On sparkling anvil sounding constant knell,More quick or heavier, hammers never fell;When for dread thunder's lord the forges glow,Prepar'd his cannons- too much brav'd below.In iron clad-our Briton full of pride,Falls back-his soul with wonder stupified,To find himself attack'd with giant rage,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 9By brunette buxom and so young of age;To view her naked fill'd him with remorse,To wound that body robb'd his arm of force,He but defends himself and backward moves,Admiring of his foe the charms he loves;Those treasures which impel his heart to scorn,The martial virtues which her soul adorn.St. George enthron'd in Paradise so fair,No longer seeing brother Denis there,Began to doubt that Gallia's saint was flown,To succour those to whom his heart was prone;Thro' all the expanse of the azure plain,8He bent his scrutinizing glance in vain:Nor waver'd long, but call'd his gallant steed,That horse whereof in legend much we read.The palfrey came-George mounted, 'gins to ride,With spear in rest, the broad-sword at his side;He goes and gallops o'er that endless spaceWhich daring mortals vainly seek to trace,Those Heav'nly realms-spheres that with light abound,Which visionary Reni makes turn round; 9'Mid endless chaos of a dust refin'd,Whirlwinds most subtle rolling in the wind,The which e'en Newton to strange dreams inclin'd,Will have it turn, of compass reft and guide,Around mere nothing, thro' the vacuum wide.10 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.St. George inflam'd, his rage then boiling high,Travers'd this void in twinkling of an eye,The soil by Loire's stream water'd straight to gain,Where Denis thought to chaunt the victor's strain;"Tis thus we sometimes view at dead of nightA comet in its vast career of light;Sparkling emit a most horrific blaze,Its tail appears and men feel dire amaze;The Pope is aw'd, and the world, struck with fear,Firmly believes the wines will fail that year.10As in the distance valiant George descries,Mister St. Denis, he feels choler rise;And brandishing aloft his lance awhilePronounc'd these words in Homer's choicest style:66" O! Denis, Denis, weak and peevish foe, ¹¹" Timid support of feeble race below;""Tis thus you visit earth with secret guile," To cut my heroes throats of Albion's Isle;" Dost think Fate's destinies thou canst controul" With jackass, feeble arm and woman's soul?" Of my dread vengeance art thou not afraid,"Which soon shall punish France, thyself and maid?66 Thy sad sconce shaking on thy twisted neck," Hath once before thy carcase ceas'd to deck;" I wish to crop, e'en in thy church's face,66 Thy bald pate set but badly in its place,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 11" And send thee packing to thy Paris' walls," Fit patron of thy tender co*ckney Gauls:" In thine own suburbs where thy mass is said, 12" There rest and let them once more kiss thy head. "The goodly Denis raising clasp'd hands high,With noble pious tone made this reply:" O! Great St. George, O! Brother, fam'd of mine," Wilt thou to fury's voice for aye incline?" Since first we both to Heav'n receiv'd the call," Thine heart devout, hath always nurtur'd gall;" Is it then fit, thrice happy as we are," Two saints enchas'd, lauded by men afar;" We, who to others should example set," Must we by quarrels thus ourselves forget?" Wilt thou a cruel war now seek to wage," In realms where peace should all thy thoughts engage?" How long then of thy soil will saintly band," In paradise the flag of strife expand?" O Britons! nation fierce; too bold by far," Just Heav'n in turn will wage the wrathful war;66 .And of your mode of acting weary grown," Will to your jealous cares no more be prone," For devotees from you are never known;" Ah! wretched saint, tho' pious, choleric," Damn'd patron of a race of blood ne'er sick" Be tractable, and in Heav'n's name leave me," To save my King and rule Gaul's destiny. "12 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.At this harangue, George bursting with fell rage,On visage pictur'd fury's crimson page;And bending on the co*ckney saint his eyesHe felt his strength and courage doubly rise, ---Denis, he judg'd the sov'reign of paltroons,On whom he pounc'd—thus falcon darts eftsoonsAnd seizes tender pigeon for its prey,-Denis falls back and prudent utters bray:Thus summoning his faithful ass outright,The donkey wing'd, his succour and delight." Come," he exclaim'd, " come and my life defend"—Denis forgot thus speaking to his friend,That never saint of life, can see an end.From Italy our dappled of grey hue,Just then arriv'd- and I narrator true,Why he return'd already have display'd.To saint his back he bent, with saddle ray'd;When patron firmly on his Neddy plac'd,By kindling valour, felt his heart enchas'd!With subtle malice he from earth had ta'en,Asword so lately grasp'd by Briton slain;Then brandishing the fatal glave to sight,St. George he pushes, presses, grapples tight:Great Albion's chief by indignation led,Aims three dread blows at his devoted head;The whole are parried, Denis guards his sconce,Directing in return his blows at onceTHE MAID OF ORLEANS. 13Upon the horse, and eke his cavalier,From steel electric vivid sparks appear;Now as the weapons cross, they cut and thrust,Each moment either seems of warrior first;Seeking to strike helm, gorget, glory bright,And spot so delicate with laces dight;Where, ' neath the cuirass, braguette greets the sight. 'These vain attempts made both more ardent far;Oft 'twixt them balanc'd was the fate of War;When lo! the ass's tones discordant soundAs grating octaves harshly bray around, —Heav'n trembles; echo from the wood's recess,The din repeats, while shudd'ring with distress,St. George turn'd pale; good Denis keen I trow,Made feint, and with celestial back-hand blow,14 Of Albion's chief did the proboscis clip, ¹4And on his saddle bow, roll'd bleeding tip.George without nose, but not of courage void,Revenges honour of his face annoy'd,Profaning Heav'n with English dd-— m subjoin'd,One blow of scimitar forthwith purloin'dFrom Denis that, which on a Thursday morn,Of old from Malchus, was by Peter shorn, ¹5At this rare sight and voice deserving praiseOf the saint ass -at sound of dreadful brays,14 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.All trembled in the Heav'nly concave high:The beamy portal of the starry skyBurst ope, and from the vaults where seraphs dwell,Issu'd at length th' archangel Gabriel,Who graceful pois'd upon his pinions bright,Sail'd gently thro' the realms of endless light;That rod supporting, which in days of yore,Towards the Nile the prophet Moses bore,When the Red Sea submissive stopp'd its waves,And kings and people thus, found wat'ry graves." What is't I see?" the angel wrathful cried," Two patron saints, offsprings to Heav'n allied:" Eternal spirits of the power of peace,66 Fighting like mortals; ye bid concord cease:" Let woman's stupid race to blows aspire," To man leave baleful passions, flame and fire;" Abandon straight to Sin's profane controul," Of this vile crew each gross and wicked soul," In vice created, and to death consign'd;" But ye immortal sons of Heav'n refin'd," Nourish'd for ever with ambrosia pure," Would ye, such blissful scenes no more endure?" Are ye stark mad?-Good Heav'n! an ear, a nose;" Ye who on mercy and sweet grace repose," The precepts of pure concord to instill," Can ye, for things like these pursue the will" Of foolish passions and their cause embrace?THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 15" Either renounce the bright empyreal space," Or instant yield submissive to my laws;" Let charity within plead her own cause;" Thou insolent St. George, pick up that car," And you, good Mister Denis, also hear," That nose resume, and with your fingers bless'd," In its own place let each thing henceforth rest.”Denis, with hand submissive, forthwith goes,To join the tip on mutilated nose,And George devout, the ear to Denis takes,By him cut off, each sign of cross then makes, 16An oremus to Gabriel mutt'ring sweet: 17Forthwith of flesh the cartilages meet; 18In fine, both miens assume their wonted grace,Blood, fibres, skin, each hardens in its place,Leaving no vestige in this saintly pair,Of shiver'd nose, and sconce of ear quite bare:'Tis thus with saintly flesh, fat, firm and fair .Then Gabriel said, with presidential voice-" "Tis well, embrace; " there was i' faith no choice;So Denis void of hate, or passion's glow,With honest heart, anon, embraced his foe;But George as kissing, cherish'd vengeful fit,And swore that Denis should not thus be quit.The great archangel, this embracing o'er,Received my two saints gracious as before,16 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.With one on either side empyreum sought,Where nect'rine bumpers to each saint were broughtFew readers will believe this combat brave;But near those walls Scamander's waters lave, 19Of old was chronicled a deed of fame,When Gods Olympian arm'd, for battle came,Alike by England's Milton are enroll'd ,Of angels winged, a legion manifoldRedd'ning celestial plains with sanguine tide,Mountains by hundreds scatter'd far and wide,And what's still worse from cannon firing ball; 20Wherefore, if Michael ere the Devil's fall,With Satan fought, each to support his cause,Sure Messieurs George and Denis by such laws,Were right in bidding hostile banners float,And striving each, to cut the other's throat.But if in Heav'n sweet peace was thus restor'd,Alas! on earth such prov'd not yet the word;Fell scene accurs'd of discord and of blows;Good Charles went ev'ry where, nor knew repose,Sigh'd Agnes' name, and sought, and wept her fate;And yet the thund'ring Joan for ever great,With bloody sword that own'd no victor's will,Prepar❜d to give fierce Wharton straight his fill;She struck;-the blow upon the spot just plac'd,Whereby the convent had been late debas'd:THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 17Wharton reel'd backwards, and his trenchant steel,Fled from his grasp impress'd with mortal seal, —He fell, denying all the saints in death:The tribe of ancient nuns, anon, takes breath.And at the feet of Amazon august,Viewing the Cavalier consign'd to dust,Cried, saying " Aves-Ah! how just the case," That punishment should strike the sinning place. "Sister Ribondi, who in vestry room,Had bowed obedient to the victor's doom;While weeping, still for the departed, sigh'd,And off'ring thanks, as she the sinner ey'd,Exclaim'd in charitable tones:-" than he," Alas! alas! none could more guilty be!! " 21VOL. II.END OF CANTO ELEVEN.

NOTES TO CANTO XI.Dormitory, is the gallery or chamber appropriated for sleeping, and ismore particularly so denominated, as appertaining to a convent or college.2 Ribondi, is a term in familiar conversation, signifying roundness, plumpness, en bon point, and alludes to particular fleshy parts of the human body.The French say, for instance, cette femme a la sein ferme et REBONDI. Desjoues pleines et BEBONDIES: des fesses bien REBONDIES; un ventre REBONDI .From this, it appears evident that our poet has amused himself by playing uponthe word, a licence at which it is to be hoped, the most censorious critic willnot be prompted to cavil.3 In these sinnings of love, Agnes might well exclaim: " it never rainsbut it pours: poor soul, like all other mortals, she had her ups and downs inlife, and misery makes us acquainted with strange bed - fellows. "4 The divinity of mystery thus introduced by our poet, was not known tothe ancients, it is, therefore, no doubt an allegory invented by Voltaire. Therewere several species of mysteries among the Gentiles, according to Pausanias,Porphyrius, Lactantius, Aulus Gellius, Apuleius, &c.: but those have no reference whatsoever to the personage above-mentioned .5 Joan, thus combating in a state of nudity, reminds us of Saint Perpétue,who is reported to have fought in cuerpo against a sacrilegious villain, who alsomade attempts upon her chastity; on which occasion, she outstripped our nervous heroine, by suddenly being transmogrified into a man, and with masculinevigour drubbing her infamous opponent à la Cribb, or Molineux, most soundly.c 220 NOTES.6 Whether Joan, ever wielded her sword upon male personages, on such anoccasion as this pourtrayed by the poet, we cannot take upon ourselves to determine; the following very curious extract will, however, afford sufficientproofof the rooted animosity entertained bythe Maid of Arc towards femaleswho pursued a vicious course of life; and, as the annotator has never beforefound this incident quoted, which is handed down by a contemporary writer, itmay not prove uninteresting to the lover of historical facts.Et pourcé quen la compaignie avoit plusiers femmes diffamées, qui empeschoiet aucuns gens d'armes d'aller avant, la dicte Jehanne la Pucelle feist crierqu'elles s'en departissent. Apres le cry fait chascun se meit à aller avat. Etpourcé que la dicte Jehanne, qui estoit à cheval, en rencontra deux ou trois ensa voye, elle tira son espée pour les batre, & frappa sur l'une d'elles du platde son espée si grand coup qu'elle rōpit sa dicte espee, dont le roy fut fort deplaisant quat il le sceut, luy dist qu'elle devoit prendre ung baston pour lesfrapper, sans habandonner sa dicte espée, qui luy avoit revelée de par Dieu.—Annales de France, par Maistre Nicole Gille Contreroleur du Tresor deLouis XI."And as there were in the company several women of loose morals, who prevented the men at arms from advancing, the said maiden Joan, in an elevatedvoice, commanded them to begone. After this exclamation, every one prepared to march forward; and as Joan, who was on horseback, met two or threeof these females on the road, she drew her sword to strike them, and beat onewith the flat side of her weapon with such lusty strokes, that she broke hersaid sword, which caused the King great displeasure when he heard it, whosaid to her, that she ought to have taken a stick to beat them, and not thesword which had been revealed to her by God."This sword was the same which the above author announces in the followingmanner, during the interview of Joan with Charles the 7th, at Chinon." Apres ces choses, ladicte Jehanne pria au roy qu'il luy envoyast querir parung de ses armuriers une espée qui luy avoit esté denoncée estre en certain lieuen l'eglise Saincte Katherine de Fierboys, en laquelle avoit pour empraincte dechascun costé trois fleur de lys, et estoit entres plusieurs aitres espées rouillées.Si luy demanda le roy si elle avoit autres fois este en la dicte eglise de SaincteKatherine, laquelle dit que non, et qu'elle le sçavoit par revelation divine, etqu' avec d'icelle espée elle devoit expeller ses ennemys, et le mener sacrer aReims. Si y envoya le roy ung de ses sommeliers d'armeures, qui la trouva aulieu, et ainsi que la dicte Jehanne le luy avoit dit, et la luy apporta. "After this statement, it is not to be wondered at, that the King should expressNOTES.21his displeasure at the sacred weapon in question, being broken on the back of aprostitute by the person to whom it was apparently delegated for such ostensible purposes.7 The Benedictine Nuns of the Order of Citeaux, were founded by Humberlina , sister of Bernard, Abbot of that establishment, who absconded from herhusband, and became herself a Nun, in the year 1118.8 It is a fact not to be disputed, that St. George is always pourtrayed asriding upon a gallant palfrey, from whence is derived the French proverb, whenspeaking of a cavalier who is well mounted, " Monté comme un St. George."9 René Descartes, a famous French philosopher, was born of a noble family at La Haye, in Tourraine, in 1596, and received his education at theJesuit's College at La Fleche, on leaving which seminary, he removed to Paris.After having served under the Prince of Orange and the Duke of Bavaria, hequitted the military career and travelled into Italy, where he became acquaintedwith the famous Galileo at Florence. In 1629, René settled at Amsterdam,where he applied assiduously to the mathematical sciences, particularly dioptrics; in which branch he made very important discoveries: about this period ,he visited England, and died at Stockholm, whither he had been invited byChristina Queen of Sweden, having had a pension and an estate granted him in1666; his remains were conveyed to Paris, and interred with great pomp, inthe church of Saint Genevieve. Descartes was unquestionably a man of considerable parts, and possessed of a vigorous imagination, but his philosophy haslong since sunk into contempt, as a mere visionary hypothesis. Our poet, in theabove lines, alludes to the whirlwinds and subtle matter, mentioned by Descartes; ridiculous chimeras, which continued however for a long time in vogue:it is somewhat difficult to comprehend what Voltaire means by applying to oursublime Newton, who has proved vacuum, the epithet of dreamer; this mightbe on account of Newton's supposition, that a spirit extremely elastic is thecause ofgravitation; be this however as it may, we ought not to take a jest in the literal sense of the word.10 These lines bring to recollection the star-gazing Sidrophel of Butler, whoon viewing through his telescope, the lantern affixed to the tail of a kite, ismade to exclaim-" Bless us," quoth he, " what dreadful wonder" Is that appears in heaven yonder?" Acomet, and without a beard," Or star, that ne'er before appear'd?د2400 NOTES. 60" Pray heaven divert the fatal omen," For 'tis a prodigy not common;" And can no less than the world's end," Or nature's funeral portend ."11 These lines are obviously in imitation of Homer; the address of Minervato Mars, is precisely similar in style to that above delivered by the fiery St.George to the all sapient and artful Denis:O Mars! O Mars! thou sanguinary god , whose sole delight is in theconflict's rage!12 There was formerly in the Faubourg St. Denis, at Paris, a very ancientedifice, on the site of which still exists a more modern structure, called laChapelle de St. Denis, built, according to the traditionary legend, upon oneof the spots where rested our Saint in his headless progress; it appears probable, that in this chapel was formerly displayed as a relic, the head of the saint,which, on the day of his annual festival, was publicly shewn in a sumptuouscase, with a small crystal glass on the cover, through which the devotee mightpeep at the pericranium within, and which was reverently kissed by the besotted observers, who, for such permission, dropped a coin in the silver platterof the officiating priest.-D'un devot souvent au chretien veritable,La distance est deuxfois plus longue, a mon avis,Que dupôle antarctique au detroit de Davis.13 St. Dominic was the first who added after the repetition of ten AveMarias, the dominical prayer; and he certainly worked admirably in thus perfecting the mystery ofthe Rosary, as it is repeated by catholics to the presentday. Prior to the saintly invention of the chaplet, it was customary with thefaithful, according to Baronnias, to have two fobs to their short clothes, inone of which were deposited a certain number of stones; so that as soon as onePater or Ave was repeated, a stone was taken out of the left fob and droppedinto the right, and so on, till the Rosary was finished. In order, however, toexplain this manœuvre more fully, and the arrangement of the pockets of thebraguette, here follows what we are told by Louis Guion Dolois, Lord of LaNoche, in his work entitled Extrait de Diverses Leçons." Les chausses hautes estoyent si jointes qu'il n'y avait moyen d'y faireNOTES. 23" des pochettes: mais en lieu, ils portaient une ample et grosse brayette;" et entre la grande espace, entre l'ouverture de la brayette, contre la" chemise, on y mettait une pomme, une orange, ou autres fruits, et n'etait“point incivil étant a table de presenter aux dames les oranges, les pommes" et les fruits conservés quelque temps en icelle brayette; et les dames re-" cevaient le présent tout chaud et comme cuit et pocheté, et dans icelle" brayette étaient les pierres du chapelet."It must have been curious to see the ancient nobility when at church, with adevout air, thus leisurely drawing forth from the braguette an Ave Maria, aPater, and in short all the prayers constituting the Rosary.As it is impossible that too much can be said upon the subject of Dominicand his famous exploits, let us by way of a bonne bouche, regale our protestantreaders with a legendary anecdote as facetious as it is authentic, by way ofgiving greater validity to his supernatural acquirements. St Dominic, (sostates a chronicler of his life, ) upon a certain night commanded the devil tohold the candle while he should say his prayers; but as the devotion of the Saintproved of very long duration, the taper being nearly burnt out, began to scorchthe fingers of the infernal holder. Satan, who was by no means insensible,made wry faces sufficient to excite laughter, until weary of holding the singeingluminary, he committed Dominic to his brethren, and took his flight to theinfernal regions, where the burning of the damned, says our historian, causedthe demon less pain than the agony inflicted by the candle's end of the Saint.Our catholic progenitors must have been priest-ridden indeed to require talessuch as these to enlighten their minds on the subjects of mundane piety andeternal beatification in a world to come.14 Still in imitation of the divine Homer, who causes the god Mars towound himself.15 Alluding to St. Peter's cutting off the ear of Malchus in the garden.16 The sign of the cross consists in touching the forehead, stomach, andthe left and right shoulders with the fore finger of the right hand; it is used atthe commencement of prayers, and is said to drive away demons, should anyperchance be stationed at your elbow.17 Oremus, is an ecclesiastical latin term, signifying " let us pray,” whichalso means a prayer.Le chantre aux yeux du chœur étale son audace,Chante les oremus, &c. LUTRIN OF BOILEAU.24 NOTES.This word is derived from the priest's pronouncing oremus, before he repeatsthe orisons.18 Our noseless Saint was not compelled to have recourse to the expedientslaid down by Taliacotius, for the reinstatement of a lost proboscis, when Butler states-" So learned Taliacotius, from" The brawny part of Porter's bum," Cut supplemental noses, which" Wou'd last as long as parent breech;" But when the date of Nock was out,66 Off dropt the sympathetick snout.”This repairer of noses was named Gasper Taliacotius, born at Bononia, in1553, and died 1599; his statue stands in the Theatre of Anatomy, holding anose in its hand. He wrote a treatise in Latin, called Chirurgia Nota, in whichhe teaches the art of ingrafting noses, ears, lips, &c.19 Scamander or Scamandros, a celebrated river of Troas rising at the eastofmount Ida, and falling into the sea below Sigæum. According to Homer,this river was called Xanthus by the gods, and Scamander by men.20 This sarcasm is levelled against that part of the fifth book of Milton'sParadise Lost, wherein he states that some of the heavenly host made powderand cannon, and with the same, hurled legions of angels from the celestialplains to our terrestrial sphere; while the latter heaped upon their backs, andthus transported up to heaven hundreds of mountains with the forests thatclothed them, as well as the rivers that flowed therefrom; and that they precipitated mountains, forests, and streams upon the artillery of the enemy. This,says the French annotator, is one of the parts of Milton's production, whichbears upon the face of it the most striking proofs of probability.21 Experientia Docet, we are told, and as our nun Ribondi was perfectlymistress ofthe affair in question, it is not to be wondered at, that she shouldweep for the offender, and utter the above emphatic words." Meminerunt omnia amantes." OVID.CANTO XII.ARGUMENT.MONROSE KILLS THE ALMONER. -CHARLES DISCOVERS AGNES, WHOCONSOLED HERSELF WITH MONROSE IN THE CASTLE OF CUTENDRE.I SWORE to bid the moral theme good night,Brief to narrate, nor long harangues indite.What is there love's young god cannot subdue?A babbler he, my pen unequal too,With slender point, still scribbles on amain,Those fantasies that strike my fev'rish brain.Young beauties, maidens, widows, wives enroll'dUpon his charming banner's ample fold;Ye who alike his flames receive or darts ,Now tell me, when two glowing youthful hearts,Equal in talents, merit and in grace,When both would court you to the fond embrace,Pressing alike and fanning rapture's fire,Awakening in the breast each keen desire,26 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.You then a strange embarrassment must own.To ye was e'er that trifling tale made known,Of certain ass -such as our schools display; 'Near which some person in the stable lay;Two equal measures, eyes of beast to strike,In form the same and distant both alike,²The Neddy tempted thus on either side,Pricks up his ears amid the distance wide,Just in the centre of these loads of hay,The laws of equilibrium to obey,And dies of hunger, fearful to make choice:Of such philosophy ne'er heed the voice ,Deign rather at the self same time employ,The sexes twain and let them bask in joy,But take good heed, let nought your life destroy.Not far remov'd from this monastic pile,Polluted, sad, and stain'd with bloodshed vile,Where nuns a score that morn from sorrow's spell,By Amazon had been aveng'd too well.Close to the Loire was seen a castle's height,With draw bridge, loop holes, watch tow'rs, fair to sight;A current level with its margin flow'd,Meandring round this turretted abode,Encircling too four hundred bow shots wide,The park's defence-its walls in pond'rous pride:A vet'ran chief, by name, Cutendre known,As baron claim'd this edifice his own;THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 27Each stranger there became a welcome guest.The ancient lord whose heart was of the best,Had made his fort asylum of the land;All were his friends, or French or English band;Strangers in coach, in boots, in gaiters, ray'd,Prince, nun, or monk, or Turk, or priest by trade,Were welcom❜d there with amity most true;But those that came must enter two and two;3For ev'ry lord his fantasy will feed,And this same baron firmly had decreed—That in his castle he would feast each pair,But never one-such prov'd his whimsy rare:When two and two assail'd his mansion's gate,All then went right, but woe betide the fateOf him, who single sounded at his port,He badly supp'd, was fickle fortune's sport;Till some companion should solace his view,Making that number just-when two make two.The martial Joan, who had reta'en her arms,Which loudly rattled o'er her robust charms,Led on tow'rd night, as freshly breath'd the air,(Planning the while, ) sweet Agnes, tender fair:The chaplain, who her steps still close pursu'd,Vile Almoner with lustful wish endued,Gain'd charitable walls of this retreat:So when of greedy wolf the grinders meet,28 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Of bleating lamb the tender velvet skin,With ardour fraught his banquet to begin,To escalade the pen he straight aspires:Thus glow'd libidinous the foul desires,In chaplain ravisher; with eyes in flame,Pursuing still, the remnant of his game,Torn from possession while he grasp'd the prey.He rings, he cries-the mandate they obey:But seeing only one, the levers straight,Whose moving pow'rs, as harsh on high they grate,Force the huge trembling beams to rise amainOf draw bridge; while so moving winds the chain.And thus in air the uprais'd bridge soon stands,Work'd by the vet'ran baron's own commands.This sight made priest profane the bless'd on high,As following rising beams with angry eye;With hands uprear'd, he strives in vain to speakThus oft a cat from gutter's height will sneak,To cage descending with intention dire,Thrusting its eager outstretch'd paws thro' wireWhich shields the harmless warbler from its will,On feather'd form it gazes hungry still,While songster on a perch plumes downy breast:Our priest with more confusion felt oppress'd,As ' neath some tufted elms his eye descried,A lovely youth with tresses flowing wide,Brows of dark hue, an upright open mien,Bright eyes, soft chin, where yet no beard was seen,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 29With rosy hue and clad with grace sublime,Beaming the Heav'nly tints of blissful prime."Twas either love himself, or else my page,Ah! 'twas Monrose. The day had seem'd an age,Which in research for this new love was spent;Receiv'd in convent, whither first he went;To those sage nuns his presence there appear'dCharming, as angel Gabriel's form rever'dFrom Heav'n descending to deal blessings round:Viewing Monrose the tender sisters foundDeep vermil tinge, their cheeks of roses, die;In whispers breathing: -" Heav'nly father why,"When we were ravish'd, was the youth not by? "4Forming a ring, their tongues incessant go,They press upon him and no sooner know,That this sweet page in search of Agnes hied,When straight was given a courser and a guide;In order that no ill might him befal,In journeying to Cutendre's castle wall.Arriv'd, he sees upon his route appear,The brutal chaplain standing draw bridge near,When feeling joy and rage his bosom swell," Ah! then ' tis you, he cried, vile priest of Hell!" By Chandos and my soul's salvation now," And more, by her I swear who has my vow," That thou shalt expiate thy damning deeds:"The chaplain's wrath his pow'r of speech impedes,30 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.He grasps, all trembling from excess of ife,Pistol-whose trigger straight he draws to fire; 5From flint and steel sparks kindled -bullet hies,At random whistling as thro' air it flies,Pursuing track by hasty aim design'd,Which from its goal unsteady hand inclin❜d:The page presents-more surely flies the lead,It strikes the skull-hard and terrific head,That front, whereon the soul's foul sins were read.Our chaplain fell, the page by conquest blest,Forthwith experienc'd in his virtuous breast,A thrill of soft compassion for his foe:"Alas! he cried, from hence as christian go;"Te deum say, a dog's own life you've pass'd," Of Heav'n claim pardon for your sins at last," Pronounce amen, and for your soul seek grace:76""“No, ” cried our villain of the tonsured race;" I'm damn'd, and to the devil I go-good night: "Speaking he died and his perfidious sprite,To swell th' infernal cohort, flew outright.8While thus impenitent, this monster hied,On brimstone flames of Satan to be fried,The monarch Charles, with sorrow-teeming mind,Sought ev'ry where, his mistress lost, to find;He stroll'd near Loire his mental woes to calm,Sooth'd by his confessor's sermonic balm:THE MAID OF ORLEANS.31'Tis fitting now, I give description clear,That brief a doctor's attributes ye hear,Who, a young monarch, slave of love's pure creed,Chose for director of each word and deed."Tis one, who to indulgence sets no line,Who in his hand knows gently to incline,Ofgood and eke of ill the scale ne'er even,Conducting you by pleasing paths to Heav'n;And makes his master too, in conscience sin,Alike his tone, his look and gestures win;Observing all, and soothing each disaster,The favourite, the mistress, and the master,Always prepar'd, to spread the soothing plaister. "The confessor of Gallia's gracious sire,Son of Saint Dominic possess'd his fire,By name good Bonifoux, whose worth I'll sing,To ev'ry body he was ev'ry thing: 10His lord he thus bespoke, devout of heart;" How much I pity in you earth's gross part," Which mastr'y holds, for fatal is th' affair," Agnes to love, is sinful I declare," But 'tis a vice, to be forgiven with ease," In ancient times they practised sins like these;" With Jews, who felt for Decalogue inflam'd, "“ Old Abraham, sire of faithful people nam'd, 12" With Agar chose a father's state to share," His handmaid's eyes were bright, the damsel fair,32 THE MAID OF ORLEANS." Which drew upon her Satan's jealous ire:13 " With sisters, Jacob tasted Hymen's fire; ¹³" The patriarchs all have felt the heav'nly glow," Which from the change of love's warm transportsflow." Boaz the vet'ran, after harvest led," The young and lovely Ruth to his old bed;66 And, without counting Bathsheba the Belle, ¹5" Who filled good David's heart with am'rous spell," Amidst the joys of his seraglio fair," His valiant son renown'd for braids of hair," One lovely morning by a chance most strange," With all the flock, enjoy'd voluptuous range. 16" Of Solomon the judgment sage you've heard," Like oracle, men listen'd to his word,"Wisest of monarch's tutor❜d in all things," He was alike the most gallant of kings." If you the track of these dear sins pursue," If love must all your youthful years subdue" Console yourself-wisdom in turn will reign,"Wesin in youth, when old, we grace obtain. ."" Ah! " Charley cried, " this lecture's good to con," But I lag far behind Great Solomon;" His joys augment, of pangs my bosom's store," Three hundred Concubines he could adore, ¹7" I have but one:-Alas! she's mine no more."THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 33Those tear drops which the Monarch's eye begemm'd,His plaintive tongue to silence straight condemn'd,When turning tow'rd the river's banks his eyes,On palfrey mounted, trotting hard, he spiesA scarlet cloak, an ample paunch and round;The judge's band: good Bonneau thus was found.Now each must own, that after her ador'd,Nought to the lover can such bliss afford,As once more his true confidant to greet;The breathless monarch ' gan his name repeat;Crying, " What demon brings thee here, Bonneau?" Where is my love?-Whence cam'st thou? -Let meknow" What spot she graces?-Where her bright eyes reign?" How shall I find her? --Tell me quick?-Explain!"To all these questions prompt by Charles propos'd,Anon good Bonneau in their turns disclos'd;How doublet he had been reduced to wear;How kitchen service eke had been his care;How he by fraud clandestine, luck❜ly sped,And as by miracle from Chandos fled,When all were occupied to join the fight;How each was in pursuit of Agnes bright;Omitting nought, he thus the tale went through,Recounting all whereas he nothing knew.

He could not fatal history impa ,Of lustful English priest with brutal heart;VOL. II. D34 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.The love respectful of young page ador'dAnd convent's sackage by lascivious horde;Having thus mutual fears explain'd full well,And o'er and o'er proceeded griefs to tell,Curs'd England's race and destiny so bad,They both became than ever still more sad.'Twas night, and Ursa Major's car on high, 18Towards the Nadir had his course gone by,19The Jacobin our pensive prince address'd:" Darkness is near, let mem'ry warm your breast," That ev'ry mortal prince or monk, thus late," Shou'd seek some roof where he in happy state❝May sup and the hours ofnight away.”passOur tristful king, the monk ' gan straight obeyWithout reply-and dwelling on his pain,With head reclin'd he gallop'd o'er the plain;When soon good Charles, the priest, and Bonneau too,All three made halt with castle's moat in view.The youthful page who near the drawbridge stood,Straight having plung'd amid the limpid flood,His foe's dire carcase doom'd to realms of night;Of her for whom he journey'd ne'er lost sight:He fed in secret on his mental care,Viewing the bridge that barr'd him from his fair;But when by paly moon-beams he survey'd,The Gallic trio, soon his he rt was sway'dBy hope's bright impulse, which illum'd his mind,With grace expert and of no common kind,THE MAID OF ORLEANS.35His name concealing, and his flame still more,Scarce was he seen-scarce had he breath'd his lore,Ere he inspir'd a tenderness divine,He pleas'd the prince, he pleas'd the monk benign;Who with his wheedling cant caress'd him bland,With air devout, while squeezing palm of hand.20The number equal, four thus being made,Two levers moving to the view display'd;The bridge descending, while each palfrey's bound,From massive planks sent forth discordant sound;Fat Bonneau puffing, out of breath proceedsStraight tow'rd the kitchen, for he always heedsThe supper hour; -while to the self-same place,The monk advanc'd, devoutly off'ring grace.Charles with the name of simple squire array'dCutendre sought, ere Somnus he obey'd:The worthy Baron, courtesy express'd,And to his chamber led the royal guest:Charles now requir'd the balm of solitude,To feed those pains wherewith he felt imbu'd;Agnes he wept; but shedding thus the tear,He little dreamt her charms repos'd so near.Than him, Monrose, the secret better knew,With art, in converse soon a page he drew,From whom he learn'd where Agnes was reposing,Rememb'ring all, as if with senses dosing:D 236 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Just as the wary cat with eager gaze, 21Watching the mouse-hole whence the reptile strays,Softly advancing, earth ne'er feels the beat,Or owns impression of its velvet feet;No sooner seen, upon the prey it springs:Monrose alike, impell'd by love's own wings,With arms extended, onward cautious feels,Planting the toes, and raising high the heels; 22Oh! Agnes, Agnes, he thy chamber gains:'Fore breeze the straw, less swiftly flies o'er plains,Or sympathetic iron owns attraction,When by the ruling load- stone put in action,Than lovely Monrose, on arriving fell,On bended knees beside the couch of Belle,Within whose sheets, she had her charms impress'd,To seek the renovating balm of rest;Neither to utter word had force or time,The fire electric blazing at the prime:In an eye's twinkling, one warm am'rous kiss,Their half clos'd mouths, united straight in bliss;Their dying eyes the tender fires disclose,Each soul then floating on the bud of rose;Their lips while kissing, closer contact seek,And eloquently thus their passions speak;Mute intercourse, the language of desire,Enchanting prelude, organ of love's fire;Which, for a moment to suspend was meet,Ending this twofold concert: -Duo sweet.THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 37Agnes impatient, lent her Monrose aid,Promptly to cast aside day's masqueradeHis cumb'rous trappings, only form'd to hide,Of nature's paragon the darling pride,Which never shock'd in golden age man's eyes,And by the naked Cupid most despis'd.What objects gods! Is't Flora that discloses,Her love to Zephyr on a bed of roses?23Is't Psyche with embracings Cupid blessing?24Is't Venus, son of Cinyras caressing; 25Who clasps him in embrace, from day beams far,While madly jealous, sighs the God of War?Our Gallia's Mars, King Charles, in castle's wall,With Bonneau sighs, and lets the tear drop fall;Regretting eats and drinks with sadness ray'd:An ancient valet of loquacious trade,To render gay his Highness taciturn,Inform'd the king, who nothing sought to learn,That two bright beauties, one robust and bold,With raven locks, and mien that Mars foretold:The other gentle, blue-eyed health disclosing,Within the castle then were both reposing.Astonish'd Charles, suspecting from this strain,Bade him repeat it o'er and o'er again;What were the eyes, the mouth, and what the hair,The converse tender, and the modest air,38 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Of that lov'd object which his heart ador'd;"Tis her at length: —his all in life's restor❜d!Of this assur'd, he quits the meal anon,"Bonneauadieu, for her I must be gone:"He spake, he flew, --reckless of noise was he,Kings have a license, spurning mystery.Replete with joy, aloud he cons the word,Agnes still naming, till the sound she heard;The am'rous pair turn'd cold on couch of bliss:The scene was trying, how escape from this?When lo! the youthful page his card thus play'd,Beside the canopy; a nich display'dThe private oratory-pocket altar,227'Fore which the soul that had become defaulter,Might claim for five-pence, monk and crucifix:Behind this altar, fashion'd for such tricks,Awaiting for its saint, a space was seen,An alcove cover'd with a curtain green.What did Monrose? with happy thoughts impress'd,He, of the sacred spot became possess'd;In form of saint, he took his stand expertBereft of mantle, short cloathes, and of shirt,Charles flew, no barrier could his impulse check;Ent'ring he clasp'd his lov'd one round the neck,And weeping, crav'd anon those sinful things,Which lovers charm, and above all, when kings.At such a sight, our curtain'd saint was shock'd,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 39He made a noise, and straight the altar rock'd, —The prince approaching, then his hand appliedHe felt a body, and retiring cried:"Love and Saint Francis, Satan lord of night! "Half overcome by jealousy and fright,The arras drawing on the altar rich,With a loud crash the curtain fell: ' neath whichThat lovely figure had remain'd conceal'd,Which nature in her sportive mood reveal❜d.His back from modest motives was survey'd,Which Cæsar without decency display'dTo Nicomedes, when in youthful prime: 28That which the Grecian hero in old time,So much in his Hephestion admir'd;That wherewith Adrian himself was fir'd ,Gracing pantheon, with this nether cheek: 29O! Heav'n, great heros, why were ye so weak?If the kind reader has not lost the thread,Of my narration, he must bear in head,That when in camp, my all redoubted Joan,Trac'd on the summit of posterior's bone,With hand conducted by St. Denis keen,Three lilys, as expert as ere were seen:This shield-three fleur de luces, rump displaying,Mov'd royal Charles, who forthwith fell to praying;He thought great Beelzebub had play'd a trick,Struck with repentance, and with sadness sick:40 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Sweet Agnes fainted by her fears enthrall'd,When lo! the prince with thought on thought appall❜d,Her hand straight seiz'd-exclaiming, " fly with speed," Fly, save my Belle from fiend, in this sad need."His monarch's cries -the ghostly monk deplor'd,Who with regret, abandon'd ample board:Friend Bonneau breathless gained the chamber too;Joan wide awaken'd brandish'd to the view,That sword o'er which bright victory appear'd,Searching the spot from whence the sound she heard:Spite of all this Cutendre's baron lay,Unconscious snoring night's dull round away.END OF CANTO TWELVE.NOTES TO CANTO XII.1 The scholastic ass thus alluded to by Voltaire, was, no doubt, formed inthe mould of Butler's erudite hero, of whom we are told that" He was in logick a great critic," Profoundly skill'd in analytic;" He could distinguish and divide" A hair 'twixt south and south- west side;" On either which he would dispute," Confute, change hands, and still confute;" He'd undertake to prove by force" Of argument, a man 's no horse;" He'd prove a buzzard is no fowl," And that a lord may be an owl;" A calf an alderman, a goose a justice," And rooks committee- men and trustees."2 The ass quoted by Buridan, is the supposition of a philosopher, whostates, that if a donkey was placed between two bundles of hay, perfectly equalin size, and deposited at the same distance from him on either side , he woulddie with hunger; our sage maintaining that the animal would not know ofwhich to make a choice. This proverb is applied to persons of undeterminedand irresolute minds. See Buridan, where will be found the origin of thisproverb.3 A very facetious gentleman, truly —this same Baron of Cutendre, who appears to have rigidly acted according to the scriptural text, which prescribes it42 NOTESas a rule that we should " increase and multiply, " to effect which, the numbermust be equal." Add one to one and two we see," Which with in-fraction maketh three. "4 A sapient retrospect of the sanctified ladies who, having so recently tastedofthe forbidden fruit, could not refrain from casting" One longing ling'ring look behind."5 It must be confessed that pistols were not invented at Pistoia for a considerable time after the period of Charles the seventh; we will not take uponourselves to maintain that it is permitted in a poet, to anticipate particularepochs inthis manner, but what is there which may not be pardoned in a grandundertaking such as the present? an epic poem must be allowed to claim particular privileges.6 What may have been the Te Deum recommended by Monrose to theAlmoner, as his passport to eternity, I will not undertake to define; but the TeDeum usually offered up, is the chant which christian princes cause to be sungwhensoever they have obtained an advantage over their enemies, by causingthousands of their christian brethren to be slaughtered; being a thanksgivingto the most high for having accorded them this especial grace, at the sametime that they have caused the throats to be cut of an equal number of their ownsubjects.7 Tonsure is an ecclesiastical term, indicatory of the first ceremony requisite in the ordination of a catholic priest; it is esteemed a sacred operation, andconsists in shaving away a portion of the hair on the crown of the head, inform of a circle, which operation initiates a laic into the mystery of vegetatingat the expence of the labours of others. This preliminary ceremony is performed, to teach him that his future function must be the fleecing of his brethren, provided omniscient grace furnishes him with a good and sharp pair ofshears.8 Obtritum vulgi perit omne cadaverMora animæ.-JUVENAL.Common justice demands that we should pause to offer a remark upon theadmirable moral conveyed throughout this production: vice, we find, is everywhere punished: the abominable almoner dies impenitent; Grisbourdon isNOTES. 43damned to all eternity; Chandos, as will afterwards appear, is vanquished andslain, &c. &c. How truly edifying and delightful it is, to have a poet who thusscrupulously follows the rule so forcibly inculcated by Horatius Flaccus, inhis Arte Poetica.9 Our poet's description of a kingly catholic confessor, which we may naturally suppose to be correct, proves that all such characters are endowed withvery pliant consciences, and that they possess a salve for every sore; indeed,were it not for this and the implicit confidence placed by crowned heads in suchghostly advisers, it would be difficult to imagine from the conduct of monarchsin general, that they were gifted with any consciences at all. Louer des princesdes vertus qu'ils n'ont pas, c'est leur dire impunement des injures, saysRochefoucault; but what can be expected from a priest who is endowed withpowers by his bishop; that is to say, to whom omniscience has passed a regularprocuration, in order to hear the fooleries and crimes of mankind, withoutwhich he would not be able to form a judgment as to the conscience of theindividual so confessing to his priest . Having advanced thus much concerningconfessors, it may not prove mal a propos, to hazard a few words upon thesubject of confession, concerning which let us call to mind that the Dominicanmonk, who poisoned the emperor Charles the sixth with a consecrated wafer,(or the host ) had absolved his victim at the confessional on the precedingevening, knowing that he was to receive communion the ensuing day be itremembered, that the Sforzas and the Medicis had prepared themselves forthe commission of their bloody act, while at confession . That Louis theeleventh, the Nero of France, whensoever he committed a crime asked pardon,(weeping bitterly) of the small leaden image of the virgin, which he alwayswore stuck in his bonnet, after which, he went to confess, and then enjoyed asound repose; while, lastly, we are informed by Strada, that the murderer ofWilliam the first , Prince of Orange, did not dare undertake the commission ofhis sanguinary deed, until he had first purged his soul at the confessional andpartaken ofthe holy wafer. So much, my protestant brethren, for confessorsand confession.10 Our confessor, in every sense of the word, was a man of the cloth, following the tenets of the vicar of Bray, with whom " booing, and booing, and booing," were the passports to preferment." Whenever you preferment lack," Say black is white and white is black," For gold give conscience deadly blow," Since money makes the mare to go. "44 NOTES.11 Decalogue signifies the ten commandments as delivered to Moses in thewilderness, and which are stated to have been written in letters of light, that isto say, luminous and brilliant.12 Abraham, having no prospect of an offspring by his wife Sarah, took untohimself as concubine, Hagar, an Egyptian woman, by whom he had Ishmael.13 Jacob, in order to avoid the rage of his brother Esau, fled to Padan-Aran,where he resided with his uncle Laban, whom he served during fourteen years,in order to possess his two daughters, Leah and Rachael .14 Alluding to the marriage of Boaz when upwards of an hundred yearsof age, with Ruth a young Moabitish widow who was first espoused to Mahalon, son ofElimeleck and Naomi. From these nuptials sprang Obed the fatherof Jesse, and grandfather of David; which event, according to holy writ, tookplace in the year of the world 2708 .15 In reference to David's lusting after Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, whomhe espied in a bath, and whose husband he caused to be slaughtered, in order topossess her person.16 This fact is stated in the second book of Samuel, chapter 16, verse 22nd." So they spread Absalom a tent upon the top of the house, and Absalom went" in unto his father's concubines, in the sight of all Israel. "17 Charles, in his computation, forgot no less than seven hundred concubines,who, together with the three hundred above calculated, made a round total ofone thousand this diminution however, on the part of the poet, only entitleshim the more to our applause, as it displays the peculiar discretion and wisdomofthe writer.18 Ursa major, or the great bear, is the arctos of the Greeks, being a constellation in the northern hemisphere, from whence it is called the arctic pole.19 Nadir is derived from the Arabic, and signffies that point in the heavenswhich is immediately under our feet, and diametrically opposite to the Zenith,or point over our heads.20 Our pious hand-squeezing father, had no doubt enjoyed the benefits resulting from an Italian education, and was anxious that the handsome MonroseNOTES. 45should enact the part of a second Ganymede, but unfortunately for the priest hehad to do with an English constitution, which found in Agnes " mettle moreattractive."21 The ensuing lines from Butler, are by no means inapplicable to the catand mouse above delineated by our poet." And as an owl that in a barn," Sees a mouse creeping in the corn," Sits still and shuts his round blue eyes," As if he slept, until he spies" The little beast within his reach," Then starts and seizes on the wretch. "22 The stealing action of Monrose, brings forcibly to mind the following linesin Shakspeare's Romeo and Juliet.66 O! so light a foot," Will ne'er wear out the everlasting flint." A lover may bestride the gossamer" That idles in the wanton summer air," And yet not fall , so light is vanity. "23 Zephyrus, son of Astreus and Aurora, married a nymph called Chlorisor Flora; Zephyr was supposed to produce flowers and fruits by the sweetnessof his breath.24 Psyche, a lovely nymph, was espoused by Cupid, who conveyed her to aplace of ecstatic bliss, where he long enjoyed her society.25 Cinyras, a name given by the ancients to Adonis, who was the son ofMyrrha, daughter of Cinyras, king of Cyprus, by whom she produced Adonis,having become enamoured of her father.26 The French annotator upon this poem, states, that the word altesse,meaning highness, was a term used in addressing monarchs at the period ofCharles the Seventh.27 This pocket altar of Voltaire, was a portable case or box having twosmall folding doors, the interiors of which when opened, displayed, in general,Christ before Pilate on one side , the flagellation on the other; while on theback of the case was delineated the crucifixion; these altars abounded in Italy46 NOTES.during the thirteenth century, immense quantities being fabricated at Constantinople. Such ambulatory altars derived their origin from the altare mobileor consecrated stones, which were transportable from place to place, of which.examples areto be found as early as the tenth century. Acta S. S. BenedictSæc. 3d. Præf. p. 58: they are also termed altare itinerarium, for at the endofthe life of St. Gerard, Abbot of Braine- le- Comte, who flourished in the tenthcentury, we find that on quitting St. Denis, in order to take possession of hismonastery, he carried with him his portable altar, whereof St. Denis is said tohave made use during his life time.28 Some ignorant annotator in mutilated editions of the Pucelle, had inserted the name of Lycomedes instead of Nicomedes, who was a king ofBithynia. Cæsar in Bithyniam missus, says Suetonius: see the life of Julius Caesar, chap. 2, desedit apud Nicomedem, non sine rumore prostrateregi pudicitiæ.29 Alexander pædicator Ephestionis, Adrianus, Antinoï. The emperorAdrian did not only cause the statue of Antinous to be placed in the pantheon,but even went so far as to dedicate a temple to him, and Tertullian declaresthan Antinous performed miracles.besoyque saw myCANTO XIII.ARGUMENT.DEPARTURE FROM THE CASTLE OF CUTENDRE-COMBAT BETWEENJOAN AND JOHN CHANDOS-SINGULAR LAW OF ARMS, WHERETO THEMAID IS OBLIGED TO SUBMIT--VISION OF FATHER BONIFOUX, ANDTHE MIRACLE WHICH SAVES JOAN'S PUDICITY."Twas just that brilliant season of the year,When Sol, to ope anew his bright careerCurtails the night, to lengthen out the day;Delighted, as he slow expands the ray,To view the happy climate of our land;'Till gain'd the tropic, lo! he takes his stand:O! great St. John, thy festive morn now smil'd,First of all Johns, who preach'd in desart wild, ¹Those who of old, with lungs Stentorian cried,Mark ye, salvation's path is open wide,Precursor bright, thou art my love, my pride.Another John, of fate had better boon,48 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Whojourney'd to the regions of the moon2With valiant Astolphe; where it was deree'd,(If we a scribe veridical may heed; )

That he the errant wits should set aright,Of bright Angelica's love ridden knight: ³Restore me mine, John second of that name,Thou patron erst of that sweet child of fameWho pleas'd Ferrara's peers with blithsome tales,Where poignant wit through ev'ry page prevails.Thou who forgav'st the sallies terse which he,In comic couplets dar'd address to thee;Extend thy fost❜ring succour to my song,I need such aid; for thou well know'st the throng,More stupid is and less indulgent far,Than when bright genius beam'd Italia's star;And Ariosto drove the poet's car.4Protect my verse against that rigid train,That hurls its bolts to mar my playful strain;If sometimes harmless badinage I court,Come smiling, make my playful theme thy sport;Too serious am I, when the strains require,But I would fain my song should never tire:Direct my pen-and deign before all other,Give best respects to Denis, his sworn brother.As onward fiery Joan with ardour hied,She thro' a lattice in the park, espiedTHE MAID OF ORLEANS. 49Twice fifty palfreys, a right glittering troopOf knights behind, each bearing dame on croup,And ' squires who wielded in the doughty hand,The equipage of wars, destructive band;An hundred bucklers, whence reflecting stream,Of night's chaste harbinger, the paly beam:An hundred golden helms which plumage shade,And lances tipp'd with sharp and pointed blade;And ribband knots befring'd with gold I ween,"That pendant hung from weapon's point so keen:Beholding these, Joan firmly judg'd of course,Cutendre's tow'rs surpris'd by British force,But Joan in this egregiously thought wrong,To err is easy, amidst war's rude throng;Our maiden oft times saw, and judg'd amiss,Yet Denis ne'er corrected her in this."Twas not of Albion's sons an hardy band,Which thus surpris'd Cutendre's smiling land,But Dunois, who from Milan safe had flown;The great Dunois, to Joan of Arc well known;'Twas la Trimouille, with Dorothy his belle,So fastly bound in love's and pleasure's spell ,For reasons which she doubtless knew full well.The fair thus journey'd with her cherish'd knight,Trimouille, the tender lover sworn outright,Who prov'd to calls of constancy ne'er brittle,VOL. II. E50 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Marshall'd by honour, who felt love's darts tittle,She followed him, nor deign'd from truth to stir,Fearing no more the grand Inquisitor.Of numbers equal, lo! this glittering train,To pass the night, enter'd the walls amain,Joan thither flew-the King who saw her go,Conceiv'd she sallied on to brave the foe,And led by error mocking valour's rage,Thus left once more his Agnes with the page.Oh! happy page—and happier ten times o'er,The King august, full fraught with christian lore,Who fervently to Heav'n had breath'd a prayer,Whil'st thou didst occupy the altar there!"Twas fitting thou shouldst prompt assume thy clothes,Thy breeches diaper'd, withfleur de rose;Agnes with tim'rous hand affording aid,Which from the toil direct, full often stray'd:From ruby mouth how many sighs were sipp'dBy Monrose, as she thus his form equipp'd;While her bright eyes beholding him in dress,Seem'd still desirous of voluptuousness:Monrosein silence for the park then hied,As saintly confessor, in secret sigh'd;Viewing so sweet a youth in tip toe action,Infus'd aje ne sçai quoi-a strange distraction.THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 61The tender Agnes then compos'd her mien,In eyes, air, port and speech, a change was seen:To join his monarch Bonifoux was led,Encouraging, consoling, thus he said: --" Within the nich, an envoy from on high," Came to announce from the supremest sky," That Albion's baleful pow'r anon will bend,“ And Gallia's suff'rings straight shall have an end:" That soon must victory the King relieve; "Charles credence yielded, he would fain believe,The martial Joan supported this address:" From Heav'n," said she, " receive the kind express;" Come, let us mighty prince rejoin the camp,"Where your long absence has infus'd a damp. "Dunois, Trimouille, ne'er balanc'd at th' advice,Each seconding the motion in a trice,And by these heros Dorothy outrightWas usher'd duteous to the royal sight;The kiss receiv'd, and straight the noble party,Quitted Cutendre's castle, hale and hearty.How oft does Heav'n all just feel pleasures glow,Viewing the passions of us folks below;To gaze celestial, lo! the plain discovers,This phalanx gay of heroes and of lovers;The gallic monarch trotted by his belle,Who still essay'd the tale of faith to tell:E 252 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.And thus on palfrey's back with motion bland,Express'd her tenderness by squeezing hand;And yet Oh! acme: -weakness so entrances,From time to time, on page she cast side glances:The Confessor then follow'd singing psalms,To chase from travellers all dire alarms,Yet paus'd, beholding such attractions nigh,Gazing alike with a distracted eye,On monarch, Agnes, page, his book of prayerWith gold illumin'd: --- and on Love's choice careTrimouille, most brilliant ornament at court,Ambling by Dorothy in am'rous sport;Whose soul subdu'd by joy's extatic flow,Confess'd the transports of cytherian glow,Nam'd him deliverer of her heart oppress'd,The cherish'd lover, idol of her breast;Whereto he answer'd; - " When the wars shall" On my estates we'll spend our days in peace;" Oh! object cherish'd, I'm a fool for you," When shall we both inhabit dear Poitou."cease,Beside them trotted belligerent Joan,Great Gaul's support, the stay-lac'd—Amazon;Whose front was deck'd with velvet bonnet green,Enrich'd with gold, o'er which a plume was seen: 8Her strapping charms the donkey fierce betrode,Cant'ring and chatting as with Charles she rode;The neck oft bridling, as soft sighs withinTHE MAID OF ORLEANS 53For Dunois ' scap'd, ] her helpmate in war's din:For ever did a thrill her heart subdue,Rememb'ring, he'd stark naked, met her view.Bonneau with patriarchal beard array'd,Perspiring, blowing, clos'd the cavalcade;Oh! precious servant of so good a king,His care was such, he thought of ev'ry thing;Two mules, of old wine each, had store on back,"Fat dainty sausages, long puddings black,Pasties delicious, hams for gourmands fitting,Fowls roasted, or truss'd ready for the spitting.Advancing thus full fraught with love and rage,John Chandos sought his Agnes and his page;Who station'd near a wood with sword in hand,Pounc'd unexpected on our gallic band:John Chandos' troop was martial to behold,Of Britons fierce and equal numbers toldWith train that followed the love smitten King,Tho' in the mass it proved a diff'rent thing.No bosoms white were there-eyes kindling fire,“ Oh! oh!" quoth he, in tones of passion dire;" My gallant Gauls just objects of my hate," Three dames you needs must have decreed by fate;" While I, John Chandos, cannot boast e'en one," Come-we'll to blows, here fortune's wheel shall run,66 Deciding which of us in war's fell thunder,54 THE MAID OF ORLEANS." At will shall make his enemies knock under;" Raise battle axe, and place in rest the lance," Let the most valiant of our troop advance," And enter lists: so he that conquers seizes," One of the three, to do just what he pleases."This offer cynical brave Charles stung keen,He'd punish, and t' advance with spear was seen,When Dunois thus address'd. " The honour, sire,66 Of ' venging you and dames, let me acquire; ”He spake, he flew; Trimouille his course impedes,Each has just claim to share in martial deeds:Bonneau, who ne'er another's will denied,Propos'd that drawing lots should straight decide.10Thus ancient warriors did, when in its prime,True chivalry proclaim'd th' heroic time;E'en now a days, in some Republic's still,Men are decreed the highest posts to fillFrom cast of dice: -such matters ne'er go ill .Did I e'en dare, in these my flights so high,Quote some whom mortal man would ne'er belie,I'd state that such was Saint Mathias' case, 11Who by this means of Judas gain'd the place:Fat Bonneau held the box, emitting sighs,For Charles he fear'd, he quak'd, he cast the dies.Denis from heav'nly rampart, azure space,Beheld all passing with paternal grace;On Maid and donkey, bent his wistful glance,THE MAID OF ORLEANS.551"Twas he directed what we construe, chance, "And prov'd propitious; --Joan obtain'd the lot;Joan, it was thine to make that cast forgot,Hell's game infernal, which the monk erst play'd,When raffling for thy charms, Celestial Maid.Joan to the Monarch sped, to arms then flew,And modestly behind an hedge withdrew,To untie petticoats and stays unlace,That she on limbs her polish'd arms might brace.Prepar'd all ready by attendant ' Squire,Her ass then vaulted fraught with glowing fireThe lance she brandish'd with a martial ease,And donkey's sides tight press'd with nervous knees;Then loud invok'd those martyr'd thousands fair,Who made the virgin gem so much their care; ¹³But Chandos, worthless Christian, fear'd no thrall,Wherefore in fight, he ne'er invok'd at all..John to encounter Joan with fury drove,Equal the valour was of each that strove;In iron cas'd, and barb'd the ass and steed,Goaded by spur, eclips'd the lightning's speed;'Gainst either hard'ned head, how dire the stroke,Front against front, piece-meal the armour broke;Fire flash'd, the coursers' blood with crimson seal,Dy'd flying remnants of the batter'd steel;From this fell shock did echó wide resound,56 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.And of the coursers eight hoofs spring from ground,While either warrior from the saddle bounded,Pitch'd on the rump astonish'd and confounded:Thus when two cords of equal length made tight,Attach two balls suspended to the sight,And in a curve at the same instant darting,Their speed encreasing from the point of starting;They clash, they flatten at the dreadful knock,When each remounts urg'd by impellant shock;Their weight augmented in a like degreeAs each redoubles in velocity.The gazers judg'd each courser dead outright,And either party trembled for its knight;But Gaul's august protectress, own we must,Had not the flesh so firm, nor so robust,Bones knit so fast, muscles or limbs so tight,As fierce John Chandos, Albion's choicest knight;Compell❜d in dread encounter to resignThe equilibrium, central point and line,Her quadruped, those parts to heavn display'd,Which Joan unveil'd upon the verdant glade;Her well turn'd back, plump limbs, in one word all,She fell in short, as maidens ought to fall.Chandos conceiving that to this dread plight,He had reduc'd the King or Dunois' knight;To view the vanquish'd on a sudden led,Withdrew the helm, when he beheld an head,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 57Where languishing two large black eyes were plac'd,Quickly the thongs of breast plate he unlac'd:Oh, heav'n! O wonder! lo! his optics strikeTwo swelling breasts in contour both alike;Half globes, soft polish'd, where two central studsArising, vied in glow with coral buds,Which in its birth the fragrant tree discloses,That ope's to blushing spring its vermil roses:"Tis said that then, his voice he deign'd to raise,And for the first time, breath'd to heav'n his praise.¹4" She's mine," he cried, " the boasted maid of Gaul," Revenge is satisfied, I've doom'd her fall;" Grace be to Heav'n I've doubly earn'd the blow," Which prostrate lays this haughty beauty low;" Let Denis' Saint look down and loud accuse ' em," My rights are Mars and Love--so thus I use 'em."His ' Squire exclaim'd, " Forward, my lord, proceed," Establish Britain's throne by this one deed." In vain would Father Lourdis strike with fear," Vowing the virgin gem beyond compeer" The grand Paladium; of old Troy the boast, 15“ That sacred shield and guard of Latium's host;" Of vic'try ' tis the pledge he dares ensure," That Oriflame your prowess must secure." Yes," answer'd Chandos, " and I have in view," The best of gifts-glory and pleasure too. "991658 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Enhorror'd, fainting, Joan heard what was said,While from her lips the invocation fledTo saintly Denis, could she better do?Dunois, who kept heroic deeds in view,Would in its course this triumph vile arrest,Yet how proceed? in ev'ry state the test,Was to submit to combat's stern behest; ""Each lance erect and all regards bent low,With ear abas'd and wounded with the blow:The ass celestial languishingly rais'dHis eye, and all confus'd on Chandos gaz'd:Long had his bosom been love's hidden seat,He nourish'd for the maid a flame discreet;Achastely noble sentimental glow,But little known to asses here below.18The Confessor of Charles, was fraught with fear,List'ning the speech of Albion's graceless peer;But for his penitent he dreaded most,Who for the glory of the Gallic host,Which had been impudently slurr'd with shame,Might wish with Agnes to perform the same;And that Trimouille at Dorothea's touch,Would also imitate, and do as much.At an oak's base, he ' gan his saint oration,And breath'd internally his meditation ,On nature, cause, effect of that which we,Deem gentle sin, but ne'er term 1- y.THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 59While thinking deep, our Benedictine monkA dream beheld as in a trance he sunk,Resembling much that visionary view,Of Jacob bless'd for having spoke untrue;Whom gain and envy once induc'd to sin,Vending like jew his buck with hairy skin: 19Old Jacob fam'd! O mystery sublime!Euphrates near, one night upon a time,Thou saw'st a thousand rams for rutting stray,With ewes prepar'd their pleasure to obey:The monk beheld by far more pleasing sights,He saw to act the self same feats in flights,Rush on of future times, an host of knights;The sev'ral bright attractions o'er he scann'd,Of those rare beauties who in warfare blandEnlink'd the masters of the earth debas'd,Each at her hero's side in order plac'd,With paphian bonds their willing slaves they bound;As when with Flora, Zephyr breathes around,And vernal months their genial empire hold;When feather'd choirs of varied tints and gold,With tender courtings wave the leafy spray,The butterflies embrace on flow'rets gay,And lions seek the deep umbrageous greenTo join their mates, no longer savage seen.'Twas then he sawfirst Francis truly royal, 20A monarch ever brave and knight most loyal,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 60Who haply felt in chains of Anne reliev❜d,¹¹From other chains on Pavia's plains receiv'd: 22Fifth Charles with laurel there, and myrtle view,2523Serving the Flemish fair and Moorish too.24Good Heav'n what kings! One this fond game would nurse,So got the gout; the other gain'd what ' s worse. 25Near charming Dian, play the smiles and graces26To love's soft movements, as in fond embracesShe rocks her second Henry into rest,27Who sinks, o'ercome, strain'd closely to her breast:Heir fickle of ninth Charles next mounts the stage,2Who laughing leaves his Chloris for a page,29Heedless of warfare which Parisians wage.30But Ah! what feats our friar's vision told,When Borgia's am'rous pastimes stood enroll'd;Countless, sixth Alexander, were thy fights,31As void of triple crown love led thy flightsThus with Vanoza passing hours serene;Then mark again his Holiness was seen,For offspring breathing lover's tender thrall:O! thou tenth Leo,-thou sublime third Paul,32All monarchs ye surpass'd at this dear game,All save great Henry-greater still in fame,³4That valiant conqu❜ror of the rebel League,³Hero far better known by fond intrigue,By pleasures tasted with fair Gabriel's charms,"Than twenty years of great exploits in arms.34333628THE MAID OF ORLEANS.61Anon, the choicest sight of all appears,Age of rare miracles. -bright hundred years; 37Great Louis and his sumptuous court now move,38Where all the arts were taught by blooming love.Love rear'd the structure of Versailles renown'd;By love the dazzled multitude was crown'd,From flow'ry couch, he form'd great Louis' throne,Spite of the yells of Mars and battle's groan;Love, to the chief and sun, of all his court,Led the most charming rivals to resort,All were impatient, all on fire were seen, -Thy niece, with eyes celestial, Mazarine: 39The generous Valliere, and the tender too: 40La Montespan more ardent, proud, than you, “One yielding to ecstatic rapture's pow'r,The other waiting pleasure's promis'd hour.Now mark the Regency; licentious time,Auspicious æra lust was then in prime, 42As folly tinkling loud her bells in hand,With lightsome step, tripp'd over Gallia's land,Where to devotion not a soul was prone,43And every act, save penitence was known.The Regent from his Palais Royal's Hall,“Gives signal of voluptuousness to all;This charming bidding, you responsive greetYoung Daphne-you that rule the courtier's suite,From ' midst the Luxembourg responses send,62 . THE MAID OF ORLEANS.You whom the God of feast and Bacchus tendTo couch of bliss, love serving you as page.Here let me pause; for ofthis latter age,I dare not point in verse the semblance true,These flatt'ring charms, too potent ills pursue.Time present as the Lord's own ark we see,Who dares invade it with a touch too free,By vengeful wrath divine is punish'd soon,Condemn'd to suffer the lethargic swoon: 44I will be mute-yet reader, might I dareOf belles that live, I'd trace the fairest fairOf tender creatures-noble, touching, -youMore gen'rous are, than Agnes -and more true;Before your round plump knees, Ah! might I dare,That incense breathe, which Venus well might share,If I love's weapons in due order laid,If I the soft, the tender link display'd;If I exclaim'd-peace, I'll say nothing,—no,All praise of mine would rate your charms too low. 45At length the monk entranc'd of sable hue,Beheld at pleasure what I dare not view,Tho' ever modest with an eager eye,The Heav'nly spectacle his orbs descry;Those noble lovers, and those beauties hidden,Pleasures at once, delightful and forbidden:" Alas! " said he, " if guided by one star," The mundane great in pairs pursue this war,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 63" If all that's earthly yields to those decrees," Ought I to moan if Chandos on his knees“ Before the brunette seeks love's course to run?" Of Heav'n above, the saintly will be done: "Fainting with bliss, amen -- the monk then said,Hoping to taste the joys, of vision fled.But distant was it from St. Denis' thought,That he should see perform'd what Chandos sought;That Joan and France should hear destruction's word:Friend reader, thou hast doubtless sometimes heard,That short cloathes anciently by tags were brac'd, 16A dreadful custom this, and much misplac'd,Which never saint should use, unless indeed,No other means were present in their stead ·To ice the wretched lover's fire is turn'd,His powers by impotence become inurn'd,Surpris'd with efforts to find vigour sink,Consuming thus, at pleasure's very brink:So with the flow'r that scorching rays hath spent,Its head reclining, and its stalk low bent;That seeks in vain moist vapours to inhale,And waft its fragrance to the passing gale;Such was the method Denis took to blight,The valiant Briton in his conquest's right.Joan thus escap'd, with what the victor cross'd,Regain'd those senses, which himself had lost;64 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Then cried with terrible imposing tone:-" Invincible thou art not-straightway own," Thou see'st that here, ' mid war's most noble glow,66 Thy saint hath left thee, and thy steed laid low," On other ground I'll vengeance take for Gaul," Saint Denis wills, and I'll requite this thrall;" Lo! here I challenge thee and Albion's pow'rs," To combat in the face of Orlean's tow'rs;"Whereto bold Chandos said, " My fair I wot," Thou'lt find me there, whether a maid or not;66 Vig'rous Saint George, shali aid my gallant throng,And there I promise to requite my wrong.'""END OF CANTO THIRTEEN.NOTES TO CANTO XIII.It is clearly obvious, that our poet in the above lines alludes to the end ofthe month of June, being the festival of St. John the Baptizer, called the Baptist, which is celebrated on the 24th of that month.2 The above statement of Voltaire has reference to the 34th canto and 37thstanza of Orlando Furioso." Quando scoprendo il nome suo gli disse," Esser colui che l'evangelio scrisse."3 Angelica is the name of the mistress of Orlando Furioso.one,Ludovico Ariosto, the renowned Italian poet, was born at the Castle ofReggio, in Lombardy, in 1474. He was patronised by the Cardinal D'Este,through whose interest he obtained several employments. He afterwards entered into the service of Alfonso, Duke of Ferrara, by whom he was appointedGovernor of Grassingnana . The most famous poem of Ariosto, is entitled" Orlando Furioso, " of which we have two English translations; the bySir John Harrington, in 1634, the other, by Mr. Hoole, in 1783; independentof this production, we have some comedies from the pen of Ariosto, which,were performed in the hall of Ferrara, before the Duke and his court. In 1533,he was honoured with the laurel crown, by the Emperor Charles V, and diedthe same year.5 It was customary for the Knights in ancient times to attach the favours orcolours of their mistresses to their lances or helmets; wherefore a ribband, glove,VOL. II. F66 NOTES.or any other token were the boasted badges of these Quixotic champions of thefemale sex. The gonfanon in ancient French chivalry, was a scarf or band ofsilk, wherewith the Knights ornamented their lances: see Glos: des Poés: duRoi de Navarre.“Lances, harnois, etendarts, gonfanons," Saltpetre,feu, bombardes, et canons. " MAROT.• Asentiment this, originating in the cloister, where no other love finds sanctuary, excepting that which springs from pious fraternization.7 The castle and domains of the ancient family of Trimouille were situatedin the province of Poitou.8 All the pictorial representations upon which any reliance can be placed,as well as the written documents detailing Joan's external appearance, represent her as wearing a small green bonnet turned up round the brim, and adornedwith an ample plume of feathers.9 Friend Bonneau and Hudibras, were pretty much of the same opinion inregard to travelling, well provided with stomachic ammunition:" His breeches were of rugged woollen," And had been at the siege of Bullen;" To old King Harry so well known," Some writers held they were his own," Tho' they were lin❜d with many a piece" Of ammunition, bread and cheese," And fat black-puddings, proper food" For warriors that delight in blood." For, as we said, he always chose" To carry vittle in his hose."10 Examples of drawing lots are very frequently found in Homer; and amongthe Hebrews they also divined in the same manner; since we are told that theplace of Judas was decided by drawing lots; while, to the present æra, in Venice, Genoa, and other states , many elevated dignities and employments aredistributed, by having recourse to the same expedient.11 After Judas had betrayed his master, it was necessary that a discipleshould be elected to fill his place, whereupon two personages were put in nomination. Joseph, called Barsabas, surnamed the Just, and Matthias; uponNOTES.67which they all went to prayer, saying- Lord, thou who readest the hearts ofmen, make known unto us which ofthese two thou hast chosen to become thineapostle, from which honour, Judas by his crime is fallen, in order that hemight go to his own place:' after which they gave forth their lots, when thelot fell upon Matthias, who became in consequence numbered with theeleven apostles.12 Chance, hazard, or fate, were species of divinations commonly decidedamong the ancients by means of dice, whereon were graven some characters orwords, the explanation of which were found in tablets written for that purposeby the priests who presided over the oracles of their divinities, which were soarranged, as to deceive the credulous multitude. In some temples, these dicewere thrown by the individuals themselves; while in others, they were drawnfrom an urn; from whence is derived that mode of expression so commonamong the Greeks- " the chance is fallen."13 Alluding to the festival celebrated by the catholics in honor of St. Ursulaand her companions, reputed to have been of the number of the eleven thousandvirgins, massacred by the Huns at the city of Cologne. We are led to surmise that there exists a trifling mistake in the acceptation of the readingin theancient ritual, where we find it thus recorded, XI , M. V. which was simply intended to express eleven martyred virgins. Father Sirmond conjectured thatamong these sufferers were found Saints Ursula and Undecimilla, V. M.;therefore, instead of the last mentioned virgin's name, they rendered it undecimmillia, meaning eleven thousand; at all events, it was enough to lose elevengems of such extreme rarity even at that remote period: -how, in the name ofHeaven, should we collect them together at the present day?14 It would have been very appropriate if in the situation in which Chandoswas placed, he had repeated certain verses to be found in Solomon's canticle ofcanticles, which are penned with such decency, that the Jews did not dare peruse them until thirty years of age; Christians on the contrary, byreason oftheirzealous faith, find therein a source of wondrous edification and instruction.15 The celebrated shield said to have fallen from Heaven at Rome, which waspreserved with reverence and the most scrupulous care, as a pledge of the safetyof the city.16 This oriflame, so much vaunted by Lourdis, and before mentioned in cantothe second, was originally the banner of the monks of St. Denis, being a speciesof pointed flag of red taffeta without embroidery or ornament, severed at theF 268 NOTES.end in two places, thus forming three tails, being edged round with green silk,and affixed to the point of a gilded lance; from whence, according to Ducange,it derived the name of oriflame; that is to say, or (or gold) from the colour ofthe lance, and flame from the fiery dye of the taffeta . The oriflame was carriedby the fraternity of St. Denis in their processions, and in the partial wars whichthey had to sustain against those who sought to infringe upon the rights of theirchurch. The Counts of Vexin who were chosen for their champions, receivedthis banner at the altar of the holy martyrs whenever they sallied forth upon oneof these military expeditions, and brought it back with great pomp, when thecampaign was terminated. Philip the First having united the estates oftheCounts of Vexin to the crown, the French monarchs from this union contractedthe same engagements towards the Abbey of St. Denis, and the custom was toreceive this holy standard from the hands of the Abbot, kneeling, uncovered,after having offered devotions to Our Lady of Paris in the Church ofthe GallicApostle; it was sometimes carried by the Kings, wound round their bodies without being unfurled to public view. Louis the Fat, was the first monarch whowent to take the oriflame in grand ceremony at the altar of St. Denis. His successors insensibly accustomed themselves to use it, and thus by degrees, it became the principal standard of the Kingdom.17 The first mention made of a duel in history, is at the period of the secondPunic war, when two Spanish princes desired the permission of Scipio, thatthey might determine their respective right of succession to the dominion oftheir ancestors by single combat. It was anciently believed, that Heaven onlygranted victory to such as had the best right, and such duels were equally practised in civil as in criminal cases; a very curious account of the forms resortedto upon these occasions, is to be found in the ancient Coutumier de Normandie.The accuser swore to the truth of his accusation, to which the party accusedgave the lie; whereupon, both cast their pledges of defiance, being aglove, a gauntlet, or a cap, from which moment, both the champions wereheld as prisoners until the day of combat. These duels were interdicted byPhilip the Bel, in 1303, notwithstanding which the parliament of Paris decreed a similar combat between two noblemen in 1386, and in 1547, Henry theSecond, permitted the combat in his presence, between Jarnac and Chataigneraye. The defendant had the choice of arms, and if he was not vanquishedbefore sun- set, he was absolved and regarded as the victor. This abuse was somuch tolerated in ancient times, that even bishops and ecclesiastical judges ordered the duel in doubtful and intricate cases. It is said, that Alfonso King ofCastile, being desirous to abolish the Mozarabic ritual, in order to introducethe Romish worship, and being opposed by the people, it was agreed that thedifference should be determined by combat,NOTES. 6918 It is scarcely to be believed, that Voltaire with all his irony could so farforget the respect due to his own sublime species, as to draw a comparison between the sensitive ebullitions of humanity, and the sluggish instinct of a lankeared donkey; notwithstanding it appears that his frolic fancy in this instanceas in many others, overleaped the barriers of propriety, by elevating the amorous flights of a quadruped, at the expence of us biped lords of the world." Presumptuous man! the reason would'st thou find," Why formed so weak, so little, and so blind?" First if thou cans't the harder reason guess," Why form'd no weaker, blinder, and no less?”POPE'S ESSAY ON MAN.19 Our author here alludes to the artifice which Jacob practised , when,assisted by his mother Rebecca, he personated his brother Esau, by placing onthe back ofhis hands and the smooth part of his neck, the skins of the kids ofthe goats, by which means Isaac being blind, and conceiving him to be his firstborn from the touch, accorded him his blessing, and with it the birthright of hiselder brother Esau.20 Francis the First, so famous for having been the patron of men of lettersand Vertu, ascended the throne of France in 1515, at the age of twenty- one,and died in 1547 by the above line, Voltaire alludes to the fate of this monarch, who is supposed to have fallen a sacrifice to the jealousy of the husbandof one of his mistresses. He was a hatter by trade, who got himself purposelyimpregnated with a certain disease, which was communicated by his wife to

  • Francis, who, as well as his mistress, not being aware ofthe nature of the malady

which preyed upon them, became both the sacrifices. In the gallery of theLouvre, is an original portrait of this famous lady, from the pencil of the justlycelebrated Leonardo da Vinci, universally known by the appellation of La BelleFerroniere. Rabelais satirizes Francis the First, under the designation ofGrandgousier, and in his delineation wishes to prove the truth of Tasso's assertion, when he states that chastity is by no means a virtue appertaining tocrowned heads. Bino, an Italian versifier, wrote a poem in praise of the distemper, of which Francis and his mistress were victims; but I very much doubtwhether the flights of his genius were ever capable of drawing forth a concordant sentiment from any one suffering under the effects of that disease.21 Anne de Pisseleu, duch*ess of Estampes, and wife of the Duke of Estampes, was one of the mistresses of Francis the First, who carried on a secretcorrespondence with the Emperor Charles the Fifth, making him acquaintedwith the state of the French armies, as well as the kingdom, by which means,the latter gained the greatest advantages, and nearly accomplished the ruin of70 NOTES.France; upon the death of the King, this intriguing woman retired to hercountry seat, where she ended her days in 1576.22 Alluding to the famous battle of Pavia, gained by the Emperor Charlesthe Fifth over the French forces, in which conflict Francis was made prisoner.23 Charles the Fifth, Emperor of Germany and King of Spain, was born atGhent, in 1500, and succeeded his grandfather Ferdinand in the kingdom ofSpain in 1516, and to the empire on the demise of Maximilian in 1519. Forthe latter title, Francis the First contested, which was the origin of a violent warin 1521. Charles entered into a league with Henry the Eighth of England,and after several important battles Francis was taken prisoner, and a peacewas concluded in 1529; when Charles, directing his forces against Africa, tookGoletta, vanquished Barbarossa, and entering Tunis, re-established MulyHassan upon the throne. After directing his armies anew against France, fromwhence he was obliged to retire and ratify a peace in 1538, and attempting theconquest of Algiers, where his fleet was dispersed in a hurricane, the Emperorreturned in disgrace . Charles then leagued once more with England againstFrance, but fortune proving no longer favourable, he entered into a treaty in1545, when the protestant princes of Germany confederating against him obtained liberty of conscience for those of that religion, and in 1556, he resignedhis crown to his son Philip, retired to a monastery in Estramadura, wherehe employed the residue of his days in religious exercises, mechanical pursuits,and gardening, and terminated his extraordinary career in 1558.24 As the military exploits of Charles the Fifth led him into different regions, ⚫our poet alludes to the mistresses of various complexions with whom he solacedhimself during his campaigns.25 Whether the sports of the paphian goddess produced the gout in the Emperor, I will not undertake to determine; but that his rival Francis died ofanother malady, deriving from thence its origin, there is little doubt.26 Diana of Poitiers, duch*ess of Valentinois, was born on the 13th ofMarch, 1500, for whom the attachment of Henry the Second commenced whilehe was yet Dauphin, notwithstanding she had been the mistress of his fatherFrancis the First, and had attained a certain age, when Henry became captivatedby her charms. The extraordinary beauty of this lady, the excellence of herwit, and the profoundness of her judgment, had already rendered her celebrated; and on becoming the monarch's favourite who adored her to distraction, she filled the post of his private adviser, so that in a very short space oftime the change in public affairs became such as to afford incontestible proofNOTES. 71ofthe extent of her mental powers. The reign of Henry the Second was thatof Diana of Poitiers, and from this epoch all regards were directed towardsthis princess; those who resided at court, on account of her grace and beauty,but still more from the agreeable turn of her wit seemed envious of their monarch's happy destiny. Every one attracted towards her by manners, at thesame time noble and decorous, disputed the enviable honour of serving heras squire. The palaces, the mansions of individuals, the armour worn byknights, the articles of household furniture, the utensils used for domesticpurposes, and even the churches were decorated with amorous cyphers, retracing to the eyes of the observer those sentiments which were entertained by theKing towards a woman who was well deserving of his whole affection . Thebeautiful castle of Ecouen, erected by John Bullan, the churches of Magny,Gisors, Nogent on the Seine, the Louvre, &c. &c . still display symbolicalcharacters ofthe goddess of the chase, together with the interwoven cyphers ofDiana of Poitiers, and Henry the Second . Mezeray states " that the monarchwas desirous there should appear every where, in tournaments, on furniture,in all devices, and even upon thefaçades ofhis royal edifices, a crescent withbows and arrows, the usual accompaniments of Diana. ” All historians agreein stating that Diana of Poitiers had received from the liberal hand of nature, themost bewitching personal charms combined with mental perfection. Upon thedemise ofHenry, the duch*ess of Valentinois immediately retired to her mansion, called D'Anet, where she died, on the 26th of April, 1566.27 Henry the Second, son of Francis the First, succeeded to the throne in1547; he was a weak prince, much addicted to women and his favourites, anddied in 1559, owing to a splinter received in his eye from the lance of GabrielCount of Montgomery, at a tournament which was given in honor of the nuptials of his daughter Elizabeth with the King of Spain.28 Henry the Third, succeeded his brother Charles the Ninth in 1574, who,while only Duke of Anjou, attracted the attention of the queen and nobility,who waited upon him at Lyons, but were much disappointed to find him weakboth in body and mind, and in every respect unpromising as a king. Henryimmediately abandoned himself to voluptuousness, paying very little attentionto public affairs; he no longer permitted the greatest lords to address him withthe liberty and familiarity of former times, only admitting to such freedom afew young men, possessing neither experience or merit. One historian recordsthat the king was so ridiculously proud as to cause a railing to be placed roundhis table, affecting the pomp of an eastern monarch, and at the same time somean, thal he would often walk in a procession with a beggarly brotherhood,carrying a string of beads in his hand, and a whip tucked in his girdle. Henrywas assassinated by one James Clement, a jacobin friar, in the year 1589.72 NOTES.29 We are instructed from the page of history, that Henry the Third hadmany youthful favourites who were denominated his mignons; but whetherthey acted in the same capacity as Hephestion did to Alexander, which seemsto be implied by the poet, does not become us to enquire.30 The historic fact adverted to by Voltaire, was the triumphal entry ofthe Duke of Guise into Paris, in 1587, where he was received with rejoicings,equal to those lavished upon the monarch himself, which excited the jealousyof the king, who, in order to restrain the ambition of the Duke, invested the chiefavenues of the city, upon which the populace instead of being appeased, tookthe alarm and immediately barricados were raised in all the streets; so that inorder to ensure his personal safety, Henry retired, leaving the Duke of Guiseabsolute master of the seditious populace, the BASTILLE, and all the great outlets ofthe city.31 Pope Alexander the Sixth was born at Valencia, in Spain, in 1431 .His original name was Roderic Borgia, and his mother was sister of Calixtus the Third, by whom he was elevated to the dignity of a cardinal in1455. On the death of Innocent the Eighth, his intrigues procured his electionby the Conclave, though he had then four sons and a daughter by a Romanlady, named Vanoza, while Lucrecia, his child, passed for being his ownmistress, as well as the concubine of his brother; Alexandri filia, sponsa, nurus.His son, Cæsar Borgia, was a monster of wickedness, and equally depravedwith himself, as there is scarcely a detestable crime of which these profligatewretches have not been accused, and that with every colour of justice. Providence at length interposed, and punished them by the same means they hadprepared to effect the ruin of another. In 1503, the Pope and his son attempted to poison a wealthy cardinal, in order to possess themselves of hisriches; when, by a mistake of the butler, they drank the wine intended fortheir victim, from the effects of which Alexander expired almost immediately,but Borgia slowly recovered only to die by the hand of an assassin sometimeafterwards.32 John de Medicis, afterwards Pope Leo the Tenth, was born at Florencein 1475 , and when only eleven years of age was installed an archbishop byLouis the Eleventh of France; and at fourteen, Julius the Second investedhim with the dignity of legate, in which capacity he served in the army whichwas defeated by the French near Ravenna, in 1512; upon which occasion hewas taken prisoner, but the soldiers showed the most superstitious venerationfor his person, as the representative of the Pope. In 1513, Leo was raised tothe papal chair, when his coronation was celebrated with unusual pomp; hewas extremely fond of magnificence, had a taste for literature, and was aNOTES. 73liberal patron of men of learning and genius, particularly poets; and if theunbiassed biographers of his life may be credited , there is little doubt but heindulged in those pleasures which were interdicted by his function as headof the Catholic Church, and to which Voltaire refers in the above line . Leoformed two great projects, —one was to effect a general association of theChristian powers against the Turks, and the other the completion of SaintPeter's Church at Rome; to effect these points he issued plenary indulgences,which, being carried into Germany, occasioned the secession from the RomishChurch commenced by Luther, whom the Pope anathematized . In 1520, awar also broke out between the Emperor Charles the Fifth, and Francis theFirst of France, who both courted the alliance of the Fope, and were bothdeceived by the Italian finesse of his Holiness, who amused either monarchwith promises never intended to be ratified . Leo the Tenth died of a feverin 1521 , and, nothwithstanding his faults, was possessed of those eminentqualifications which justly entitle him to the character of a great man.33 Alexander Farnese was elected to the papal chair in 1534, under thename of Paul the Third, previous to which elevation he had a daughter whowas united to Bosio Sforce, and a son named Peter Lewis Farnese, whom hecreated Duke of Parma and Placentia, by retrenching those cities from SaintPeter's patrimony. Under this Pontificate the Council of Trent was called,the Inquisition was established, the society of the Jesuits was confirmed, theinterim of Charles the Fifth was condemned, and Henry the Eighth of England was most rigorously treated: Paul died in 1539 , aged eighty-two.34 Henry the Fourth, surnamed the Great, was born at Pau, the capital ofBearn, in 1553. His father was Anthony of Bourbon, King of Navarre, andhis mother Joan D'Albert: he was descended from Louis the Ninth of France,and thereby became heir to that kingdom; but being educated in the Protestant persuasion, his claim was resisted. Henry early distinguished himselffor feats of arms, and after the peace of Saint Germain, in 1570, was takento the French Court, and two years afterwards married Margaret, sister ofCharles the Ninth, at the rejoicings upon which occasion was perpetrated theinfamous massacre of Saint Bartholomew. In 1576, he quitted Paris and puthimself at the head of the Huguenots; he succeeded to the throne of Navarrein 1572, and to that of France in 1589; but his religion proving an obstacleagainst his coronation, he consented to abjure it in 1593. Henry issued thefamous edict of Nantz, granting toleration to the Protestants, in 1595, and thesame year entered into a war with Spain, which lasted until 1598, when Franceenjoyed an uninterrupted peace till his death. His abjuration was very obnoxious to the Protestants, and by no means satisfactory to the opposite party,who were doubtful of his sincerity. His greatest enemies were the Jesuits,74 NOTES.one of whose pupils wounded him in the mouth when attempting his life,which was ultimately sacrificed by Ravillac on the 14th May, 1610. Henrycertainly merited the name of Great, for his constant study was the prosperityand happiness of his people; and he would have been faultless, had his heartproved as callous to the attacks of love as it was insensible to the impulseof vengeance; but the predominant passion of this Prince was his devotion tonumerous mistresses, which greatly obscured by this bad example the brilliancyof his acknowledged virtues.35 The famous League was projected by the Cardinal of Lorraine, whilehis newhew Henry of Lorraine, the adored of the people, was commanderin-chief of the rebel forces; the plea of the Leaguers being to defend theCatholic faith against the Protestant party; the association having its originin Paris, where they caused to be spread among the most zealous inhabitantsthe project of A Union for the defence of Religion, the King, and the safetyof the State, by which was intended no less than the oppression of the Monarchand his government by the arms of fanaticism. Henry the Third, weariedwith the insolence of the chiefs of this cabal, caused the Duke of Guise, theCardinal, and Louis his brother, to be assassinated; but these acts, far fromputting a stop to the excesses of the Leaguers, rather tended to increase thesanguinary struggle which for so long a period spread fire, sword, and devastation throughout the kingdom.36 Among the numerous mistresses who enslaved the versatile heart ofHenry the Fourth, no one ever possessed so great an emporium over his mindas the lovely Gabrielle D'Estrees, sister of Francis Hannibal D'Estrees,who had received from the liberal hand of Nature all those gifts which arecalculated to enchain the sensitive soul. It was in 1591 , that he for the firsttime beheld her at the Castle of Cœuvres, where she resided with her father;at which interview he was so touched with her enchanting figure, and thesprightliness of her wit, that he resolved she should thenceforth rank as his favourite mistress. He once assumed the disguise of a peasant, and passed theguards of his enemies, in order to procure an interview, though at the imminent hazard of his liberty and life; and in order to see her more freely, hecaused her to espouse Nicholas D'Amerval, Lord of Liancourt , with whomshe did not cohabit; and to such a degree did the Monarch adore her, that,although married, he resolved to make her his at the altar. It was under thisidea that Gabrielle engaged her lover to embrace Catholicism, in order that hemight obtain the Pope's Bull which should annul his marriage with MargaretofValois; to effect this, she made every effort, in conjunction with the King,to do away with the obstacles that impeded their union, but the unfortunatedeath of Gabrielle, in 1599 , severed at once every difficulty. It is supposedNOTES. 75that she was poisoned by Zamet, the wealthy financier; —one thing, however,is certain, that she expired in the most horrible convulsions, so that the countenance of this female, perhaps the most lovely of her age, was so completelychanged the day after her demise, as to be no longer cognizable. Henrycreated Gabrielle duch*ess of Beaufort, and had three children by her, namely,Cæsar, Duke de Vendôme, Alexander, and Henrietta, who was married tothe Duke D'Elbœuf.37 The above lines are intended to commemorate the splendid reign of theGrand Monarch, which period is so ably delineated by our Poet, in his workentitled " The Age of Louis the Fourteenth. "38 Louis le Grand, who appears to have been gratified by subduing allobstacles that were raised to oppose his career, found the spot whereon thiscelebrated Palace stands admirably calculated to forward his views. He converted the village of Versailles into a city, and reared the magnificent edificewhich unites the finest productions of taste and art with a degree of splendorunexampled in modern times; the whole having been accomplished in the shortspace of seven years, during the period of a war, which might have been thoughtsufficiently ruinous in itself to have exhausted the resources of the most flourishing nation in the universe.39 Laurentius Onuphures de Giceni Colonne, Constable of Naples, was aGrandee of Spain, Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, and Prince ofPalliano and Castiglione, who died the 15th April, 1689. This noblemanmarried Maria Mancini, niece of Cardinal Mazarine, the lady referred to byVoltaire, who had entertained very sanguine hopes of espousing Louis theFourteenth. It is recorded, that upon quitting the Court in order to followher husband into Italy, she thus addressed the King: -" You are a Monarch;66 you love me; you weep! and I am compelled to depart. " This lady hasrendered herself famous by a work printed at Cologne in 1676, and in Italianin 1678, comprising her Memoirs. She died in 1715, leaving three sons, theyoungest of whom, named Charles Colonne, became a cardinal, and departedthis life in 1739.40 Louisa Frances de la Baume le Blanc, duch*ess of Valliere, was educated to be maid of honour to Henrietta Maria, Queen of England, first wifeof Philip, Duke of Orleans; she was distinguished in early life for her greatknowledge, and a manner of conducting herself very opposite to that pursuedby young ladies of her age; yet, notwithstanding the virtuous turn of hermind, her heart was particularly tender and sensitive, and it was that sensibility which betrayed her; for on first beholding Louis the Fourteenth, she76 NOTES.became desperately in love with him. The Monarch, being made acquaintedwith her sentiments, returned her affections, and during two years she was thehidden object of all the gallant amusem*nts and fétes given by the King; atwhich period he created her duch*ess of Valliere; the influence, however,which she possessed, did not lead her to interfere with the cabals of the Courtor state affairs, confining herself to acts of charity, and private pursuits thatconferred honour upon her intellect . Prior to the year 1669, the duch*essbecame aware that Madame de Montespan had acquired an ascendancy overthe King's affections-- a conviction which she supported with admirable tranquillity till 1675, at which period she entered the Carmelite Sisterhood at Paris,performing the most painful austerities with a devotion almost unparalleled;and in 1710 she died, under the name of Sister Louisa of Mercy. She had ason, created Duke de Vermandois, and a daughter, named De Blois, who wasmarried to the Prince de Conti.41 Madame de Montespan was wife of the Marquis of that name, andone of the celebrated mistresses of Louis the Fourteenth, over whom she acquired a complete ascendancy, which she maintained until that Monarch became attached to the famous Madame de Maintenon . The Marchioness deMontespan had children by the King, one of whom became Duke of Main,and two daughters, who were nobly married: -she died in 1717.42 Philip, Duke of Orleans, was Regent of France during the minority ofLouis the Fifteenth, at which period the licentiousness and debauchery of theCourt were so flagitious, that, were it not for numerous historians of thatæra whose veracity may be depended upon, the disgusting scenes hourlyenacted would rather be considered as the ebullitions of romance, than theunvarnished delineations of facts as they really occurred.43 Never were the pernicious effects of bad example more fully exemplified,than in the person of the Regent, whose profligacy was unbounded, sinceconsanguinity presented no barrier to restrain the infuriate ragings of lust;wherefore to obscenity, incest presented the most fascinating charm.44 We are told in scripture, that he who dared touch the ark of the most highshould be punished with death, wherefore our poet being perfectly aware of theeffects of a Lettre de Cachet, and the summary proceedings resorted to in theBastille, conceived it prudent not to descant too largely on affairs of the timepresent, lest he should pay dearly for his presumption.45 Whether our great poet tendered these couplets as the offerings of a courtier at the shrine of beauty, we will not undertake to determine; certain it isNOTES. 777however, that the Daphne so apostrophised , one of the Regent's daughters , wasamply endowed with all those en- bon-point graces, which never fail to enchanteven royal lovers, who become enslaved with arms full ofjoy.46 It was anciently the custom to wear short clothes, attached with taggedpoints! wherefore it was said of a man, who unfortunately had not been ableto perform his duty, that his tag was knotted . It has been allowed from allantiquity, that sorcerers possess the power of preventing the consummation ofthe marriage rites, which was called knotting the tag. The fashion of taggedpoints, was exploded in the reign of Louis the Fourteenth, at which period,buttons affixed to the incomprehensibles first came into vogue.}CANTO XIV.ARGUMENT.AFFRONT OFFERED BY JOHN CHANDOS TO THE DEVOUT DOROTHYCOMBAT BETWEEN TRIMOUILLE AND CHANDOS -THE VALIANTCHANDOS DIES BY THE HAND OF DUNOIS.O! thou voluptuousness, in whom we see, ¹Nature's true source-Venus bright deity,By Epicurus erst in grace revered,''Fore whom, thro' chaos, darkness disappear'd,Giving fecundity, and life's warm glow,Felicity and sentiment, nay all belowBy multitudes possess'd:-life's flowing tide,At thy command new born, revivified:Thou, painted as disarming in thine arms,Great Jove and Mars, the god of dire alarms;Thou, whose sweet smile can lull the thunders dint,Becalm the air, and ' neath whose foot's light print,80 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Soft pleasures spring that all the earth controlGoddess descend; of blissful days the soul;Come in thy car, surrounded by the loves,While, with their downy wings, thy constant doves,Awake the zephyrs that afford thee shade,As billing through the floods of air they wade:Come, heat the world with thy pacific toils,Come, let thy voice, dispel all doubts and broils,Dreadful ennui, than those, more noxious ill , ³Perverse and squint eyed Envy-blacker still; *Be plung'd eternally in hell's domain,For ever bound in adamantine chain .Be all on fire; uniting at thy call ,Let universal love control us all,To flames our code and flimsy laws consign ,We only follow one; and that is thine .In safety tender Venus onward lead,The monarch ready for his Francs to bleed,Conduct remote from perils at his sideAgnes, in whom his bosom's throbs confide.In earnest, for those lovers I entreat:For Joan of Arc, no invocation's meet,She's not yet subject to thy charming sway,Saint Denis guides the tenor of her way,A maiden she, the saint her patron friend;To thy dear favors, let me recommend,Trimouille the courtly, and his Dorothy,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 81Let peace reward their sensibility;May she no pangs of separation bear,But always own her true knights fost'ring care,Nor ever feel dire persecution's fate,To foes consign'd, who vow'd eternal hate.And be thou Comus, Bonneau's due reward;"To him Bon Tourangeau thy gifts accord, "He, who pacific truce knew how to end,'Twixt cynic Chandos, and King Charles his friend;He plann'd most dext'rously each force should bide,On either margin of the current's tide,That no reproach or quarrel should ensue,To right and left, Loire's stream between the two.He, to the British force his cares made known,Rend'ring their manners, tastes, and wants his own;In gravy swimming, was the huge sirloin,Plum puddings moisten'd with the Garonne's wine;All these were tender'd, and more dainty meats,Ragouts and piquant sauces; gourmands treats;And red legg'd partridges the table's blisses,"For sov'reign Charles, and fair ones, dainty dishes.The fierce John Chandos having quaff'd his drink,Proceeded onward by the Loire's clear brink,Swearing the first time he could Joan attain,He'd use the rights of such as vict'ry gain;Attending which, with him his page he led;VOL. II. Ꮐ82 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Joan now return'd with courage newly fed,Incontinent her station took with pride,Plac'd at the gallant Dunois' martial side.The gallic king with guard in bright blue gear,Agnes in front, the Confessor in rear;Had now a league proceeded on their way,O'er verdant meads, bedeck'd with flowrets gay;By limpid Loire, its banks extending wide,Tranquil in current, changeful in its tide.Un boats appear'd supporting half worn planksA bridge, that serv'd to join the river's banks,In front a chapel, on the margin stood;'Twas Sabbath-day! --In sandal, hermit's hood,"A form appear'd—chanting like priest amain,The mass-a child replying to the strain.The matin service Charles and his escortHad heard, before they left Cutendre's fort;But Dorothy must now hear two at least, ¹0Her faith in Heav'n's behest so much encreas'd,Since righteous fate of innocence the shield,Had chosen bastard Dunois for the field;Protector of that truth which love delights,She soon dismounting, set her coats to rights,With holy water from three fountains signs 11Her front; and most submissive knee reclines;THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 83Hands then she joins, and bending neck tow'rds ground,The holy hermit as he turn'd around,Dazzled, and master of himself no more,Instead of singing out the missal's lore,Fratres oremus-aw'd by beauty's spell;Naught could he chaunt, save: -Fratres, qu'elle estbelle.1213Chandos, the chapel enter'd, much more fraught,With love of pastime, than a zealous thought,His front erect, the head he slightly bent,To Trimouille's beauty on the lord intent,Still whistled, passing and again repass'd; 'Behind the belle he knelt him down at last,Ne'er utt'ring word of ave, or of pater,As heart that own'd Redeemer and Creator.With air enchanting, and with look benign,Knelt Dorothy, impell'd by grace divine,Her front to earth, her bottom rear'd full high,Short coats were rais'd from inadvertency,Off'ring to Chandos sight, who gaz'd intent,Two legs uncover'd, whereto love had lent,Form, contour, and in short the whole design,The iv'ry's lustre: -Dian such were thine,Which erst Acteon famous hunter view'd:Chandos whose mind no orison imbu'd,Felt in his heart a most profane desire,G 284 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Without respect, for sacred spot or choir,He dar'd his hand most insolently glide,'Neath coats that veil'd the satin's lily pride.I cannot with a Cynic's pencil draw, ¹4To strike the sage and modest sight with aweOf ev'ry reader; nor to mind retail,Of daring Chandos, the audacious tale;But Trimouille, having seen his fair retire,Dear object master'd by love's potent fire,Forth to the chapel straight his steps inclin'd—Ah! whither will not love conduct the mind?Trimouille arriv'd, just as the priest turn'd round,And Chandos insolent, his rude hand found,Near the most perfect of all backs below,As fainting Dorothy, with terror's glow,Emitted piercing screams; loud, echoing wide:Fain would I have some modern painter guide,His pencil to pourtray this touching scene,And trace of objects four, on ev'ry mien,The fell astonishment that mantled there:-With cries the knight of Poitou rent the air:" Oh! durst thou most discourteous chief?" Quoth he." Unbrideled Briton, can thine infamy," These holy walls with profanation blast?”With bant'ring air, as haughty look he castAdjusting dress-when near the door he drewFierce Chandos said:-" What is it, sir, to you?THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 85" Of this same church, are you the sexton pray! יין" I'm more, a Frenchman, and my faith obey," I rank the well belov'd of this bright fair," And deal forth vengeance on those heads that dare" Her fame attack"-" To malice some are prone," Well might you at this juncture risk your own,"The Briton cried:-- " of us, each one can see," The extent full of his capacity;" And therefore, when John Chandos wills, he may,9915 " Ogle a back, but ne'er his own display. "For jeering Briton, and the handsome Gaul,Were steeds caparison'd for combat's thrall;From Squires, both ready for the hostile field,Receive the spiral lance and orbed shieldd;In saddle vaulting and in rapid course,Pass and repass in tiltings furious force,Nor tears, nor sighs of Dorothy can charm,Or check the blow of either's direful arm:Her tender lover cried, " My charmer true," I combat to avenge, or die for you:"Too wrong he judg'd— his valour and his lance,Glitter'd in vain for tender love and France.Twice having pierc'd John Chandos' batter'd mail,And well assur'd that vict'ry would not fail;His palfrey stumbled rolling o'er his corse,86 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.And plunging, struck his casque with dreadful force;Inflicting on his front an ample wound,A crimson tide bedew'd the verdant ground:The Hermit running, sought in death to bless,In Manus cried and woo'd him to confess; 16Oh Dorothy, Oh! most unheard of grief,Beside him robb'd of motion, life, relief,Thou gav'st thy soul to fell despair's sad bent,But ah! what saids't thou, when thy tongue found vent?" "Tis I have kill'd thee then! -sweet love , ' tis I," Th' assiduous partner of thy destiny," Who never should thy side rever'd have left," For quitting thee, of comfort I'm bereft;“ This sainted chapel must my misery prove," At once a traitor to Trimouille and Love,66 Seeking to hear two masses in one day; "And as she spoke, melted in tears away.917Chandos at his success, gave vent to jeers,"My pink of Frenchmen, flower of cavaliers," And also you devoutest Dorothy,66 Adoring couple, shall my pris'ners be," Of knightly combats, ' tis the laws decree." Some fleeting moments Agnes was my prey," And ' neath me conquer'd, Joan, the maiden lay:" I must avow that ill I did my duty," I'faith I've blush'd, but now with you my beauty,THE MAID OF ORLEANS.87" What's lost I will retake, as here I live," And he Trimouille shall his opinion give."The Hermit, Knight, and Dorothy with fear,Tremble all three such horrid threats to hear:So to a cavern's depth when dreads oppress,By fear confounded flies the shepherdess;Her flock in trembling owns the rueful cause,The poor dog struggling in the wolf's fell jaws.But heav'n's all just, though in its vengeance slow;Such insolence could not unpunish'd go;Redoubled sins of Chandos ne'er abated,So many blushing maidens violated,Blasphemy, impiousness, repentance scoff'd;These crimes in heav'n's dread scale heap'd oft and oft,Were by the angel weigh'd of death supreme:The great Dunois from t'other side the stream,Witness'd the combat and the overthrowOf La Trimouille, a female bending low,Who fainting, clasp'd him in her fond embrace;The Hermit hard by mutt'ring prayers of grace,And Chandos cant'ring near his lovely prize;Beholding this;-he spurs; -he gallops; --- flies!"Twas Albion's custom then, that foul or fair,All objects should their appellations bear;88 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Having the bridge's barrier now passed through,Straight to the conqueror our Dunois flew;" Son of a w:" netly pronounc'd and clear, 18Struck straight the tympanum of either ear:-66 Yes," he exclaim'd with pride, " that name is mine." Such bore Alcides; Bacchus the divine; 19 20" Perseus the happy, Romulus the grand,21" Who purged the earth of rapine's baleful band;'Tis in their names thus much I mean to act;" Of Norman bastard well thou know'st the fact,22" Whose conq'ring arms thy race in panic drove:" Oh bastards ye, the sons of thund'ring Jove," Direct my lance; each nervous blow decree;" Honour commands, avenge yourselves and me.”This prayer perhaps, you'll think was not well tim'd,But Dunois deep with fabled theme was prim'd,For him the Bible lore less charms possess'd;23He spake, he flew, the gilded rowel press'd,Whose piercing teeth perform propellant deed,The flanks keen goading of his noble steed.The first blow of his barded lance amain,John Chandos struck, and burst the links in twain;Sever'd scales diaper'd of armour bright,24And steel that corslet link'd to helmet tight.A blow tremendous dealt our Briton brave,The which impenetrable shields concaveTHE MAID OF ORLEANS. 89Receiving, glanc'd th' impending stroke aside:Encount'ring now as onward swift they glide,Strength but augmented by fell fury's glow,Each desp❜rate seizes his athletic foe.Their coursers thus escap'd the brilliant weight,Which they had borne upon their backs so late,Peaceful went erring o'er the champagne wide:Thus when we see, hurl'd from the mountains side,Two rocks detach'd, by fell convulsions riven,With frightful din one o'er the other driven;So dire these combatants with clangor ringing,Striking the earth and to each other clinging;From horrid shock, the echos wide rebound,The breeze retires-Nymphs shed the sigh profound:Or, as by terror follow'd, Mars we view,Bedank'd with gore, and arm'd by Furies too,From heav'nly plain descending prompt to save,Those tribes existing, near Scamander's wave,And when the lance against him Pallas rear'd,26In his support an hundred kings appear'd; 27The fix'd earth to its centre trembling stood,Troubled was Acheron's infernal flood,"28And turning pale, upon its margin dread,E'en Pluto shook for empire of the dead.Our knights arising stamp'd by valour's seal,With eyes inflam'd, scann'd o'er from head to heel90 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Their forms respective, then unsheath'd their brands,Dealing an hundred blows from doughty hands,Batt'ring the steel their bodies casing o'er:From wounds already, blood began to pour,Their arms bedying with a blackish red;Now rushing thither, the spectators led,The furious combatants in ring surround,Necks stretch'd, eyes fix'd, nor breathing forth asound;Courage augments, when crowds are standing bye,For glory's keenest spur ' s the public eye;The champions only had the prelude shewn,Of conflict that on record stands alone:Achilles, Hector-Gods in fierce array,The grenadiers more terrible than they;29And lions still more formidable far,Are less implacable, less fierce in war;Less giv'n to blood.The bastard ever great,Conjoining force with art, and bless'd by fate,Seiz'd on the Briton's arm , who struck awry,And with a back blow smote his glave on high,Then with a leg advanc'd his point to gain,Chandos o'erthrew upon the gory plain;Who falling dragg'd alike his foe to ground,Struggling the clouds of dust their forms confound;So in the sand for masterdom they move,The Briton under, and the Gaul above.THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 91The noble victor's heart which mercies guide,When smiling fate grants conquest on his side,His adversary pressing with one knee,Exclaim'd: " O yield, yield! Briton unto me; "Whereto John Chandos cried, " An instant wait," Hold!--it is thus Dunois, I yield to fate."As last resource of his infuriate mind,Short dagger drawing, he throws out behindHis nervous arm; which then tow'rd neck he bends,And strikes his victor, off'ring to be friends; 30The mail unbatter'd there, and firm of joint,Repelling, blunts the dagger's murd'rous point,Straight Dunois cried: -" Thy death thou wilt pursue," Then perish dog: "—and without more ado,Rais'd high the weapon o'er his struggling foe,And drove thro' clavicles the deadly blow.31Expiring Chandos struggling still in death,Utter'd " base bastard," with his fault'ring breath;His fierce, inhuman, sanguinary heart,E'en to the last perform'd its wonted part;His eyes, his front infus'd dark horrors thrill,Each trait seem❜d menacing the victor still;His impious soul, relentless, fraught with evil,Sped to infernal realms, to brave the devil;Thus ended as he liv'd, in death's dire thrall,This hardy Briton vanquish'd by a Gaul.92 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Dunois disdain'd to bear away the spoils,Despising customs due to victor's toils;e;Too well establish'd with the famous Greeks: 32To proffer friendly aid, Trimouille he seeks,He calls to earthly bourne the fleeting breath,And rescues twice, sweet Dorothy from death,His form supporting as they slowly move,Her pressure on his frame imprints soft love;Anew he breathes and feels a wound no more,Save from those eye-beams he must still adoreHe ogles them, confessing strength new born;His loving fair one by sharp anguish torn,Feels equally the tender transport rise ,The smile enchanting, mantling in her eyes,Athwart a veil of tears now glistening bright:So we behold through filmy vapours lightOf clouds all fleecy—temper'd radiance stream,Caught from the God of day's effulgent beam.The Gallic King, his Agnes fraught with grace;And Joan th' illustrious, all by turns embraceThe happy Dunois, whose triumphant hand,Had love aveng'd with his dear native land;But most the diffidence was form'd to please,Of his demeanour and his repartees."Tis easy; yet those show an envied state,Who act with modesty, however great.THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 93Somejealous germs, Joan stifled in her breast,Her heart upbraiding destiny's behest;She felt aggriev'd, her maiden hand in strife,Had not depriv❜d the miscreant of his life;Bearing for ever twofold wrongs in head,Which near Cutendre dye'd her cheeks with red,When brav'd by Chandos, to the combat's list,She was at once thrown on her back- and miss'd.END OF CANTO FOURTEENTH.

NOTES TO CANTO XIV.¹ This exordium appears to be imitated from the first canto of the admirablepoem of Lucretius." Eneadum genitrix, hominum divúmque voluptas," Alma Venus, cæli subter labentia signa, &c . &c."Voluptuousness is the fragrant flower of real pleasure, whereas centuries ofluxury do not constitute voluptuousness, but a disgraceful and filthy satiety:the votaries of debauchery are numerous, but the number of voluptuaries isvery circ*mscribed, as there are many cynical authors, but very few who arecapable of delineating delicate and tender voluptuousness.In the heathen mythology however, we find voluptuousness depicted as agoddess presiding over pleasures, in honour of whom, the Romans erected a temple. She was represented seated upon a throne like a queen, her complexion paleand wan, and trampling the virtues under foot.2 Epicurus, a celebrated philosopher, son of Neocles and Cherestrata, wasborn at Gargettus, in Attica. At the age of twelve years, his preceptor havingrepeated to him that verse from Hesiod, wherein he says, " in the beginning ofthings, the chaos was created,” Epicurus earnestly demanded—“ then whocreated it?" to which the preceptor replied, that he knew not, but only thephilosophers. " Thenfrom henceforth, " answered the disciple, "philosophersshall be my instructors!" After applying himself to study, he visited Athens,where he taught that the happiness of mankind consisted in pleasure; not suchas springs from the enjoyment of sensual gratification or vicious propensities,96 NOTES.but the placid refinements resulting from the mind, and the ineffable sweets ofvirtue. This doctrine was attacked by the other philosophers of that period,but Epicurus refuted the arguments of all his opponents, and died in the seventysecond year of his age, two hundred and seventy years prior to the christianæra.3 It has been frequently said, that the dissipation of fashionable life is nothing more than ennui in disguise, and it may be affirmed with truth, that thedisguise is very awkwardly managed . The ennui of fashionables is a distaste,a satiety of pleasures, similar to that experienced by persons who have indulgedtheir appetites too much, and whose only cure is to be found in abstinence.Whence does it arise, that those who are best enabled to vary the pleasuresof the senses (supposing them to have no other resources), are weary duringthree parts of the day, while a single occupation of the mind suffices to dispelthe vapours of ennui? It is because corporeal gratifications are soon satiated,and uniformly the same, wherefore they fatigue and are blunted, while thegratifications of the mind, being always fresh, leave us consequently nothingto desire but a renewal of such delights. There are more persons who dieof stupidity and ennui than is credited by the world in general .4 Envy is delineated by the ancient poets under the most disgusting colours,and is deemed the very worst of human passions. She is represented with apale visage, which is rendered more hideous on account of its extreme meagerness; her glance is ferocious, her teeth, naturally black, are grimed withdirt, while her heart is saturated with gall, and her tongue covered with venom .She is always a prey to chagrin and unquiet wishes, she never laughs but onbeholding some misfortune, nor hath the balm of sleep ever closed her eye- lids.She is delighted with the society of the ungrateful, and is afflicted at anyfortunate event that arises in the world. She is a self-tormentor, as well asthe persecutor of others, and bears in herself her own relentless executioner.1" My heart laments that virtue cannot live" Out of the teeth of emulation." SHAKSPEARE .Among the Heathens, Comus was the deity supposed to preside over nocturnal joys, festivities, and bacchanalian orgies; he was also said to preside atwomen's toilettes, as well as those of young persons fond of dress and finery.Comus is represented as a young man, with a countenance flushed and heated,his head reclined, and with a drowsy air negligently holding a flambeau in hisright hand reversed, and supporting himself with the left on a stake. A wreathof roses adorns his head, from whence the ancients derived the custom ofwearing a coronet of the same flowers at all great banquetsNOTES. 97

  • The word Touranceau signifies an inhabitant of Touraine, the province

to which we are indebted for our facetious confidant Bonneau.7 France is famous for a partridge having legs of a red colour, the flavourof which bird is peculiarly esteemed by epicures; it is rather surprising, thatthe breed in question has not been progagated in England, where bon- vivansare not wanting to appreciate the delights of such luxurious morsels.8 The current of the River Loire is nearly two hundred leagues in length,and is navigable for one hundred and sixty; viz. from Roanne to the Sea; theLoire formerly divided the Celts from Aquitaine. The changes in the tides ofthis stream, alluded to by the poet, originate in the rapidity of its course, andthe devastations which frequently occur in consequence of its overflowings .There were several orders of hermits; but the most ancient, such as St.Anthony, &c. resided in deserts: should any of my readers, however, feel desirous of examining further into the lives of these devout personages, I referthem to the researches of Arnaud d'Andilli, who has handed down to posteritythe lives ofthe hermits, concerning whom La Fontaine says—"Tout homme est homme, les ermites sur -tout. "Balzac wasdenominated l'Ermite de la Charante; and it is thus that Mainard, in his poems, when addressing France, speaks of that great man." Sans une ingrate cruauté," Pourrois- tu cacher son mérite?" Ton langage n'a plus sa force, et sa beauté," Que du charmant désert de ce fameux Ermite."It is proverbially said, that when the Devil was old he turned hermit, meaningthat old age renders us wise." Le Diable eut tort quand il se fit Ermite." DES HOULIEres.10 The charming Dorothy was of opinion, that she could never have too muchof a good thing; and when the beautiful ceremonial of the mass is taken intoconsideration, its fine Latin prayers, which one in the hundred mayperhaps comprehend, with the accompanying nasal chant, and the chalice exercise, which thepriest is alone authorized to perform; it would therefore be strange indeed had nota sensitive love-ridden soul like that of our belle, been a second time subduedby such a scene within some twelve hours lapse of time.VOL. II. H98 NOTES.11 Holy water, so called from the lustral water of the heathens, is renderedvery saintly, efficacious and christian-like by the Romish priests, who in orderto effect this, have recourse to certain enchantments which are found in theirbooks of necromancy, (libellus magicus) commonly known by the name ofsacred rituals. The writer when at college, was frequently told by the priests,that ifa Huguenot touched his forehead with this holy liquid, the water would besure to scald him; frequent trials however gave the direct lie to these assertions,which they then qualified by stating, that I was not so rootedly a Protestant,but there were hopes I should recant, and be received within the pale of theCatholic church.12 Atrifling innovation this in the performance of the Roman liturgy, whichis perfectly understood by the priests, whose mental faculties when attacked bythese ecstacies or sacred syncopes, have the felicity of enjoying titillating visions. The persons subject to these trances, are usually those to whom providence has accorded the special grace of being either knaves or fools.13 However inconsequential the act of whistling may be deemed, it is not anamusem*nt to be sported with at all times, as independent of the contempt whichmay be expressed by such means, it is deemed by nautical men the greatestpossible insult; and in proof of this, may be instanced the sanguinary duel whichtook place between General Pennington and Captain Tollemac, the ostensiblecause adduced being the General's whistling on deck, in opposition to the request ofthe naval commander.14 The peculiar modesty of the poet, is rendered conspicuous in the abovelines, and it is therefore only to be hoped, that the reader's prolific imaginationmay not lead him to magnify a mole hill into a mountain.15 Chandos was not one of those warriors to whom might be applied the famous couplet of" He that fights and runs away," May live to fight another day. "Neither was he of the Parthian breed, of which Virgil says, to use the translation of Dryden" With backward bows the Parthians shall be there," And spurring from the fight confess their fear."In fine, he was of the true old English cast, inherently regarding-NOTES. 99" That which in mean men we entitle patience," As pale cold cowardice in noble breasts."SHAKSPEARE.16 In Manus, is a Latin expression frequently used in a burlesque and familiarstyle, these words being the commencement of an ecclesiastical prayer. Inmanus tuas, domine, commendo spiritum meum."Nullafere causa est in qua nonfemina litem moverit.”JUVENAL.17 We have in a recent note to this canto, adverted to the strong predelictionevinced by Dorothy for mass going, which was in the present instance attendedwith consequences widely different from those which she had expected, therebyaffording a melancholy proof that we may sometimes have too much ofa*goodthing, thus rendering valid the words of Lucretius, where he says"Quantum religio potuit suadere malorum.”18 Lest any of my female readers should be offended at the coarseness of thisexclamation, it is requisite I should inform them, that John Chandos waswholly unacquainted with the modern vocabulary of haut ton; therefore, instead of saying son of a lady of INTRIGUE! which would raise no blush onthe feminine cheek, though signifying precisely the same thing, our hero wassatisfied with delivering his mind in plain blunt English, and as it is always necessary to adopt our original with scrupulous exactitude in heroic flights like thepresent, the translator has been compelled to follow precedents, however painfulthe effort has been to his refined feelings, whose pulsations must always beat inunison with those of the tender moiety of the creation . Ere I close the presentnote, it may however be as well to acquaint my readers, that the bar of bastardy has not always been deemed an impediment to inheritance; since it wasuniformly the contrary in Spain, and King Henri de Transtamare, was not regarded as an illegitimate sovereign, although a natural child, which race ofbastards established in the house of Austria continued to reign in Spain, untilthe period of Philip the Fifth; and as a further proof that bastardy was notregarded as an opprobrium, letters were long preserved of William Duke ofNormandy, King of England, bearing the signature of Guillamme le Batard,while documents are in existence to prove, that our gallant Count Dunois subscribed himself le Batard d'Orleans.19 Alcides, one of the names of Hercules, who was the son of Jupiter andAlcmena.H 2100 NOTES.20 Bacchus, was the offspring of Jupiter and Semele, the daughter of Cadmus.The intrigues of Jupiter with Danaæ, the daughter ofAcrisius, King of Argos,gave birth to Perseus.21 Romulus, the grandson of Numitor, King of Alba, and twin brother ofRemus, was the progeny of Mars and Ilia or Rhea, who was consecrated to theservice of Vesta, which exacted perpetual chastity, and for the violation ofwhose laws, she was buried alive by Amulius.22 William the First of England, commonly called the Conqueror, was theillegitimate son of Robert the First, Duke of Normandy, and of Arlotte, thedaughter of a furrier, at Falaise, a city of lower Normandy, where he was bornin 1024, the circ*mstance being thus related in history."It chanced that his father riding through Falaise, saw certain youngpersonsdancing near the way, and as he staid awhile to behold their pastime, he particularly fixed his eyes upon a young damsel named Arlotte, who was but ofmean birth, being a skinner's daughter; she dancing there among the rest, theDuke was so taken with her person and dancing, that the same night he causedher to be secretly brought to his bed, of whom he then begot William and solascivious was this Arlotte reported to be in her behaviour when the Duke approached to embrace her, that the English afterwards, ( adding an aspiration toher name, ) from her, called every unchaste woman a harlot."23 It is somewhat astonishing that our poet should have made the great Dunois more enamoured of pagan flights than the immaculate record of the Jews,a thrice saintly book abounding with the inspirations of the most high, andcontaining every thing requisite for a Christian to know and to practice. Itwas, however, formerly deemed requisite that laics should never praise this work,since the word of God, they were told, would not fail to be prejudicial to them,wherefore it was much better that the priests should read it in their stead, forsince they alone possessed stomachs sufficiently strong to swallow it, thecommon herds were to content themselves with the produce of their sacerdotaldigestion.24 Diaper'd means decorated or ornamented, which was always the casewith the armour worn by persons of consequence, so that the quality of thewearer was distinguishable by the costliness and decorations of his warlike accoutrements. This custom derives its origin from the remotest period of antiquity, as in Strutt's Account of the Manners and Customs of the Antient Inha-NOTES. 101bitants of England, we learn that no soldier was permitted to embellish hisshield with any engraving, until his performance of some gallant action empowered him so to do, -a praise- worthy custom, which aroused the spirit ofemulation, and prompted our forefathers to acts of heroism when engagedupon the field of battle.25 A neck-piece formed of small scales made very pliant, so as not to impedethe quick motion of the head, and which was attached to the armour connected with the breast- plate, from whence is derived the term gorget, asworn by our officers at the present day.26 Pallas, or Minerva, during the Trojan war, espoused the cause of theGreeks, while Mars supported the interest of the Trojans, who, while vigorously defending these favourites of Venus, received a wound from the handof Diomedes; upon which he retreated to Heaven, in order to conceal hisconfusion and resentment, as well as to complain to Jupiter that the arm ofPallas had directed the unerring weapon of his antagonist.27 Alluding to the numerous princes of Greece who furnished ships andsoldiers, and repaired to the expedition against Troy.28 Acheron, a river of Thesprotia, in Epirus, falling into the bay of Ambracia. Homer, on account of the dead appearance of the waters of thisstream, calls it one of the rivers of Hell, which fable has been adopted byall succeeding poets. The above lines are again in imitation of Homer; butthose who pretend to have read this passage in the Greek language, will assertthat neither the French nor the English even approximate to the original .29 In the above line Voltaire eulogizes that corps of the French army whichowed its institution to Lewis the Fourteenth, and was so called from eachsoldier having a certain number of hand grenades, which he threw among theenemy in time of action. The King's Regiment of Infantry was the firstwherein they were incorporated, in 1667, when four grenadiers were allottedto every company; in 1670, they were all assembled and formed into onebody, of which M. de Ristor was the first commander. A short time priorto the Dutch war in 1672 , the King issued orders that the first thirty regimentsshould each have a company of grenadiers at their head; this was extendedto every regiment, and in process of time to each batallion in the French service; after which there were two complete companies, and to these a thirdwas added during the Regency of the Duke of Orleans.102 NOTES.30 This attack of Voltaire upon the British name is too flagrant to be passedover in silence by the annotator, who will venture to affirm, that treacheryforms no one component part of the mind of an Englishman; therefore, tohave made the noble and warlike Chandos owe his death to an attempt so dastardly as that contained in the above lines, is a gross violation of consistencyin delineating the character of an English soldier, which ought never to havedisgraced the pen of such a poet, however the playful efforts of his Muse mighttolerate, in other respects, every effusion of wit, satire, and sarcasm.31 Clavicles are the collar bones, which knit together those of the shoulderand the breast.32 A very just allusion to the barbarous practice so frequently handed downto us by the ancient poets, who depict their heroes as insulting and carryingoff the spoils of the vanquished- a famous instance of which is found in Homer,where he describes the conduct of Ulysses to Hector, while after the death ofAchilles, Ajax and Ulysses disputing their joint claims to the arms of thedefunct hero, which are adjudged to the latter; Ajax, yielding to the impulseof frenetic rage, butchers a whole flock of sheep, conceiving them to bethe sons of Atreus, who had given the preference to Ulysses, and in conclusionstabs himself with his own sword.33 The wrath and indignation of Joan, in this instance, is truly poetic andjustifiable, as well as consistent with every outraged feminine feeling; criticsand annotators may affirm that the interposition of Denis was requisite uponthe occasion alluded to, and, that it was absolutely fitting the tag of JohnChandos should be knotted, in order to support the arcana of the plot; butsay what we will, woman is woman after all; and with the alteration of aword, we may therefore say, speaking of our heroine,Hell hath no fury like a woman Miss’D.CANTO XV.ARGUMENT.SPLENDID FEAST AT THE MANSION HOUSE OF ORLEANS FOLLOWEDBY A GENERAL ASSAULT-CHARLES ATTACKS THE ENGLISH-TOGETHER WITH WHAT HAPPENS TO THE LOVELY AGNES AND THECOMPANIONS OF HER JOURNEY.MALIGNANT censors, you're despis'd by me,Mine own defects I better know than ye,Thro' this choice tale on mem'ry's page enroll'd,Graven in ore, my wish was to unfold,Nought but the brilliant flights of high renown;On Charles's head, of Orleans place the crown,By Joan, by love, and glory, pow'r sublime;'Tis shameful thus to have misus'd my time,Singing of Sir Cutendre, and a page,Of Grisbourdon the slave of lustful rage,The mule's dull driver and mishaps a train,That harm the thread of my poetic vein.104 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.But all these narratives that greet your eyes,Were the effusions of Tritemus wise,¹I simply copy, nor one trait invent,On facts, let reader cast a look intent,If sometimes it occurs his stern decree,Judges my sage with keen severity:If at some traits your brow to scowl inclines ,The knife and pounce boxmayefface my linesThro' half this charming work, but let him view,With some respect at least, the moiety true.O! sacred truth, thou virgin ever pure,When wilt thou reverence deserv'd, ensure?Divinity who mak'st us wise, why dwellIn palace plac'd at bottom of a well?²Ah! when wilt thou from out those depths appear,When will our learned men their voices rear,From gall exempt, and from all flatt'ry free,Detailing lives with pure fidelity,And grand exploits of our fine errant knights.Prudent was Ariosto in his flights³Archbishop Turpin for his purpose citing,Which made his book divine, still more invitingA testimony stamping to the viewOf readers all; eachfeat detailed as true.Feeling alarms at the impending ill,Charles on the route to Orleans journey'd still,By courtier troop environ'd, glittering bright,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 105Their robes and arms all costly to the sight;And Dunois' asking counsel that might strike him,As are accustomed, always princes like himWhen rendered tractable by adverse fate,But bless'd by fortune, wayward, obstinate.Charles thought his Agnes trotted in the rearWith Bonifoux, well pleased with thought so dear,His glance full oft the royal lover turn'd,He stopped to see if Agnes was discern'd;And when Dunois preparing Charles for fame,Of Orleans spoke; —he sigh'd out Agnes name.¹The bastard fortunate, whose prudent care,Labour'd that France felicity might share,A fort beheld athwart the glimmering eve,Which Bedford's Duke had long thought fit to leave;This structure near the invested city lay:By Dunois ta'en, Charles there resolv'd to stay—When fortified anon, the fort was seen,Made by besieging host their magazine.The god who vict'ry yields ' mid crimson tides,And he who bloated at the feast presides,To stock this fort, for fame alike incline,The one with cannon, t'other with choice wine:Of war's combustion, ev'ry apparatus,And all the groaning table spreads to sate us,This little fort was able to bestow,What choice success, for Dunois and Bonneau.106 THE MAID OF ORLEANSOrleans enchanted at these tidings rare,To Heav'n's high king, preferr'd a solemn pray'r;Te Deum sung by Drone from Serpent Bass,5Before the noble chieftains of the place,Next was the dinner serv'd for judge and may'r,The Bishops, Prebends, warriors, all were there:From sparkling goblets, ev'ry guest quaff'd round,Till senseless each lay stretch'd upon the ground;Fire works on stream, whose brilliant gleams of light,Flashing full wide, illum'd the realms of night;The people's cries, reports of cannons loud,With din confus'd announc'd to all the crowd,That Charles restor❜d-by fate no longer cross'd,Repair'd to find what had so long been lost.These shouts of glory and each blissful strain ,Were follow'd by the lengthen'd yells of pain,As Bedford's name was heard from ev'ry breath;Fly to the walls! defend the breach! or death!The Britons taking 'vantage of this chance,When citizens engaged with wine and dance,Extoll'd their prince, by songs and couplets grac'd,Beneath a gate two sausage forms then plac'd;Not puddings, such as Bonneau had in view,When he produc'd them for a new ragout,But sausages of which, the fatal powderDilating, bursts with din, than thunder louder,Capsizes all; confounds the air and earth,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 107Dire murd'rous engines of infernal birth;Which in their iron entrails bear the brand,Kneaded by Lucifer's destructive hand;By means of match, arranged with baleful art,The fell combustions quick as lightning part,Spread, mount, and to a thousand yards conveyBars, hinges, bolts, in splintry, torn array:Fierce Talbot onward rushes with full speed,Success, rage, glory, love, excite the deed;From far emblazon'd on his arms, the eye,In gold, a Louvet's cypher could descry,For Louvet ever was the dame that taughtHis soul to love, and swayed each mighty thought,—His was the wish to clasp bright beauty's pride,On walls demolish'd, and with carnage dy❜d.This handsome Briton, child of raging war,Of captain's chief, shone Albion's leading star;Let's fly, my gen'rous victors, was the word,Dispensing ev'ry where, fire, flame and sword;Let's drink the wine of Orleans' coward race,Their gold purloin, and all their wives embrace.Not Cæsar's self so eloquent of speech,Such honour and audacity could preachTo martial spirits, as this fiery strain,Instilling fury thro' the warlike train.108 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Upon that spot where flaming portal broke,Which mounting, spread around a thick'ning smoke,Of stone and turf a rampart high appear'd,By order of La Hire and Poton rear'd, ⁹From whence projected forth a parapet,Thickly with rang'd artillery beset;The first attack well pointed to o'erthrow,Of daring Bedford, the tremendous blow.There straight La Hire and Poton took their stand,Of citizens behind them strove a band;The cannons roar; -the horrid order, —kill,With repetitions harsh the vacuum fill;When from their iron jaws the thunders cease,Leaving incontinent the winds at peace;Against the ramparts scaling ladders rose,Already bearing squadrons of its foes,With foot on step, and grasp'd in hand the glave,Each soldier urges on his comrade brave.Nor Poton or La Hire in peril dire,That foresight had forgotten all admire,Each change of fate they watch'd with prudent eye,Prepar'd to meet each cast of fortune's die:There was the molten pitch; -the boiling oil—Of stakes a forest to make foes recoil,Large cutting scythes in sharp array were seen,Emblems of death, destructive weapons keen;THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 109And musquets launching forth the storms of lead,Tempestuous rattling round each Briton's head.All that necessity combin'd with art,Misfortune, intrepidity, impart,And, fear itself, alike were marshal'd there,The deeds ensanguin'd of that day to share:How many Britons then were boil'd, pierc'd, riven,Dying in crowds, and ranks on ranks hard driv'n:Just so beneath an hundred hands we view,Cropt yellow ears the harvest's plain bestrew.Still the attack's pursued with courage stern,With numbers falling, numbers still return;Like Hydra with creative pow'rs imbu'd,To earth heads falling, are by heads renew'd;Yet these affrighted not the son of Jove,And Britons thus, thro' fire and carnage drove,More formidable still though efforts fail,And brave, in mast'ring, numbers that assail.Fierce Richemont, hope of Orleans in the fight,Thou didst rush onward to the ramparts height;Five hundred citizens, a chosen band,Reeling, march forward under thy command,Illumin'd by the gen'rous wine's oblation,Its zest excelling virtuous animation:As daring Richemont bellow'd out amain," Your legs, good folks, your weight cannot sustain;110 THE MAID OF ORLEANS." But I'm your head, ' tis fit we come to blows: "-He spake, then rush'd ' mid thickest of the foes;Talbot already had carv'd out a wayAlong the ramparts, urg'd by fury's sway;One direful arm hurl'd foes to death's drear night,The other urg'd his phalanx to the fight,Crying out:-" Louvet" in Stentorian vein.By Louvet heard, he thought it honour's strain;Thus Louvet sounded forth, from Britain's band,Tho' not a soul the cause could understand;Oh! stupid mortals, with what ease we teach,Your tongues those things which are beyond our reach.10In sadness Charles within the fort was lock'd,Fast by another English cohort block'd;The town besieg'd, unable thus to gain,His soul of ennui felt the dreadful bane;" What,” he exclaim'd, " and must I thus stand by," Nor succour those who in my service die;"With joyous hymns, their sire's return they hail'd," I should have enter'd-fought, perhaps prevail'd;" And sav'd them from inhuman Britain's bands," But here sad destiny enchains my hands!"" Ah! no," quoth Joan, " tis fitting you be seen," Come, signalise your blows; let vengeance keen," These Britons place ' twixt you and Orleans town;" March on, the city save, and reap renown;" Tho' small our band, we thousands boast in you. "THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 111" What!" quoth the monarch, " canst thou flatter too: 11My worth's but small, yet soon my name shall teem,6666 Deserving Gaul's as well as thine esteem;"1213" And England's too: "—he spake, spurr'd on for fame.Before his person, stream'd the Oriflame;Joan and Dunois both gallopp'd at his side,Horsem*n behind, to list his orders ride,And ' midst a thousand cries is heard to ring," Long live St. Denis, Montjoie, and the King:"Charles, Dunois, and of Barr the haughty belle,¹Rush'd on the rear of Britain's sons, Pell Mell;As from those hills whose entrails vast confine,The reservoirs of Danube and the Rhine;Or as the eagle tow'ring with vans spread,Fix'd piercing eye, and pointed talons dread,Pois'd in ' mid air on Falcon darts in turn,That gorg'd on necks of the expiring Hern."Twas then th' audacious Briton shew'd in fight,Like iron on the anvil's surface bright,Which tends the temper's value to enhance;And furious drove the valiant sons of France:14Now let your eyes the British phalanx trace,And Gallic soldiers sons of Clodions' race, ¹Inflam'd and fierce, insatiate each of gore,They flew like winds, that thro' the vacuum pour,In contact join'd, immoveable they're seen,Like rock amidst old ocean's empire green;112 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Foot against foot, the crest oppos'd to crest,Hand to hand, eye to eye, and breast to breastOnward they rush, oaths breathing that appall,While rolling o'er each other, dead they fall.O! wherefore cannot I in sounding lays,Of feats heroical prolong the praise?"Tis only Homer hath a right to tellAll these adventures, and on such to dwell,To lengthen out, and feats anew expose,To calculate the several wounds and blows,To add to Hector's battles, still a storeOf mighty deeds, and join to combats more.From such dread scenes, my friend avert the gaze,And dare on high your anxious eyes upraise;Let your whole mind, to scenes celestial soar,Come mount, the mansion of the gods explore,Of wisdom contemplate profoundest state,Which amidst peace, controls our mundane fate;Far worthier is such spectacle for you,Than barbarous, bloody deeds, expos'd to view;Of combats, all alike, thro' ev'ry page, 15Whose long details, must weary out the sage.END OF CANTO FIFTEEN.NOTES TO CANTO XV.We have remarked upon a former occasion, that the Abbe Tritemus neverproduced any work respecting the Pucelle, or the beautiful Agnes Sorel; it istherefore, pure modesty alone which prompted the author of this superlativepoem to announce his labours as the productions of the pen of another.2 This appeal to veracity confers honour upon our poet, however useless theattempt to correct the failings of biographers, in whom candour is an ingredientso rarely found, that it seems probable that class of writers are of Sheridan'sopinion, when he states3" Truth they say lies in a well," I could ne'er the maxim see;" Let the water drinkers tell," There it always lays for me."Archbishop Turpin, to whom the lives of Charlemagne and of Roland leFurieux are attributed, was archbishop of Rheims about the end of the eighthcentury; whereas the work in question, was written by one Turpin, a monk,who flourished in the eleventh century, and it is from that romance, that thecelebrated Ariosto has extracted some of his tales: in consequence of this, ourwise author in like manner pretends, that he is indebted to the labours of theAbbe Tritemus, for the present flight of his muse.4 " Res est soliciti plena timoris amor.” OVID.

  • The Te Deum above mentioned, was sung to the accompaniment of the

Faux Bourdon of the French, or the Tasto Solo of the Italians. The instruVOL. II. I114 NOTES.ment used upon this occasion, was the serpent, from whence was given the note,and in which all the congregation joined with as much unison of sound as thecompany was capable of expressing; a most refined species of musical barmony for all such persons as were not gifted by nature, with the delightfulsense ofhearing.In the Recueil Historique sur Jeanne D'Arc, by M. Chaussard, vol. 1st,page 20, we find that Jeanne était attendue avec impatience dans cette ville;les habitans reduits a la derniere extremité, étaient instruits qu'il avait passéà Gien, une fille qui se disait envoyée de Dieu, pour les delivrer. L'effet quecette nouvelle avait produit fut si grand, que le Comte de Dunois, qu'onappelait alors le batard d'Orleans, et qui commandait dans la ville, avaitenvoyé a Charles sept, le Sieur de Villers, Sénéchal de Beaucaire, et le Sieurde Tollay devenu depuis Bailli de Vermandois, pour s'informer de la véritéde cette singuliere nouvelle. Ils avaient rapporté â leur retour, et dit auxhabitans, qu'ils avaient vu cette fille aupres du Roi, et qu'elle allait venir avec des secours.• The saucisse used in war, is a small bag of pitched cloth two inches in diameter, filled with the best gunpowder, to which is attached a slow fusee; andis used in the blowing up of a mine, being constructed to go into its very chamber; it is also requisite to place two saucisses to each furnace, in order to renderthe explosion certain of success. Our poet, however, has been guilty of a triflingerror in giving existence to the saucisse in the fifteenth century, as its inventionis due to the monks in 1579, when it proved of the greatest utility in taking thecity of Cahors, which fact, D'Aubigné particularly testifies in his history.7 It was uniformly the custom with lovers in chivalric ages, to bear the colours and cyphers of their mistresses, which were constructed of precious stonesor engraven upon plates of gold, in order to be affixed in a conspicuous pointof view, viz . in front of their helmets, upon the upper joints of their right arms,or fancifully tied with fringed ribbands round the centre of their lances; thesecyphers sometimes consisted of enigmas or mysterious sentences, according tothe fancy of the knight who was the wearer.8 There is no necessity for us to refer so far back as the period of Cæsar, sincewe can prove that our valiant Talbot has not only had imitators, but individualswho have surpassed him in issuing orders for the sackage of a city. By referring to Voltaire's questions, sur l'Encyclopédie, under the title anecdote, willbe found what follows.Le Marechal de Luxembourg, in 1672, thus harangued his troops:--NOTES. 115" Allez mes enfans, pillez, volez, violez; et s'il y'a quelque chose d'abominable ne manquez pas de la faire, afin que je voye que je ne suis pas trompéen vous choisissant comme les plus braves des hommes."" Away my boys, plunder, rob, murder, ravish; and if there is any other deedstill more horrible, do not fail to accomplish it, and thus prove to me that Ihave not been deceived, in selecting you as the most brave of men."9 Poton de Saintrailles, and La Hire, two dauntless knights, were the firmsupporters of the cause of Charles the Seventh, and greatly instrumental inmaintaining the possession of Orleans for that monarch by their intrepidity andskill in warlike tactics.10 This is a well directed sarcasm against society in general, since we findevery class of individuals freely descanting upon topics not only unintelligible,but which providence never intended should be cognizable to human penetration. The deliramenta doctrine of big wigs, are the scare crows of commonsense, which have been attended with the most baleful consequences to society,as the page of history too fatally demonstrates, from the remotest records ofantiquity.11 Courtiers and flatterers strongly resemble a species of vermin which immediately quit the bodies of defunct persons, being no longer able to draw nutritionfrom the blood that supportrd them." Dire a son Roi, qu'un arrêt du ciel même," De tous nos biens le rend maitre suprême;" C'est le discours d'un flatteur soudoyé," Qui se dédit quand il est renvoyé. "12 Mont-joie Saint Denis was the ancient war-cry of the Kings of France;some historians derive its etymology from moult joie, great joy, or mon-joieinstead of saying ma-joie: in short, much research has been made into theorigin of this expression. Raoul de Presle, who lived in the time of Charlesthe Sixth, from what is reported by Pasquier, states that Clovis, fighting inthe Valley of Conflans- Sainte Honorine, the battle terminated on the summitof the mountain, where stood a tower called Mont- Joie; but Robert Cenal,Bishop of Avranches, states that Clovis, finding himself at the battle ofTolbiac, a short time prior to his embracing Christianity, invoked Saint Denis,under the name of Jupiter, saying, Saint Denis mon Jove, which in lapse oftime was pronounced Mont-joie. The cry of the Dukes of Burgundy wasMont Joie Saint Andre, because the Cross of Saint Andrew was figured upon1 2116 NOTES.their banners. The Dukes of Bourbon used Mont-joie Notre Dame, and theKings of England, Mont- Joie, Notre Dame, Saint George, as appears fromthe researches of Father Menestrier.13 Bar, or Barrois, a considerable territory of France, situated on eitherbank of the river Meuse, between Lorraine and Champaine, being the countrythat gave birth to the Pucelle of Orleans.14 Clodion, surnamed le Chevelu, or long-haired, because he ordained thatkings and princes of the blood royal should wear long hair, succeeded hisfather Pharamond in 428, as King of the Francs. He made great efforts toestablish himself in Gaul, taking the cities of Cambray, Tournay, Valenciennes, and other neighbouring fortresses, and ultimately rendered himselfmaster of Lartois, extending his conquests to the Somme, by reducing the cityof Amiens, which became his Royal residence.15 In criticising the divine productions of Homer's Muse, it has been veryjustly remarked, that the frequent repetition of battles therein detailed, fatiguesthe mind; and, from the sameness of incidents thus related, blunts the spur ofcuriosity; to which circ*mstance Voltaire no doubt alludes in the conclusivelines of this Canto.CANTO XVI.ARGUMENT.HOW ST. PETER APPEASED ST. GEORGE AND ST. DENIS, PROMISING ANOBLE RECOMPENSE TO HIM WHO SHOULD PRODUCE THE BESTODE- DEATH OF THE LOVELY ROSAMORE.1CELESTIAL Pallas! open to my lay,Bright spirits who six pennons wide display!¹Ye feather'd gods! whose tutelary hands,People and kings, encircle in Fate's bands;Ye! who expanding wide your wings conceal,The blaze eternal farthest Heavens reveal;Deign for a little time apart to stand,Let me behold as war thus wields the brand,What's done in sanctuary's depth of Heav'n,And be my curiosity forgiven."Twas Tritemus the Abbe breath'd his pray'r;2Not me, my eye accustomed all to dare,118 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Cannot the depth of court supremest see,I shall not have so much temerity.St. George and Denis, our apostle kind,Were both in heav'n's etherial realms confin'd;All they beheld, yet neither could extendHis hand those earthly combats to befriend;They both caball'd , to this all folks resort,And such the practice ever is at Court:Denis and George in turn their anger wreaking,To Mister Peter in th' empyreum speaking.This porter fam'd, whose vicar is the Pope,Closes in net, of all our fates, the hope:His double keys rule life and death below,To whom thus Peter said: " ye doubtless know" The dire affront, my friends, I had to bear," When Malchus from my hand receiv'd his ear:³Right well I call'd to mind my master's word," He bade me in the scabbard sheath my sword;66 Depriv'd was I of combat's brilliant right," A mode far different now I will indite," To terminate at once your great alarms," And save ye from the shock of hostile arms. ”" You, Denis, from yon' district, forth shall draw," The greatest saints that ever Gallia saw;" You, Mister George, repair with equal speed,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 119" And cull those saints that sprang from Albion's seed:" Let either troop incontinent compose," An Hymn in verse, but not an Ode in prose;“ Houdart judg'd wrong, amid such heav'nly heights, *" "Tis meet in speaking to use god-like flights;" Let each, I say, indite Pindaric ode," And poets make my virtues rare, their code;66 My rights, my attributes, my primacy," To music set the whole immediately;" The race terrestrial always needs much time," Dull couplets to produce in so-so rhyme:" We scribble faster in bright glory's plain,Go, I repeat, let each essay his vein," And he whose flights ensure the victor's pride," The fate of combatants shall thus decide."Thus from the heights of his etherial throne,To rivals spoke th' infallible Barjone; 5The whole was utter'd in two words at most,Astyle laconic suits the heav'nly host;The rival saints, in twinkling of an eye,That they might terminate their quarrels high,Sped to assemble each the saints that bore,While on earth's soil, of wit an ample store.The patron saint in Paris' walls ador'd,Invited to his round and ample board.120 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.8Saint Fortunatus little known on earth,Reported to have given the Pange birth,6And Prosper's saint of epithets the bard,7Tho' somewhat Jansenist as well as hard;On list the name of Gregory was read,Grand saint, who of the see of Tours was head;Dear to the soil where Bonneau felt life's vigour,And Bernard fam'd for Antithesis figure,9Who had no rival in his famous time,With other saints to form the council prime;For well thou know'st my friend in times like these,Those who advice ne'er ask, but rarely please.10George hearing of St. Denis all this din,Disdainful eye'd him, with sarcastic grin,Amidst enclosure saintly; then espied,The noted preacher, Austin, Albion's pride, ¹¹And in a style perhaps a little quaint,Thus his advice deliver'd to the saint:" Austin, my hearty blade, I'm form'd for arms," And not for verse, which has for me no charms;" I well know how my fateful glave to wield," Sever a trunk, break heads and limbs i' th' field," You versify; -come; set to work and rhyme," Support our country's fame in lays sublime," One Briton on the plain of deadly thrall,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 121" With ease can triumph o'er these sons of Gaul:" Oft have we seen upon the Norman plain," In Guienne, Picardy, and Higher Maine,¹2" Those pretty gentlemen with ease laid low," If in the fight we stronger arms can shew;" Trust me where hymn and ode, or aught ' s requir'd," Where rhyme and thinking are the points desir'd ," That we have brains as good as their's for jingle," Work Austin, and with verse make ears all tingle," London shall prove the empire, and excel" In those two arts, acting and speaking well:" Denis, of rhymesters will collect an host," Whoin the mass but little genius boast;" Toil thou alone, old authors thou canst weigh, —" Courage, proceed, sound from thy harp the lay;" The sacred strain shall Albion's name adorn," And laugh his dull academy to scorn."Austin, to whom the labour was consign'd,Thanked him, as author bless'd by patron kind:Himself and Denis in a snug abode,Squatted themselves and each compos'd his ode;When all was done, the blazing Seraphim,The bloated chubby heads of Cherubim,Near Barjone in two ranks were perched aloft,Angels beneath, nestling in ether soft,While all the saints, for judgment grand adepts,With care arranged themselves upon the steps.122 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Austin began the wonders to impart,Which made obdurate the Egyptian's heart;Moses and imitators in profusion,Who were his equals in divine illusion;The streams of Nile, so fruitful found of yore,Laving with horrid tide of blood, the shore;The reptiles pois'nous from black mud engender'd,Transform'd to rod-the rod to serpent's render'd;Day chang'd to night; cities and desarts wild,By swarms of gnats and vermin foul, defil'd;Mange in the bones; thunders in airy space,And all the first born of a rebel raceButcher'd by heav'n's avenging Angel dire;Egypt in mourning, Jews for faith on fire,From patrons all the silver vessels bearing, 13.And for the theft, celestial blessings sharing;For forty summers erring to and fro;For calf, some twenty thousand Jews laid low; 14And twenty thousand more to graves consign'd,Because the females in their loves were kind:15Then came the Hebrew's Ravillac, Aod, 16Murd'ring his master in the name of God;And Samuel, who seiz'd the kitchen knife¹7With holy hand from altar, and of lifeAgag bereft, whom he anatomiz'd,Because this Agag was uncircumcis'd;Of Bethulie was prais'd the saviour fair,18Pure folly acting with her charms so rare;THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 123Baasha the good, who Nadab massacred; 19Achab to death consign'd for impious deed, 20Not having outright slaughter'd Benhadad;King Joash who was bruis'd by Josabad,In whom the son of Atrabad was seen;And famous Athalia, Israel's Queen, 21Sent prematurely to resign her breath,So wickedly by Joash doom'd to death.Dull was the Litany and somewhat long,While interspers'd these brilliant traits among,Were mighty deeds detail'd in sounding lays,Those acts so cherish'd in remotest days;When Sol dissolv'd and back the ocean ran,Transform'd to powder was the moon so wan:The globe for ever changeful was on fire,Heav'n's chief a hundred times awoke in ire:-Ruins and tombs were seen, and seas of blood;Yet still beside the silv'ry current's flood,Milk flow'd beneath the olive's verdant shade:Like ram was seen to skip the hill and glade,"While as the mountains, rams kept jumping too:Austin sang praises, to high heav'n the due,Which threaten'd loud the conqu'rer of Chaldee,23And left the Jewish race in slavery,But always broke the teeth of lions dread,And crush'd the loathsome rampant serpent's head:The fertile currents of the Nile address'd,Leviathan and Basilisk suppress'd.24 25124 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Austin was silent, his Pindaric strain,Call'd forth amid the bright empyreal train,A doubtful murmur,: —sounds made to infuseIll favour'd thoughts on his Odaic muse:Denis arose, low bent his eyes serene,Which straightway rear'd, display'd his modest mien;Before his auditors then bending low,As if surpris'd at their celestial glow;Thus seem'd he to address the sacred host,Encourage that one who admires you most;Thrice with humility he lowly bent,To counsellors and leading president;Then chaunted with a tender voice and clear,The hymn expert, which ye anon shall hear." O! Peter, thou on whom Heav'n deign'd to raise" Its church immortal pr'ythee list my praise;" Pastor on high, of flocks the faithful friend,“ Master of kings, before whose feet they bend," Doctor Divine, Priest, Saintly Father just," Of all our christian kings, support august," To them extend thy fost'ring grace benign," Pure are their rights, and all those rights are thine." At Rome, the Pope ranks chief of scepter'd men," None doubt it, and if his lieutenant then," Bestows on whom he lists this present small," "Tis in thy name for thou dispensest all;“ Alas! our men of parliament debas'd,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 125" Have banish'd Charles, and impudently plac'd" A foreign stock upon the throne of France,Taking from son the sire's inheritance: 26" Porter divine, thy benefits oppose," To this audacity, to ten years woes," In thy benignity our sufferings ease,“ And of the Palace Court restore the keys. "Such was the prelude of St. Denis' strain;He paus'd awhile, then read with studious painFrom optics corner, glance in Cephas' eyes,27Feigning embarrassment in bosom rise:Cephas content, upon his front display'd,Internal proof how self-love was obey'd; -And to clear up at once the wits confounded,Of skilful singer from his lips resoundedIn phrase his own; all tremor to dispel," Continue Denis; ev'ry thing goes well."With prudence Denis once more struck the lyre:" Mine adversary may have charm'd the choir," The arm of vengeance hath he loudly prais'd;" Whereas my sounding plaudit shall be rais'd," To honour clemency's bright power with skill," Hating is good; but loving's better still."Denis more confident in voice and mind,Then sang in pleasing verse, the shepherd kind,126 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Who went in search of sheep that stray'd at large,And pleas'd on back supported home the charge:The farmer bland, whose kindness deign'd dispense,Still to the sluggard workmen recompenseWho came too late, that diligent for pay,He might his toil renew with blush of day:The worthy patron who with loaves but five,And fishes three, could hunger's yearnings driveFrom craving multitude; which number'd o'er,Produc'd to full five thousand ample store.Prophet more gentle than austere, whose reignYielded her comfort, in adult'ry ta'en;Whose feet to Magdalen were not denied,But by the sinner, bath'd with tears and dried:By Magdalen is Agnes' form design'd, "Denis advantage took of verse refin'd;He well succeeded, and the host above,The trait confessing, pardon'd guilty love.Hail'd was of Denis the odaic treasure,The prize it gain'd, and praises without measure,Of England's saint was foiled the boldness dread;Austin blush'd deep, and skulking, forthwith fled;Each laugh'd, thro' paradise aloud they bawl'd:-E'en so in Paris, hootings once appall❜d,A pedant dull, just like Thersites old,Informer vile, an hypocrite most bold,Whose recompense was hatred and disdain,As in style vulgar, he dared waft a strain;THE MAID OF ORLEANS 127Attempting thus, our useful arts to smother,And hurl his condemnations on each brother.Peter of Agnus's gave Denis two,He kiss'd them rev'rently, and straight to view,Subscrib'd by twelve elect was seen decree,That Albion's host upon that day should flee'Fore Gallia's bands, to glory's conquest ledBy sov'reign Charles in person, at their head.Incontinent the Amazon of Bar,Beheld in air athwart dense cloud afar,The form and likeness of her donkey grey,As oft a cloud imbu'd by sunny rayReceives impression, and reflects the hue." This day," she cried, " is glorious to my view," All , all is ours; -my ass in Heav'n I see,"Bedford astounded at this prodigy,Halted, and felt invincible no more,In Heav'n he conn'd, all petrified the lore;That by St. George he was abandon'd quite:The Briton thinking he beheld outrightAn host, rush'd sudden from the town alarm'd,Its populace by Heav'nly impulse charm'd,Viewing them urg'd to flight by terror's spell,bursas ibellForth rushing straight, pursued them all, Pell-Mell;Charles at a distance amidst slaughter strove, ba sile 10And to the very camp a passage drove;128 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Besieg'd in turn, besiegers now appear;Assailed and slaughter'd in the front and rear,In heaps on borders of their trenches laying,Arms, dead and dying wedg'd, fell fate obeying.'Twas even there, upon that fateful plain,Thou cam'st to give thy dauntless valour rein,Bold Christopher, by surname Arundel,Thy cold indifference-visage hard and fell,Tended thy lofty valour to enhance,From ' neath that warlike brow the silent glanceExamin'd shrewdly how they fought in Gaul,From his important look it seem'd to all,He loiter'd there Time's heavy hours to kill,His Rosamore attach'd, and faithful stillLike him was cas'd in steely war's attire:'Tis thus some page we view, or faithful ' squire,His cuirass polish'd steel, helm gold and burnish'd,With plumage of the peaco*ck gayly furnish'd,Floating o'er crest obedient to the gale;For since the day, her hand had dar'd assail,And sever'd head from trunk of Martinguerre,Her chief delight had been war's deeds to dare;It seem'd that Pallas so renown'd for charms,Had left the needle for bright feats of arms;Or Bradamant, or even Joan the belle;29Oft she address'd the friend she lov'd so well,Retailing sentiments sublimely grand,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 129When lo! some friend, fell foe of Cupid's band,For their mishaps tow'rds Arundel, decreed,That young La Hire and Poton should proceed,And Richemont of no pitying thrill the slave.Poton beholding mien so fierce and graveOf Albion's son, felt an indignant glow,And tow'rd the babbler poising lance's blow,Enter'd his flank, and pierc'd the back clean through,Ofblood too cold, ran streams of purple hue:He fell he died-the shiver'd lance still seen,Plung'd in his corpse, and rolling on the green.At this dread sight, this moment of distress,No eye saw Rosamore her lover press,Nor tear her flaxen locks, nor rend the skies,With keen affliction's agonizing cries;Nor rail infuriate ' gainst high Heav'n's decree,Not e'en a sigh. " Vengeance," she cried, " for me!"When, at the moment Poton from the glade,Forward inclin'd to grasp his batter'd blade,Her naked arm, that arm of power so dread,Which with one stroke, had sever'd when in bed,The sconce from hoary chief ofrobber's band,Clean cut off Poton's all redoubted hand;That dexter fist, for her so fraught with sin,Those nerves all hidden ' neath the fingers' skin,In motion for the last time met the sight;Since which brave Poton, never more could write.30VOL. II.K130 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Handsome La Hire, who beam'd with valour's glow,Now dealt at Poton's conqueror a blow—A mortal thrust, transpiercing through the heart;Falling, the straps of the gold helmet part,Discov'ring neck of rose and lily's hue,Nor was there aught conceal'd her front from view;Her ample tresses streaming o'er her breast,Her large blue eyes, clos'd in eternal rest,Each trait presenting lovely female face,A form for pleasure fram'd, replete with grace;La Hire thus gazing, breathes full many a sigh,And weeping, wafts this lamentable cry:" Just Heav'n, as vile assassin I appear," Ablack huzzar, and not a cavalier: 3166 My heart and sword foul infamy display," Is it permitted thus the fair to slay?”But Richemont, always ranking wicked wit,Ever obdurate, cried: -" La Hire, this fit," This fell remorse, has o'er thee too much weight," She's English, and the evil is not great;" Besides, my gallant friend, she cannot boast," A maiden's name, like Joan of Gallia's host. "While thus indulging in such speech profane,From Arrow's barbed point he felt the pain,Wounded he turn'd, still more provok'd and dread,His thrusts both right and left encreas'd the dead:Foes rushing torrent like, surround his form,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 131Himself, La Hire, and nobles brave the storm,With soldiers, citizens, all strive their best,They kill, they fall, pursue, retire, hard press'd,Of bleeding trunks a mount the sod displays,And Britons of their dying, ramparts made.In this all sanguinary, dreadful fray,To Dunois thus, the King was heard to say:" Tell me, in grace, dear bastard, tell me where," From hence is gone the ever blooming fair?"" Who?" enquired Dunois.-" When the good kingsaid," Dost thou not know then, whither she is fled?" But who?"- "Alas! she vanish'd from my sight," Ere we were led by lucky chance last night" To that same fort, where Bedford's stores are center'd," And into which, we all, without her-enter'd."" Ne'er fear," quoth Joan: -" restor❜d she soon shallbe."" Heav'n grant," quoth Charles, " that she rest true tome," For me preserve her:" thus soft phrases citing,Onward they kept advancing still, and fighting.At length our hemisphere in night's dun tomb,Shew'd cloudy mantle of portentous gloom;And ended the career, so wond'rous new,Ofgrand exploits which good Charles meant to do.K 2132 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.While thus escaping from the conflict dread,The anxious monarch, sudden heard it said,That tender damsels had pac'd o'er the glade,Their course directing to a forest's shade;Amidst the rest, a form divinely fair,With full eye beaming, and of youthful air;The smile most tender, skin like satin soft,Whom sermoniz'd, a benedictine oft,Squires gaily deck'd, with looks around fierce glancing,Bold cavaliers upon their palfreys prancing,All cas'd in steel, and gold and ribbons gay,Such the fair riders tended on their way:The errant troop had bent its course, I weenFor palace, which till then, no eye had seenIn this sequester'd spot: -Its ample height,Showing fantastic structure to the sight.The King surpris'd, such wonders rare to see,Cried, " Bonneau, those who love, will follow me;" To-morrow with the dawn will I repair," To view the object of love's constant care," My Agnes; or in death life's glow ensteep. "He rested little in the arms of sleep,And when phosphoric beam illum'd the grey,32Announcing rosy harbinger of day,While yet in Heav'n, unharness'd were the steedsThat wheel bright Phoebus on to blazing deeds,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 133The monarch, Dunois, Joan, and eke Bonneau,Their saddles vaulted with a joyous glow,In search of this, all sumptuous palace led:66 My fair to view grand object is” —Charles said:" Soon may we join again the British host," Her to rejoin, is now what presses most."END OF CANTO SIXTEEN.

NOTES TO CANTO XVI.1 Alluding to the Seraphim who ranks first in the hierarchy or nine ordersofAngels.2 I must candidly confess never to have read this while consulting the literarylabours of Tritemus; but it is more than probable, that all the erudite productions of that great man have not yet come under my observation.

  • Malchus, the servant of the High Priest, who accompanied the soldiers

to seize Christ after he had been betrayed by Judas; in Saint Matthew,chap. 26, ver. 52, are these words, addressed by the Lord to Peter, after he hadsmitten off the ear of Malchus:-" Put up again thy sword into its place,“ for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. ”—Saint Peter,in the above lines, advises the English with much becoming piety, not todelight in warfare.La Motte Houdart, a poet, whose productions were rather dry, notwithstanding which he composed some passable pieces, till he had the misfortune,in 1730, to produce several Odes in prose; which affords another incontestibleproof that this divine poem was written about the same period.5 Barjona, or Saint Peter.• Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers , a poet, was not, however, the author ofthe Pange Lingua, which is attributed to him. The Pange Lingua is a-136 NOTES.hymn chanted in the Catholic churches, and during processions, when the SaintSacrament is exposed to the public.7 Saint Prosper, a famous doctor of the Church, who flourished in the fifthcentury; he produced among other works, a very dry uninteresting poem uponthe subject of Gratuitous and Divine Grace.8 George Florence Gregory, commonly known by the appellation of Gregoryof Tours, a renowned Romish Saint, was born in Auvergne, A. D. 544. In 573he was chosen Bishop of Tours, and in 578 distinguished himself in a Councilwhich was convened at Paris; it was this same reputed Saint who is said tohave converted King Chilperic from Pelagianism , and to whom we are indebted for an history of the Franks, in ten books, abounding throughout withaccounts of the most extraordinary miracles, as well as several other works.—Gregory died A.D. 595.⁹ Saint Bernard, a Burgundian, was born in 1091; he became a Monkof the Order of Citeaux, and afterwards Abbot of the Monastery of Clairvaux.Bernard occupied himself in all the public affairs of his time by acting aswell as writing; but it does not appear that he was author of many poeticalefforts. With respect to the Antithesis for which he is noticed by our author,it is certainly true, that he was a great admirer of that rhetorical flourish; forinstance, when speaking of Abelard, he says, Leonem invasimus, incidimusin draconem. The mother of our Saint being pregnant of him, dreamedthat she was brought to bed of a white dog; in consequence of which it waspredicted that her son would be a monk, and bark against the vanity of allmundane pursuits.10 It was formerly the vogue in France for authors, and more particularlypoets, to peruse their productions in manuscript to certain literary societies, inorder that they might profit by the criticisms which should be passed prior totheir labours being committed to the press; wherefore, to hazard a workwithout subjecting it to such ordeal, was deemed the height of presumption,and scarcely ever failed to subject an author to the most virulent attacks,even supposing the sterling merit of his work bade defiance to legitimatecensure.11 Saint Augustin, or Austin, was a Roman monk, and dispatched byPope Gregory the First, with forty others of the fraternity, to convert theinhabitants of Britain, in 596. On landing in the Isle of Thanet, he madeknown his mission to King Ethelbert, who assigned Canterbury for the residence of Augustin and his associates, with free permission for the exerciseNOTES. 137of their functions, the good Monarch himself embracing Christianity, withoutever attempting by force to convert his subjects to his own opinions. Augustinbecame the first Archbishop of Canterbury, where he died in 694 , after whichhe was canonized.12 Alluding to the famous battles of Cressy, Poictiers, and Agincourt.13 In the twelfth chapter of Exodus, verses 35 and 36, we find it stated,that the Jews " borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver and jewels ofgold, and raiment. And the Lord gave the people favour in the sight ofthe Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required;And they spoiled the Egyptians: "-Thou shalt not steal!!!14 We find in the Book of Exodus, that Moses, upon his return from theMount, with the Tables of the Commandments, finding that the people hadconstructed and were worshipping the Golden Calf, testified his dissatisfactionto Aaron for having permitted this disorder during his absence; after which,taking his station at the entrance of the camp, he cried with a loud voice, Letthose approach me who love the Lord; upon which the Tribe of Levi assembled round Moses, who commanded them to take their swords and traversethe camp, killing all they should meet, without sparing either son, brother,kinsman, or friend; which order they obeyed with a most praise- worthy zeal,thus slaughtering to the number of twenty- three thousand souls.15 Phineas, the son of Eleazar and grandson of Aaron, was the third HighPriest of the Jews. Zambri, or Zamri, a prince of the tribe of Simeon,having taken to his tent a Midianitish woman, Phineas, indignant at theact, followed and slew them both; after which were also massacred twentyfour thousand of his fellow- creatures for this most sacrilegious act.16 Aod was the son of Jera, of the tribe of Benjamin, concerning whomScripture hands down to us this useful and very instructive information: viz ."that he used the left hand equally well with the right: now Eglon, King ofthe Moabites, having oppressed the tribes of Israel during the lapse of eighteenyears, they were at length presented with a deliverer in the person of Aod,who, having provided himself with a weapon constructed in a particularmanner, in order to render the blow more certain, repaired thus armed to theCourt of Eglon, bearing presents for that monarch, which he laid before him,and then stated that he had a secret communication to impart to his Majestyfrom the God of the Israelites; upon which, being left alone with Eglon, hestabbed him with such force, that the very handle of the instrument pene-138 NOTES.trated into his bowels so deep as to protrude from the wound with his excrements.17 Samuel, the prophet of the tribe of Levi, consecrated Saul King of Israel,but upon the latter sparing the life of Agag, King ofthe Amalekites, " Samuelhewed Agag into pieces, before the Lord in Gilgal."18 Concerning Judith of Bethulie, whose history is so well known, we havespoken upon a former occasion.19 In the first book of Kings, chapter xv. we find that Baasha, the son ofAhijah, conspired against Nadab, son of Jeroboam King of Israel, and smotehim at Gibberthon which belonged to the Philistines, after which he destroyedall his family, and took possession of the kingdom.20 Achab had received a great ransom from Benhadad King of Syria, in thesame manner as Saul had from the hands of Agag, notwithstanding which, hewas assassinated for having granted him his pardon. In like manner Benhadadbeing vanquished, dispatched deputies to Achab, in order that his life might bespared. "If he still exists," replied Achab to his messengers, 66 he is no otherthan my brother;" this reply however, which taken in a humane point ofview is simple, touching and sublime, drew down upon Achab the wrath ofHeaven, and above all, that of the inveterate prophets or priests.21 Athaliah, was the daughter of Ahab or of Omri, wife of Jehoram, and themother of Ahaziah King of Juda; she counselled her son in every species ofwickedness, and in order to obtain the throne after his death, murdered thewhole of the royal family, except Joash, a child, who was preserved by Jehoshaba the daughter of Jehoram. After having enjoyed the supreme authorityfor seven years, Athaliah was put to death by order of Jehojada the high priest.22 In the 114th Psalm, verse 4, David states that the mountains skipped likerams, and the little hills like young sheep and again in verse 6, ye mountainsthat ye skipped like rams, and ye little hills like young sheep? In Psalm lxviii.verse 16-why hop ye so ye high hills? and, by way of finale, în Psalm lx.verse 8, is to be found this beautiful metaphor—Moab is my wash- pot, overEdom will I cast out my shoe: -These are flights to which we moderns cannever dare aspire.23 Cyrus was the conqueror of Babylon and Chaldea, whose coming wasannounced by Isaiah.NOTES. 13924 Leviathan, is another of those wonders of creation, concerning which, somuch has been said and written, and is by some supposed to have been the crocodile, and by others the whale; be this however, as it may, these words ofPolonius, are very applicable to the subject.Like an ozle-very like an ozle; -or a whale-very like a whale.While we are upon the topic of these stupendous works of nature, it maynot beamiss to quotethe Talmud, wherein we find an account of the feast to be given bythe Jews upon the coming of the Messiah, in which it is stated, that by way ofa second course, the female of the fish called the Leviathan, is to be served upsalted, whose length is three hundred leagues, or nine hundred miles, whileat the same festival is to be roasted a behemoth entire, whose bulk is so enor.mous, that it will consume in one day, all the grain and herbage produced upona thousand mountains. The Talmud, consists of seven folio volumes, containing the body of the Judaic law, and more especially the ceremonial part, composed by their rabbins, and of great authority among them.25 Basilisk, a most renowned serpent, otherwise called co*ckatrice, said toinflict death by the glance of its eye, which power, we may suppose it to havepossessed antecedent to the creation, as no optics have hitherto been able to discern it. For a further account of this wonderful animal, I shall refer my readersto our poet's Zadig, or the Book of Fate.26 Alludingto the convention which took place after the marriage of Henrythe Fifth with Catherine, daughter of Charles the Sixth, whereby the Dauphin her brother, afterwards Charles the Seventh, then eighteen years of age,was excluded from the throne; to which Henry succeeded in right of his wifeCatherine, to the complete annihilation of the Salique law.27 Cephas, was one of the seventy-two disciples of whom St. Paul speaks inhis epistle to the Galatians. Some authors have imagined that Cephas was thesurname of St. Peter, but they are distinguished by Clement of Alexandria,while Hardouin and Marcellin Molkenburh, have published very learned dissertations upon the subject.28 This is doubtless an allusion to the custom of representing the mistressesof monarchs under the forms of Madonas, Magdalens, St. Katherines, &c. ,which was very frequentlythe case during the reigns of Lewis XIV. and XV. ,as well as in the time of Charles II . of England.29 Bradamant is the celebrated heroine of Ariosto's Orlando Furioso.140 NOTES.30 It must be allowed, that no method can be so efficacious to prevent the powerofwriting, as the amputation of the dexter hand, unless like Aod in holy writ,and of whom we have recently spoken, the individual amputated, proves equallyas expert with the fingers of the left hand.31 Alluding to the Hussards of Death, as they were termed, who neithergave nor received quarter.32 Upon the word phosphore, or phosphorus, the French editions have thefollowing note. Phosphore, bearer of light, avant- courier of Aurora, whoprecedes the chariot of the sun. All was animated and brilliant in the ancientmythology: we cannot too much deplore in poetical flights, the loss of thatgrand æra of genius, abounding with beautiful fictions and allegories; how dryand sterile in comparison are we, but little removed from barbarians. It israther difficult to appreciate the poet's exact meaning, unless by phosphorus, bealludes to Venus or the morning star, whose light, certainly very much resembles the pale hue of a phosphoric gleam.The ancients gave a chariot to the sun, an appendage by no means uncommon. Zoroaster traversed the aerial regions in a car, and Elijah was transportedto heaven in a flaming chariot. The four borses of the sun were white, andtheir names according to Ovid, were Pyrois, Eous, Æthon, and Phlegon,which is the same as to say, inflamed, oriental, annual, and burning; but according to other learned antiquaries, they were called Erithreus , Acteon,Lampos, and Philogeus; that is to say, the red, the luminous, the resplendent,and the terrestrial . Notwithstanding all which, I believe that these sapient personages have deceived themselves, taking the names of the four times of theday for those of the horses:-this is a most egregious blunder, which I shall explain in the ensuing Monthly Mercury, prior to my publishing the two dissertations in folio, which I have written upon the subject . The most ancient periodical publication in France, was Le Mercure François, which commencedin the year 1605, and continued until 1644. Vittorio Siri, entitled his historyof France, Le Mercure; Ségoing's Treatise of Blazowry bore the same appellation; and there was also Le Mercure Indien de Rosnel, a silversmith, whichtreated of precious stones, pearls, and gold. To the Mercure François, succeeded Le Mercure Galant, which was replaced by that of Mercure de France;but in 1672, under the direction of M. de Visé, the Mercure Galant, was againpublished, which in 1710, amounted to four hundred and sixty volumes, afterhaving passed through various hands, and frequently changing its title; theMercure, in 1755, passed by brevet to Marmontel, but did not long continueunder his auspices, being taken from him in 1760, in order to be given to Mr.de la Place, the author of some distinguished productions.CANTO XVII.ARGUMENT.HOW CHARLES THE SEVENTH, AGNES SONET, JOAN, DUNOIS, LATRIMOUILLE, ALL BECAME FOOLS. -AND THE MANNER IN WHICHTHEY REGAINED THEIR SENSES BY THE EXORCISMS OF THE RIGHTREVEREND FATHER BONNIFOUX, THE KING'S CONFESSOR.OH! what enchanters does this world display,Nothing of soft enchantresses to say.No more fond weaknesses my soul engage,Of fools, the spring time; errors charming age.But, in each era, we deceivers find,Puissant sorcerers enchaining mind: ¹Bright glory beaming, and in purple dight,First wafting you ' mid Heav'n's all glowing height,To plunge you in th' abyss and darksome wave,Your draught fell bitterness, your doom the grave:Take heed then all, however rich and great,Nor ever fondle, dang'rous men of state,142 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.And if some sweet enchantment ye would share,To greatest kings prefer your witching fair,Hermaphrodix, for purpose good thought right,To rear this pile enclosing Agnes bright,To wreak his vengeance on the Gallic lasses,On valiant cavaliers, on saints, and asses,Whose modesty enforc'd by Heav'nly rites,Had brav'd the power of necromantic flights.Whoso that enter'd this abode so fell,Could not, incontinent, his best friend tell;His senses, wit, and memory all fled,Lethean waters, whereof quaff the dead,Or bad wine swallow'd by the living soul,Condemn him to a far less dire controul.Beneath grand arch of portico right vast,With heavy modern, and antique overcast,Was seen a brilliant phantom to parade,Light footed, and whose eyes bright fire display'd,In gesture quick, with face now prompt-now check'd,The mien high rais'd, and form with tinsel deck'd;Unsteady motion, ever mov'd his frame,This phantom bore Imagination's name: 2Not that bright goddess who from Heav'nly dome,O'er Greece presided , and imperial Rome,O'er such an host of authors' glowing lays,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 143Dispensing wide her colours brilliant rays,Her glittering diamonds, and immortal flow'rs,Whose flights to fame aspir'd from brilliant pow'rs:To him who blaz'd the godlike painter bold,Who sang Achilles the renown'd of old,³And Virgil chronicler of Dido's praiseWho warm'd alike an Ovid's am'rous Lays;5But that same sprite who common sense abjures,Flighty, insipid, served; who fame ensuresFrom crowds of authors, ranging at his side,By him inspir'd, who serves them for a guideA Scudery, Desmarets, and Le Moine6 7 8His gifts receiv'd; such favours too conjoinTo grace new op'ra, and romancing strain,And long he exercis'd imperial reignO'er pulpit, bar, and the theatric crew:Close to this pile, Bombast the eye might view,9Ababbling monster in his arms caress'd,Which the Seraphic doctor erst express'd, 10Deep, subtle, vers'd in energy's bold page,Imagnation's, commentating sage,Creator of confusion's dire epoch,.11 Of late producing, Marie a la Coque; ¹¹Around him, bad bon mots were seen to flit, ¹213With double meanings, of all fools the wit;The equivoque, that aims it shaft awry,The lame enigma with its squinting eye; ¹4Dreams, blunders, presages, in clouds arise,144 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.•And nonsense with a host of silly lies:So near some mould'ring pile, with dusky coat,Is seen the bat, and heard the screech owl's note.This edifice accurs'd, howe'er it be,Constructed was, with such dire industry,That all who enter'd, were anon bereft,Of ev'ry ray of reason they had left.Now scarce had Agnes with her escort pass'd,The Portal's threshold of this palace vast,Ere she of Bonnifoux Confessor grave,In love became, the veriest faithful slave,In him, the cherish'd monarch met her eyes:-" Oh! thou my hero, and my soul's dear prize," Just Heav'n my prayer accords in sending thee;" Hast thou o'er Britons gain'd the victory?" Some wound perchance thy person hath receiv'd," Be now from armour's weight by me reliev'd: "With tend'rest care, and with affection true,Anon she sought to unfrock Bonnifoux,And to his arms her willing frame commending,With eyes inflam'd, and neck towards him bending,A kiss requir'd, that should be given and ta’en:What could thy dread, fair Agnes then restrain?As seeking chin from hair but lately clear'd,Nought couldst thou feel save tann'd and frowsy beard,Long prickly hairs by comb imperfect dress'd!Away ran confessor by dread oppress'd,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 145The fair forgetting who pursued amain,Agnes thus finding nothing but disdain,Her pace redoubled, breathing suppliant cries,As liquid gems flow'd copious from her eyes.As each amid the vast enclosure sped,One signing cross, while tears another shed;Loud sounds were heard and shrieks of dread alarm ,A touching fair adorn'd with ev'ry charm,Appear'd affrighted, holding close embrac'd,The knees of knight with limbs in armour cas'd,Whose vile intention was with wrathful blow,To lay the supplicating beauty low.Would any credence yield that such a fact,Of La Trimouille could prove the savage act;Who would at other times with heart elate,For Dorothy have brav'd death's icy state?Her for the fierce Tyrconnel he mistook,Tho' nought resembling, or in trait or lookThat Briton fell: while she her knight then sought,Who thus assail'd her with fell fury fraught:66 Object of lasting flame, love's glowing pride,"His form not knowing, thus aloud she cried:" Have ye not seen him, who can love impart," The knight who sways my palpitating heart," Who hither came, that he might rest with me," Trimouille so cherish'd, whither can he be?" Where is he now? ah! wherefore doth he fly?"VOL. II. L146 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.The knight of Poitou heard this touching cry,Unconscious that his mistress breath'd her pain;He thought some ruthless Briton roar'd war's strain,Who rushing on him, strove his days to end,Thus life with sword in hand he would defendAnd tow'rd his Dorothy infuriate hied:" Soon wilt thou change thy tone, " he loudly cried," Briton disdainful, arrogant, severe," Bold Islander, drunk ever with strong beer;" Well it becomes thee now, such speech to frame," And thus dare menace one of my great name," I ranking grandson of Poitou's fam'd race," Whose feats have hurried hence to Hell's black space" Somany valiant sons of Albion's crew," More gen'rous, bold, and noble far than you;" What! does thine hand refuse the sword to wield," To what vile terrors does thy bosom yield; '" In words the braggart-coward in the feat," Albion's Thersites -England's roebuck fleet; 15" Form'd fitly with thy Whigs at home to cry,16" Quick, draw thy broadsword, we'll our prowess try;" So then, unsheath I say, or even now," That front I'll scar as the most recreant brow;" Or if thou wilt not, that we strive together,66 Thy monstrous rump I'll lash with stirrup leather. ”At this discourse in fearful wrath exprest,Pale, fainting, and with fear of death distrest:" I am no Briton, " Dorothy cried out-THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 147" I'm far from such. -How! what art thou about," Wherefore am I maltreated thus by thee,66 Why have I rush'd into such jeorpardy?" To search for Poitou's knight was my intent," An helpless female ' tis you thus torment,“ Who bathes your noble knee with tears full fraught:"Thus she bespoke him, but her words were nought,And La Trimouille whose folly knew no check,Then strove to seize the fair one by the neck;The Confessor, who in his nimble speed,Thus sought from Agnes Sorel to be free'd,In running tripp'd, and fell between the pair;The squire of Poitou strove to grasp his hair,But finding none, roll'd with him on the ground,The arms of Agnes straight his form surround,Who on him falling, utter'd shrieks of fear,And sobs that stay'd the course of sorrow's tear,While Dorothy beneath them struggling lay,In sad disorder, and in torn array.Just in the middle of this novel fight,By Bonneau led King Charles appear'd in sight;With Dunois bold, and Joan the maid of Fate,Whojust had pass'd this castle's dreadful gate,With fond intent his faithful fair to view;Oh! mighty pow'r, Oh! wonder strange and new;Scarcely from Palfrey had they set foot low,Scarce had they pass'd beneath the portico,L 2148 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.When each incontinent was reft of brain:Of doctors furr'd in Paris, thus the train,With arguments replete ' neath bonnets square,Gravely to Antique Sorbonne all repair;Resort of strife, Theology's drear cell,Where disputation and loud uproar dwell;Whose sacred temple there they deign'd uprear,Which beamy reason never yet went near:One after t'other comes true rev'rend wight,Steady in mind and air to casual sight;Each when at home a very sage is seen,Well might he pass for gentle and serene,Afoe to quarrelling and rather mute,Ne'er yielding to extrav gant dispute,Nay, even some, as long heads might be treated,Fools only when upon their benches seated.¹7Charles owning joy and tenderness supreme,With humid eyes where sparkled ardour's beam,As throes impetuous, his warm heart inflam'd,In tones of langour and of love exclaim'd:" My Mistress chaste-my Agnes ever dear," My paradise, sole source of blessings here," Howoften have I lost thy form ador'd," To my desires thou art at length restor❜d," Speak now of love, thy form I clasp, I see" How charming beams that heav'nly face on me;" But thou no longer show'st that slender waist, "18THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 149" Which erst by me with ease could be embrac'd,66 Pressing my fingers round thy cestus rare:" What stomach en bonpoint! -- What Derriere!" Such of our converse tender is the test," Pregnant is Agnes, I shall soon be blest" With lovely bastard, who for us will fight," I here must graft, ' mid transports of delight," This dawning fruit impregnated by me," E'en now upon its tender parent tree;" Love so ordains it, for the feat I'm wild," To rush before this sweet expected child.”To whom breath'd thus the monarch's glowing strain?To whom address'd he this pathetic vein?Who had he thus within embrace so glowing?"Twas our fat Bonneau-dusty, sweating, blowing;"Twas Bonneau; man to earthly scenes allied,Soul ne'er possess'd, so deadly stupified;Charles, by an ardent passion hotly press'd,With nervous arms his courtier huge caress'dDown threw him, and our Bonneau pond'rous fell,Upon the troop that scatter'd lay, pell-mell:Which feeling with the shock, his cumb'rous load,What yells good Heav'n then fill'd the vast abode;The Confessor with germ of sense now grac'd,His paunch so corpulent precisely plac'd,Agnes above, and Dorothy below,He rose-then ran as fast as he could go.150 . THE MAID OF ORLEANS.While scarcely breathing, Bonneau panting spedSeiz'd by a fit Trimouille just then was led,To think his arms sweet Dorothy embrac'd,And Bonneau's steps, thus crying out, he chas'd:" Restore my heart, thou hangman-life restore," Stop, hear my speech,"--nor words he utter'dmore;But with huge sabre dealt on back rude stroke.Bonneau then gall'd by breast plate's pond'rous yoke,Resembling too the massive weight he bore,Emitted as from forge tremendous roar,Just as when batt'ring hammer loud resounds:Fear hast'ned of his course th' unsteady bounds.Joan thus beholding Bonneau at full trot,And the dire, strokes he from assailant got;Joan in her helm and armour bright array'd,Follow'd Trimouille and with good int'rest paid,.All that on kingly confidant was pour'd:Dunois of gallant knights puissant lord,This dire attempt on life could never see,Of La Trimouille, his friend in chivalry;For him it was the destiny to fight,He knew it;-but the maid was to his sight,A Briton fierce, for blows he ' gan to burn;Her then he bang'd, while she thrash'd him in turn,As Poitou's knight spurr'd on, with blows distress'dPoor Bonneau's hide, with weight of fat oppress'd.THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 151The worthy Charles amid this din and quarrel,In Bonneau still recognis'd Agnes Sorel,For monarch this the destiny how dire,For lover warm'd by lover's tend'rest fire;No foe his ardent bosom could affright,Against an army now prepar'd to fight.These warriors coursing Bonneau's rear amain,As bloody ravishers by Charles were ta'en;On Dunois, straight he fell with sword in hand,Round wheel'd the bastard to oppose his brand,And on his visor dealt tremendous blow;Did he Gaul's monarch in opponent know,Himself he would regard with horror's eye,Struck with remorse and shame he'd wish to die;His sword alike the warrior Joan assail'd,Whose glave puissant to requite ne'er fail'd,And the bold bastard who no terrors knew,At once belabour'd king and mistress too,Now right now left his direful weapon wheels,And round their heads the rattling tempest peals:Stop, charming Dunois -stop all conquering Joan,What tears, what fell regrets your breasts will own,When ye shall learn who thus your arms assail'd,Who ' twas attack'd and o'er whom ye prevail'd.The knight of Poitou in`this dread alarm,Let fall from time to time his doughty armAssaulting beauties of the warrior maid;152 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Friend Bonneau follow'd not this soldier's trade,His thick head than the rest less trouble felt,All he receiv'd but never one blow dealt,As running, Bonnifoux impell'd by dread,Maintained the van and thus the cohort led.The whirlwind on our fellest rage entail'd,All against all, assailants and assail'd,Beating and beaten each in skirmish vile,Crying and bawling travers'd the vast pile;In tears sweet Agnes; Dorothy fear-chill'dScream'd out for help, " My throat is cut, I'm kill'd,"While the Confessor fraught with contrite deed,Still of the strange procession took the lead.Sudden at lattice he on high descried,This mansion's lord, array'd in hellish pride;Hermaphrodix, whose glance was gay to seeGaul's sons tormented with barbarity.With laughter bursting, either side he press'd;At this 'fore Bonnifoux then stood confess'dThefatal myst'ry of this empire fell,Who quick pronounc'd it was the work of Hell;Aray of reason beam'd thro' magic foul,His tonsure vast, his long and ample cowl¹9Had served as cuirass to protect his brain,Wherefore he recollection could retainHow Bonneau, after mode antique and good,So wisely by forefathers understood,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 153In pouch would carry, ne'er to be in fault,20Cloves, nutmeg, pepper, cinnamon and salt;Our Bonnifoux had always book of mass,Who straight perceiv'd a fountain clear as glass,Whither with salt he sped, and lore full fraught,Resolv'd the foul fiend should by him be caught;Anon he ' gan mysterious rite so rare,221And mutter'd low, the imps of sin to scareWith look demure;-" Sanctum Catholicam,"Papam, Romam, Benedictum Aquam:"22In Bonneau's cup the holy water plac'd,Thus arm'd by Heav'n he onwards cunning pac'd,And ere the fiend guess'd what was to be done,Sprinkled of Alix, the Hobgoblin son.º23The burning floods of Styx had less controulIn Pagan times o'er ev'ry damned soul:His thick tann'd hide, glow'd o'er with many a spark,A cloud all smoky, dense and low'ring darkThe lord enveloped, and his palace too,Our band enscarfing in night's darkest hue:Still running, each in shades the other sought;Just then the palace faded into nought,With combat ceas'd mistakes and errors too,They saw aright, their friends each other knew,And ev'ry brain resum'd its wonted place;Thus to each hero a short second's space,Restor'd the little sense some moments lost. 24154 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Folly alas! or wisdom to our costWe find in this our poor terrestrial state,Are held as nothing by o'erruling fate,Whoso could see and not own pleasure's sway,As knights at feet of monk in black array,Bestow their blessings, chaunted litanies,And pardon crav'd for all their fooleries:O! La Trimouille, and you, O! Royal Lover,Your raptures, who can paint, what brain discover:These words alone were heard to rend the air-" My all, my king; my Agnes chastely fair;" "Tis you, ' tis thou! sweet moments, hours of bliss!"Embracing then; -and then the tender kiss;Questions by hundreds, and in haste replies;Faulty their tongues in utt'ring thoughts that rise;The monk aloof and with paternal glance,Mutter'd his prayers, and ey'd them all askance:The handsome bastard, and fair maiden bless'd,In modest terms their tenderness express'd;And the companion of their loves so rare,Raising the head as well as voice in air,Discordant octave thund'ring, space was torn,His throat thus issuing strain from lecher's horn;At this rare braying, heav'n's loud chanticleerAll was dismay and Nature shrunk with fearQuite horror struck, as Joan beheld amaz'd,The magic bastions of this palace raz'd,An hundred brazen gates and tow'rs of steel:THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 155Thus anciently to serve Hebraic Weal,When word was giv'n for trumpets loud to blow,Down instant fell the walls of Jericho,To powder crumbled, lo! with the earth they lie,For such rare doings now, the time's gone by.The palace then with brilliant gold enchas'd,Sublime in structure and by sin debas'd,Became an ample monastery soon;Chang'd was the chapel into grand saloon;The Boudoir, where this mighty lord of crimes,Wallow'd fell passion's slave, in former timesTransform'd was to a sanctuary straight;The potent order was, of ruling fateThat hall of banquetting unchang'd should be,Thenceforth entitled , The Refectory,There are the viands bless'd, and rosy wine:Joan's heart aspiring tow'rds the saints benign;On Orleans bent, on Rheims and CoronationThus Dunois spake:-" Bless'd is each operation," As well in love, as great designs ' gainst evil;" All may we hope rest certain that the Devil" Has done his worst, nor can he now do more."Yet speaking thus, Joan was mistaken sore.END OF CANTO SEVENTEENTH.

NOTES TO CANTO XVII.There can be little doubt but our poet in the above lines refers to the fascinating though insidious smiles of princes, which for a certain period buoy usup with the hope of preferment, only to render the shock of disgrace, and aprecipitate downfall the more terrible . No one knew better than Voltairehow to appreciate the barometer of courtly favour, or, that when a minion isdisgracedHe falls like Lucifer," Never to rise again. "..2 The portrait of Imagination above delineated by our poet, differs from thedescription usually given, when the representation is ordinarily characterizedunder the form of a youthful nymph decorated with garlands of flowers, hersceptre being of crystal, and her crown formed of a plume of various colouredfeathers. Imagination has also been pourtrayed under the figure of a nymphhaving wings to her head, while a vivid flame rises above her. In a little German poem, entitled the Four Hours of the Day, written by a Mr. Zacharie,is the following fanciful representation of this mental sense. " Imaginationtakes the feathery plume, her golden tresses, adorned with garlands floating inthe breeze, while her sparkling and vivid robe glows with a thousand colours.Wandering with bewildered step , and always erring in her uncertain flight,sometimes she mounts amidst the regions of air, and sometimes precipitatesherself in rocky chasms; at others, she darts athwart the roaring flood, ornow transported by ecstacy roams over luminous meadows, when listening tothe melody of Syrens, she seats herself at the fairies' table; or else, havingroamed through horrid deserts, she gains the mouldering pile when envelopedin crape or funereal trappings, she flits amid the tombs. "158 NOTES.3 Alluding to the Iliad of Homer.The Æneid of Virgil.·5 Referring to Ovid's three books, de Amorum, de Arte Amandi, and deRemedio Amoris, written with superlative elegance, and abounding with themost flowery descriptions, though the doctrines therein disseminated are dangerous and consequently to be perused with caution, as they appear calculatedto vitiate the heart and sap the foundations of virtue and morality.6 Magdalen de Scuderi, was born at Havre de Grace, in 1607, and becamean author from necessity. At an early period of life she repaired to Paris,where every thing conspired to render her the topic of general conversation.She possessed a liveliness of wit, a countenance extremely deformed, while thequantity of romances wherewith she inundated the press, caused her to benoticed in all the literary circles, those labours being denominated by the satirical Despreaux, La boutique de verbiage- The shop of verbosity, and which forthe most part presented a delineation of every thing that transpired at the courtof France during that epoch. Madame Scuderi's correspondence with the leading literary characters of Europe was very extensive, and she was a member ofthe academy Ricovrati of Padua, where she received the surname of Sappho.Adiscourse upon the subject of glory, acquired her the first prize of eloquence,which was bestowed by the French Academy, and at the same time, she received pensions from Louis the Fourteenth, Christina Queen of Sweden, Cardinal Mazarine, and the Chancellor Boucherat. The works of this celebratedfemale are numerous, and she died at Paris, the 2nd of June, 1701 , aged 94.In the above line, Voltaire means to attack the epic poem of Madame de Scuderi, which is entitled Alaric.7 Jean Des Marets de St. Sorlin, was born in 1595, and became one of thefirst members of the French Academy. The celebrated statesman, CardinalRichelieu, whom he aided in the composition of his tragedies, named him Comptroller-General Extraordinary of the War Department, and Secretary GeneralofMarine of the East Indies. He died at Paris, on the 25th of October, 1676,at the hotel of the Duke de Richelieu, in his 81st year. The works of DesMarets are numerous, and at the commencement of his literary career, hisversification was easy, tender, and fascinating, but he soon changed his style,becoming sombre and melancholic; in consequence of which, the major partof his writings abound with the most ridiculous enthusiasm, and his versesare in general tame, tiresome and incorrect, while his prose effusions are interspersed with such high flown and ecstatic expressions, as render their perusalNOTES. 159even more fatiguing than his poetic flights. Des Marets is coupled by our author with Scuderi and Le Moine, on account of an epic poem which he produced, entitled Clovis, an effort of his muse in every respect deserving of thesarcasm intended to be directed against that production.• Peter Le Moine was a native of Chaumont in Bassigni, and born in 1602 .He entered the company of the Jesuits, and is generally known by his poeticalefforts collected 1672, in one volume, folio . His father wasthe first ofthe society of Jesus who signalised himself in this branch of literature; nor can itbe denied, that he possessed some degree of poetic energy, and a genius attimes elevated; but his imagination frequently led him astray, a fault particularly attachable to his poem, entitled St. Louis . He died at Paris, the 22ndof August, 1672, aged 70. The satiric Déspreaux, being consulted respectingthe merits of the epic poem of St. Louis, which Voltaire means to attack in theabove lines, remarked-" Qu'il etoit trop fou pour qu'il en dit du bien, ettrop poete pour qu'il en dit du mal; " and a stranger in speaking of this epic,remarks-"le St. Louis du pere le Moine, poeme hyperbolique, et plein d'unfeu dereglê. To define this poet in a few words. He was a man ofthe collegepossessing an ardent imagination without taste; and who far from checkingthe impetuosity of his genius, gave himself up to its ebullitions without thesmallest reserve.?9 Concerning Bombast, or the Galimatias of the French, we may say—gongeries verborum indigesta, volubilitas inanis, farrago, sermonis obscuritas.10 Seraphic, was a title formerly arrogated to themselves, by the learneddoctors in theology, presiding at the Sorbonne, who are in consequence pourtrayed by our poet, as the offspring of bombast or galimatias .11 Marie a la Coque of the Incarnation, was a celebrated Nun of theorder of Ursulines, named Marie Guyert, who was born at Tours, in 1599.After the death of her husband she entered the convent at the age of thirtytwo, and composed for the Novices a book, entitled The Christian School.In 1639 she went to Quebec, and there established a Convent of her Orderwhich she governed with a great degree of wisdom and prudence, and herprinted works occupy several volumes . This lady, who was afterwards elevatedto the dignity ofa Saint, is reported to have had very extraordinary visions, andbeen honoured by signal favours from heaven; as among other things, it wasstated by her adherents, that Christ visited her every night; (a là JoannaSouthcote) and upon one of these occasions, ( so says Monsieur Languet) hetook Marie's heart and placed it within his own, where, after burning the160 NOTES.same for one hour in this brazier of celestial love, he replaced it in the body ofLa Coque; saying: " Marie, in remembrance of the grace which I have justaccorded thee, thou wilt experience pains at every new moon, with cholics andswellings, wherefore to avert such accidents it will be necessary that thoushouldst lose some blood." Father Gallifet, the Jesuit, in his book ofDevotion for the Sanctified Heart, printed at Nancy, affirms that God saidto Marie: " Daughter, you must always prefer the will of your superiors tomine, above all when they shall command you to do that which I myselforder." Was it not blasphemy to make the Supreme Being, the organ of suchdisgusting nonsense?12 Speaking of Bon Mots, Despreaux says:N'attendez bien souvent pour fruits de vos Bon Mots,Que l'effroi dupublic, et la haine des sots.But perhaps the best definition ever given of this species of wit is to befound in the following lines: -Un Bon-Motperd son prix en le donnant pour vôtre;Il tombe avec des gens d'esprit,Qui l'auront voulu dire, et qui ne l'ont pas dit.Rapportez- le comme d'un autre:Par-là vous desarmez l'amour proprejaloux;Cen'est pas vous qu'on applaudit en vous;On vous oublie, et l'on rit s'il faut rire;S'il faut admirer, l'on admire.13 This ludus in verbis, or miserable display of equivocating wit, is veryjustly held up to ridicule by Voltaire; such low species of composition was,notwithstanding very much resorted to by the ancient French poets, whocalled their versification Rime Equivoques, an instance of which may bequoted from Marot, where he saysEn m'ébbattant, je fais rondeaux enrimeEt en rimant bien souvent, je m'enrime.Brief c'est pitié entre nous rimailleurs,Car ouvez assez de rime ailleurs;Et quand vous plaist, mieux que moi rimassez,Des biens avez, et de la rime assez.NOTES. 16114 Enigma is a puzzling jargon equally deserving the attack of our poet,being very properly exploded from the circles of polished society, and onlyresorted to during Christmas gambols, by the youthful part of the community,together with Riddles and Charades, some of which however, possess greatmerit. There existed a species of literary game on the subject of Enigmas,as far back as the reign of Charlemagne; several collections of these puzzleshave been made, and in particular one by Cotin, which does not, however, contain the happiest specimens of Enigmatical composition.15 Thersites was the most illiterate and deformed of the Greeks whoflourished during the Trojan War.16 This sarcasm, levelled at the tongue combats of our Whigs and Tories ofSaint Stephen's, is perfectly admissible, as our right honourable and learnedrepresentatives very frequently make use of an interchange of insulting languagein that very Honourable House, which by less honourable men out of it wouldbe resented with pistols at nine paces, or slugs in a saw-pit.17 The Sorbonnic Doctors; against whom our author has upon former occasions directed the shaft of irony; used to imitate, in regard to men who arguedrationally, the ancient Kings of Persia; who were accustomed to put out theeyes ofthe Princes ofthe Blood Royal in orderthat they might enjoy their crownsin safety; in short, with the profane Logic is the artof Reasoning; whereas withTheologians, it consisted in confounding one's own reason, or putting to flightthe reasoning faculties of others; which was found to be extremely convincingwhen supported by tortures, the gun and the stake.Our Wise Heads of the Sorbonne, during their sittings, were very muchupon a par with the Long Heads of the University of Paris; concerningwhom, we find on referring to the trial of Joan of Arc, that on the secondof April, one thousand four hundred and thirty-one, being the day after Lent,and during several subsequent days, the thirty- eight articles brought againsther, were reduced to twelve. These chief points of accusation, which are givenat full length in the valuable history of Laverdy, ( page fifty- one to ninetyeight, ) and which he takes the trouble to refute, consist of apparitions andrevelations, respecting her having assumed a man's attire; the precipitating herselffrom a tower, ( which was done in order to escape from confinement, ) and the inserting the form of a cross, at the commencement of herletters.These most culpable articles, were sent to the Doctors, Licentiates,Bishops, and the University of Paris, to collect their advice, and to ascertainVOL. II. M162 NOTES.from themifthe propositions therein contained, were in opposition to the Faith.The University assembled the latter end of April, and early in May, decidedthat those apparitions, &c. proceeded from Belzebub, Satan, and Belial;that Joan, inasmuch as she adopted the male costume, might be chargeablewith idolatry, having delivered up her person and her dress to the Demon,by imitating the custom of Pagans, &c.During this interval the trial continued, and Joan underwent divers admonitions and remonstrances, being also menaced with the Torture; at length, onreceiving the decision of the Sapient University, on the nineteenth of May,Joan was condemned, and five days afterwards, in presence of a vast concourseof people, and in a burying ground where a stake was dressed, a Theologianindicated to La Pucelle, the crimes imputed to her, and indirectly summonedher to avow them.After declaring aloud, that she submitted to the Church and the Pope, Joananswered-" Qu'aucun de ses faits et discours ne peut être à la charge deson Roi ni d'aucun autre! que s'il y'a quelques reproches à lui faire (àelle,) ils viennent d'elle seule et non d'aucun autre. ” " That none of heracts or discourses could be chargeable to her King or any one else; that ifblame was in any way attachable, it was due to herself, and no one besides." Which Laverdy justly affirms was an admirable example of unshakenfidelity, under the most terrible and trying of circ*mstances .As it may however afford my reader some amusem*nt to learn whatspecies of questions were proposed by the Sorbonnic community, and thepoints upon which they argued, the subjoined specimens, it is hoped, willamply elucidate the subject. First-If Adam had or had not a navel. SecondIfthe apple whereof he ate in Eden was a Pippin or a golden Rennet. ThirdIf it is requisite to believe that Tobit's dog wagged his tail; and fourthly—Whetherthe sonof God could have metamorphosed himself into the form ofa cow?Notwithstanding all this, it must be allowed, that in speaking of these theologians and casuist doctors, Voltaire only pourtrays them as non compos mentis,when convened for the purposes of disputation, allowing that once divested oftheir robes and square caps , they were wont to conduct themselves in everyrespect, like other social and reasonable beings.18 The powers of Venus over the heart were supported and assisted by acelebrated girdle, called Zone by the Greeks, and Cestus by the Latins; amysterious girdle, supposed to have given beauty, grace, and elegance whenworn even by the most deformed, and not only excited, but rekindled extinguished flames.NOTES. 168While speaking of the slender waist of Agnes, the writer cannot refrainfrom adverting to a curious portrait formerly belonging to Monsieur Bonnemaison of Paris, whose valuable gallery of paintings was sold to the King ofPrussia when the Allies were in the possession of the French capital, after thesecond abdication of the Emperor Napoleon . The picture here alluded to, isan undoubted resemblance of Agnes Sorel, pourtrayed down to the knees, shebeing delineated as excessively mignone and slender about the waist, with aphysiognomy archly pleasing; but the peculiar singularity attachable to thisperformance, consists in the persons of infants who surround her, under thesemblance of cherubs attending upon the Virgin Mary, the urchins in questionbeing pourtrayed with wings of divers colours to represent their respectiveranks in the heavenly hierarchy. It must be confessed in opposition to theChroniclers ofthe period of Charles the Seventh, who would willingly make usbelieve that the loves of that monarch and Agnes were truly Platonic, thatthe personages so displayed bear very strong marks of being intended to represent the progeny of La Dame de Beauté. In the same collection was anothercuriosity of so singular a nature, that I cannot refrain from recording it,though unconnected with the present work. It is an original portrait ofthe natural size and down to the middle of the renowned William Tell, thedesign being very correct, and painted in colours mixed with the white of eggs,as the use of oil was not then discovered . The countenance is remarkably sternand expressive, the costume that of a peasant, and in his hand he holds a bowand an arrow. A small gothic clock is represented pendant to the wall, the handofwhich points to the hour agreed upon for executing the conspiracy; and upona scroll over the head of Tell, who wears a singular covering somewhat resembling a Turban, but excessively wide at the sides, appears the followinginscription in gold characters. ' Hora est tandem nos de somno surgere: tandem novissima hora est.' I have ventured to intrude the above description uponthe notice ofthe public, in order that a record may be preserved of so singulara curiosity as connected with the early period of the pictorial art, and moreparticularly as relating to the glorious cause of Liberty and Independence.19 Of the priestly Tonsure we have spoken upon a former occasion, and withrespect to the cowl, it consists of a piece of woollen stuff, suspended from thenape of the neck, and destined to cover all the stock of science contained in amonkish sconce; yet, however trifling may appear this small appendage to themonastic garb, it nevertheless gave rise in ancient times to the most furiousdisputes between the Cordeliers, whose order was in consequence divided intotwo factions, named the Spiritual Brothers, and those of the Community, theone maintaining that the cowl ought to be narrow, and the other wide in itsdimensions, which knotty point occupied a century of disputation, and waswith infinite difficulty terminated by the bulls of four pope's, viz.- Nicholas theM 2164 NOTES.Fourth, Clement the Fifth, John the Twenty- second, and Bennet the Twelfth,during which period, some hundreds of its wearers suffered at the stake, for themaintenance of their respective opinions. To the cowl, we might add thesleeves of the Augustin Monks and the Feuillant Brothers, which created infinite trouble, as appears upon consulting the annals of ecclesiastical history.20 One would imagine, that Voltaire when describing Bonneau's pouch, hadborne in mind Butler's description ofthe utility of his hero's trunk- hose, whichour satirist converts into a cupboard, for the purpose of receiving stomach- ammunition.21 The mystic rites of Catholics, frequently consist in operations, not onlyincomprehensible to the Laics, but which are not understood by the performersthemselves; thus Bonifoux's exorcism being an act of authority over the demons, was a rite exclusively appertaining to him, as Priest of the Romish persuasion, and the secret consequently entirely his own.22 It is of little consequence to the multitude, whether a priest's Latin bechaste, as the style of a Cicero, or what is termed the basest of Dog Latin; as itis a very sage custom, and necessary to priests, that their flocks should resemble parrots, who never understand a syllable of what they are taught toutter. The French say, when speaking of the style of an ignorant ecclesiastic:"C'est du Latin de Breviaire," and to express bad Latin: " C'est du Latin decuisine, il n'y a que les marmitons qui l'entendent ."23 The custom of sprinkling with holy water is very ancient, as mention ismade of it by Saint Jerome, as well as in the life of Saint Hilarion, and inGretser de Benedict: C. X. to XX. The origin of holy water is attributed toPope Saint Alexander, who suffered martyrdom under the Emperor Adrian.There is extant a dissertation printed at Leipsic, and written by a German,named Urban Godefroy Siber, tending to demonstrate by proofs drawn fromEcclesiastical history, that it is permitted us to administer holy water to theanimal creation .24 It appearsobvious, from the small stock of sense possessed by Charles andhis party, that all the above heroes and heroines of our poet, were excellentchristians; since a catholic should never rely upon the testimony of his ownsenses which might mislead him, but place the most implicit reliance upon hisPriest, who will take especial care to render his reason so completely the slaveof his faith, that whatsoever fund of good sense he might originally possess,his mind will ultimately believe, that four times one make two, if he has butthe ipse dixit of his Priest to support him in such opinion.NOTES.16525 (p. 155, l . 10. ) The boudoir, is a small narrow cabinet adjoining theapartment usually frequented, and apparently so called, from its proprietor beingin the habit of retiring thither when out of temper, in order to sulk or (bouder)according to the French term, without being observed ." Tantôt sombre et révcuse, et comme en ton BOUDOIR," Turenfonçois ton gris, et ne montrois ton noir. DU CERCEAU.26 (p . 155, l . 15. ) Bonifoux displayed his priestly acumen, in still preservingthe Banqueting Hall of Hermaphrodix, to be the refectory of the convent; forwhether in a palace or a monastery, it must always be regarded as the mostdesirable apartment of the edifice, so long as good eating ranks a prime desideratum in the catalogue of man's terrestrial enjoyments.

CANTO XVIII.ARGUMENT.DISGRACE OF CHARLES AND HIS GOLDEN TROOP.I KNOW not in this world's historic page,Nor hero, man of wealth or even sage,Prophet or christian, ranking faith his fort,Who has not of some rascal been the sport,Or now ' tis jealousy that scowls on merit,Or else the workings of an evil spirit.Thus, dreaded fate, at all times put to trials,Good monarch Charles by unforeseen denials;Sadly from cradle was he rear'd in sooth,Pursu'd by the Burgundian from his youth;¹By sire depriv'd of rights, he felt distress;The Parliament Parisian, near Gonesse,168 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Tutor of Kings, adjourn'd their pupil there,And bound on English brow Gaul's lily rare.Of mass and weal depriv'd, he'd errant stray,And scarcely ever would prolong his stayAt one fix'd spot. -Friend, mistress, uncle, mother,³Always by one betray'd or else the other.An English page partakes his Agnes' smiles;Hell sends Hermaphrodix with fateful wiles,Dire magic spells to turn his store of brains:On ev'ry side he shuns misfortune's banes,Yet suffers all to heav'n's decree resign'd,Thus fate forgives his sins, humanely kind.Alert and brave of lovers was th' escort,Far journeying then from fell bewitching fort;Where Beelzebub caus'd senses all to veer,Of Bonneau, Agnes, and each cavalier;By skirts of sombre forest rode each knight,Which by the name of Orleans since is hight.Tithonus' spouse had scarcely risen so high,*To mingle matin gleams with night's drear dye,When from afar are seen some Sergeants there,5With short cut aprons and in bonnets square,On corselet half way down, the eye might see,Quarter'd with powder'd lily's, leopards three:Halting, the monarch then with care survey'd,A troop, that squatting near the forest laid;Some paces onward mov'd Dunois and Joan:THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 169Agnes whose bosom throbb'd with love aloneCharles thus bespoke, " Let's go, let's fly, my sire; "Joan onward sped still nearer to enquire,And saw a wretched troop in couples bound,With fronts abash'd and eyes enchain'd to ground." Alas! some knights I view, " quoth heroine beauty," Who captives are, and therefore ' tis our duty," From bondage straight to free this faithful train;“ Come, Bastard, come; and let's anon make plain," What Dunois is, and Joan of Arc the maid. ”With lance in rest -these words were quick obey'd;Rushing on troop that guarded heroes true,Joan's aspect fierce no sooner struck their view,With dauntless Dunois, and still more the ass,Than with light steps scour'd nimbly o'er the grass,These would be brave, like hares that timid glide;Joan instant own'd transporting flush of pride,And thus extoll'd outright the hand-cuff'd train: —Bold knights that droop'd, oppress'd by Albion's chain," Your monarch thank who saves ye from this thrall," His hand salute, then follow one and all," And vengeance wreak on Briton's stubborn band. ”The troop tho' thus address'd with offer bland,With eyes bent low a sullen air proclaim'd;Impartial readers would you have them nam'd,Would ye enquire what was this noble crew,By Joan impell'd such valiant feats to do?These knights were wretches fram'd to grace the cord,170 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Who reap'd in Paris, for deserts, reward,Marching on back of Amphitrite to row,Whose trappings form'd were their old trade to show;Good Charles the pitying sigh could not control:" Alas!" said he, " these objects in my soul" Have deep implanted the keen shaft of pain;" What! shall the Britons in my empire reign?" "Tis their decrees my subjects now obey," For them alone the multitude must pray;Their fiat every cruel edict rallies," Thus doom'd, poor souls, from Paris go to gallies: ”Charles who compassion's thrill could not restrain,Mov'd courteous tow'rd the leader of this train,Who at the front appear'd of cavalcade;No scoundrel better could depict his trade;His long chin shaded by a beard uncouth,His rolling glance, more lying than his mouth,To earth directed with ambiguous squint;His red join'd eye-brows, full of cunning's dintWere indexes of fell deceit and fraud,Abuse and boldness stamp'd his forehead broad;Remorse and laws despis'd no duty bound,Foam dew'd his mouth, as teeth he constant ground."The sycophant beholding thus his prince,Seem'd humbly his devotion to evince,Bent low his gaze, then soften'd and compos'dThat visage, which his haggard crimes disclos'd:THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 171Just so the mastiff that with daring gaze,Its thirst of blood with sudden growl betrays,Which master viewing fawns about him gay,And licks his hand discoursing in this way,Lolling for bread, carniv'rous thoughts asleep,As sweetly docile as the harmless sheep:Or such, as to our mental eyes pourtray'd,The Dæmon ' scaping from Tartarian shade,Alike concealing talons and the tail,1With false mien striving o'er us to prevail,In whom yon Anchoret fresh cropp'd we greet,Better to tempt Nun Rose, or maid discreet.8By artful felon thus, Gaul's monarch cheated,With kind commiseration then was greeted;Such converse affable all fears allay'd: —" Tell me," quoth Charles, " poor Devil, what's thytrade," Thy name, thy birth-place, and for what foul deed," The Chat❜let has indulgently decreed,⁹" That thou henceforth shouldst row on Provence' main? 10Whereto the culprit thus made known his pain:" All bounteous Sire, who heed'st the suff'rer's cry," My name is Freron, and of Nantz am I ," I love the Lord with ardour nought can smother," For certain time I rank'd a convent's brother;" Their morals as of old my mind retains," To save young children I took wond'rous pains;172 THE MAID OF ORLEANS." Pass'd were my days in virtue's pure intents," 'Neath Charnel house yclept of Innocents: 11" Of my rare genius, Paris saw the feats,66 Dearly to Lambert I sold all my sheets;" Full well I'm known in Maubert's famous square," And justice above all was done me there;" Some who devotion lack'd gave truth dread shock,66 Reproaching me with vices of thefrock,¹12" With mundane sins: -swindling to theft allied—“ But I have always conscience on my side."The monarch heard with pity all he said:" Console thyself," he cried, " and nothing dread:" Now tell me friend, if comrades who with thee," For Marseilles speeding on like embassy," Were all as thou art, good and honest race?”" Ah!" Freron cried, " I swear by christian grace," As for myself: -for each I'll answer bold," Since ev'ry one is cast in self-same mould.13" The Abbé Guyon marching at my side, ¹14" Is worthy love, that cannot be denied;" To him no mischief-making lies ' pertain," Ne'er vile, nor dealing out detraction's strain." Brave Master Chaumiex ' neath his visage low,15" A proud heart bears fraught with audacious glow," For doctrine too, he'd suffer whipping sound;" There's famous Gauchot who might well confound¹" Jew rabbies all- on text and note, rare chief:THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 173" See yonder advocate without a brief,“ Who left for heav'nly bliss the wrangling bar," That Sabitier, than honey sweeter far: ¹7" Ah! choicest wit! saint, priest, and tender heart;" "Tis true he play'd his master trait'rous part" But void of malice, little glean'd from coffer:" He sold his faith to him who most would offer, 1" He traffick'd , just like me, in libel writs," And where's the harm, we live but by our wits,66 Employ us, and we all will faithful be," Laurels and glory in these times we see" To authors have devolv'd of Charnel Houses," Our great success vile envy's wrath arouses," Of scribes, of heros, such the fate we view," Of brilliant wits, and Devotees a crew," Since virtue ever was lampoon'd, poor thing," Who knows this better than my noble King."While breathing thus his soft seductive lays,Two melancholy forms met Charles's gaze,18Whose hands conceal'd huge fronts: the monarch cried," Name those so bashful doom'd to stem the tide."" You there behold, " Quoth scribe of Weekly sheet,¹9" Two, the most virtuous and the most discreet" Of those condemn'd on wave to tug the oar;"Fantin is one, preaching too great his lore,2066 Humble with them: -to small folks Debonnaire,174 THE MAID OF ORLEANS." His piety the living chose to spare," And store of goodly deeds at once to hide," Those he confess'd and robb'd, just as they died ." The other's Grizel, who young nuns directed,21"Who secret favors of his flock neglected," But sagely pil'd up hoards for Heav'n above," His soul replete with pure and saintly love" The pelf despis'd, yet own'd of fear the thrall," Lest to ungodly hands the gold should fall."" As for the noble wight you see in rear," He's my support, La Beaumelle ever dear; 22" Of scoundrels ten, who sold their wits to me" Tho' vilest, yet most faithful found, was he:" Absent in mind, yet sometimes ' tis averr'd,"When to support the christian tenets spurr'd," He, for his own, a neighbour's purse mistook;" Besides, you find such wisdom in his book," For feeble wits, he also knows so well," How dangerous ' tis the naked truth to tell," That light, deceptive is, to foolish eyes," Which thus are hoodwink'd; wherefore scribe so wise," So horrible, beholding her to sight," Resolv'd he never would her themes endite:" For" Inme, I here aver most gracious sire,you I see an hero I admire;" This, from my pen posterity shall learn," Save those whom calumny would make you spurn,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 175" And with her breath pestif'rous blacken o'er;" From nets of impious men the good restore:66 Avenge us, save us, pay us; and outright," Honour of Freron: -we for you will write. ” 23From him, pathetic speech applauding burstFor Salic law; the British race he curs'd,24Proving that soon without war's slaughtering ill,The state he'd rescue with a goose's quill.Sage Charles admir'd this doctrine so profound,Dispensing sweetest smiles on all around,And with compassion too assurance gave,That each might thenceforth his protection crave.Agnes who heard this touching interview,Felt tenderest sympathy her soul imbue:Her heart was good: The fair to love resign'd,To gentleness is ever more inclin'dThan heroine or belle to prud'ry prone:" My King," quoth she, " this day you needs mustown," Propitious proves to this most wretched race," Since on contemplating your royal face" Bliss they enjoy, and broken are their chains;" Your's is a front where grace celestial reigns," Of legal men, how daring is the band," For masters acting who usurp your land.""Tis thee, my love, they should alone obey,176 THE MAID OF ORLEANS." They're pedants all in judges' false array;" I've seen the race of these same ink-stand heroes," Who for the good of Kings are tut'ring Neroes," Proud race and tyrants vile, in sable dight," Who revenues of pupil thieve outright;" Before them citing him with daring frown," And gravely thus confiscating his crown" These worthy people crouching at your knee," Like you are treated by their bold decree," Protect them all; your's is a common cause," Avenge their wrongs, proscrib'd by self same laws.".25This tender speech touch'd deep the monarch's mind,His soul to clemency's bright thrill inclin'd:The heart of Joan by feeling ne'er unstrung,To Charles maintain'd that each one should be hung,That Freron, and all those of such a trade,Were but to ornament the gallows made.26Dunois on wisdom more profoundly bent,Thus spake, as able soldier, mind's intent:" We oft lack troops," quoth he, " in war's alarms“ We stand in need of backs, of legs, and arms," These fellows have them: in adventures fell," Assaults, long marches, combattings Pell-mell," We little stand in need of such as write,“ Enlist them all, and by to-morrow's light," Instead of oar let each a musket bear;" Paper to daub in city was their care,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 177"Let them prove useful now on Mars' plain: "The monarch relish'd well great Dunois' strain,As at his knees appear'd this worthy crew,Sighing and bathing them with sorrow's dew;To pent-house of the fort they went enroll'd,Where Agnes, Charles, and all his Troop ofGold,The dinner o'er, delicious evening spent;With Bonneau, Agnes on good deeds intent,Took heed that each should share of food an hoard,The ample refuse of the royal board.Charles at the supper having gaily fed,Anon with Agnes hied him to his bed;When each awak'ning, from the couch arose,Supris'd were seen, nor doublet, gown, nor cloathes,For ruffles, Agnes vainly turn'd the eye,Her necklace boasting pearls of yellow dye,Portrait of royal love she found no more:Fat Bonneau, Treasurer of all the store,In narrow purse, (sure gold was ne'er kept faster, )No longer found the treasures of his master.Cloathes, vessels , linen, vanish'd to a rag,The scrawling cohort ' neath the unfurl'd flagOf Nantz fam'd gazetteer-with zealous pain,Had, during night, perform'd Legerdemaine;Easing of equipage thus light, their sire,Pretending warriors fraught with real fire,As Plato says, no luxury e'er needed:VOL. II. N178 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.To ' scape secure thro' bye ways they proceeded,And at the pot-house then divided spoil,Where written, they produc'd with sagest toil,Of christian moral treatises, the treasure,Upon contempt of wealth and mundane pleasure:"Twas prov'd as brothers, men were all allied,Born equal, and all good things to divide;And miseries too, dispens'd from Heav'n above,Living in common, to share social love.27This saintly book, which since has met our eyes,Contains a commentary, wond'rous wiseTo tutor and direct the heart and mind,With preface, and to reader, counsel kind.With dread assail'd, the troop of clement sireBecame alike a prey to troubles dire,1O'er plain, thro' wood, the band they strove to trace,As good Phineas erst the prince of Thrace:Eneas too renown'd for pious mind,Who quite aghast with fright, betray'd short wind,When to their very teeth, just at mid day,The glutton Harpies rav'nous for their prey,28From caverns rushing, borne on outstretch'd wings,Pouncing devour'd the dinner of these kings.Timid was Agnes, Dorothy in grief;To veil their charms appear'd no kind relief,While Treasurer so loud roared out his pain,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 179From peals of laughter they could not refrain;" Ah!" Bonneau cried, -" A loss so fell before," We ne'er experienc'd amid combat's roar;" The rascals all have ta'en, -I die with grief;66 Why did my king accord them kind relief?" Such is the recompense indulgence gains," "Tis thus we're paid by men of brilliant brains. " 29Agnes commiserating, Agnes kind;For ever courteous, always bland of mind,Anon replied:-" My dear and fat Bonneau," 'Fore Heav'n take heed, nor let this ill starr'd blow," With new disgust inspire you ' gainst these men," Who wield of authors the prolific pen." Good writers have I known, of that I'm sure,66 Possessing hearts just like their hands as pure;" Who, without robbing, love their master dear," Doing all good, nor suff'ring soul to hear;66 Lauding bright virtue, or in prose or verse," Her feats in acting, abler to rehearse;" Fruit of their labours is the public weal," As pleasures soft, the weight from labours steal," They touch the heart, ears own the dulcet sound," Cherish'd are they, and if Frerons are found" In this our era, bees alike abound. "" Alas!" quoth Bonneau, " what care I for these," Such trifles vain, your Frelons and your bees,30" "Tis meet we dine, and I my purse have lost: 'N 2180 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Each now essay'd, to calm his temper cross'd,Like heroes to all hardships fell inur'd,Prepar❜d to soften all the ills endur'd;Sole remedy no doubt, in such disgrace,Was safely to regain anon the place,Well stock'd with magazines of Charles benign,And amply stor❜d with tons of rosy wine.Our gallant cavaliers but half equipp'd,And fair ones too, of richest vestments stripp'd,Weary and scant array'd, rode Fort to view,One foot half clad, the other void of shoe.END OF CANTO EIGHTEEN.NOTES TO CANTO XVIII.¹ Meaning the Duke of Burgundy, one of the most potent princes in Europe,who caused the Duke of Orleans to be assassinated, which crime was amplyavenged by our good king Charles, at that period, Dauphin of France, who atthe Bridge of Montereau, under the feigned appearance of an amicable interview, caused the Duke of Burgundy to be stabbed; an event which occurredin 1419.2 Gonesse, a small town situated on the Crould in the Isle of France, nearlytwelve miles from Paris, and remarkable for having been the birth place ofPhilip Augustus, as well as for the excellence of its bread, of which a considerable quantity is transported to the capital twice a week. At the period aboveadverted to, the Parliament of Paris held its sittings near this town, in theneighbourhood of which, were also fought several great and sanguinary battles.

  • Isabella of Bavaria, mother of Charles the Seventh, was one of his most

inveterate persecutors, leaguing against him with the son and heir of the DukeofBurgundy, who so far fomented the hatred of the Queen against the Dauphin,her son, that she exerted all the power she possessed, over the weak mindofher husband Charles the Sixth; in consequence of which, the treaty of peacewith England was signed, Princess Catherine affianced to Henry the Fifth,the right of the Dauphin's succession to the crown publicly proclaimed invalid,and a regular act signed by the King to that effect.182 NOTES.Tithonus, a son of Laomedon, King of Troy, by Strymo the daughter ofScamander. He was so beautiful, that Aurora became enamoured of himand transported him away, when he solicited her to render him immortal,which request the goddess acceded to; but as he had forgotten to ask the continuation of the vigor, youth, and beauty he then enjoyed, he soon experiencedthe effects of age, infirmity, and decripitude; so that life becoming insupportable, he prayed Aurora to remove him from the world, and as he could not die,the goddess changed him into a cicada, or grasshopper.5 Serjeants, were a species of archers, carrying the hoqueton, or tunic ofthegrand Provost of Paris, upon which were embroidered the fleur-de- lis, with threeleopards. These persons were subaltern officers of justice, appointed to perform arrests, seizures, &c. , and conduct culprits to the place of their destination, like our bailiffs; they do not, however, appear to have ranked in highestimation, since we find in an old author, the following couplet." De trois SERGENS pendez-en deux," Le monde n'en sera que mieux.”• Voltaire here designates the Ocean under the name of Amphitrite, thespouse of Neptune, upon whose billows are condemned to toil, that class ofculprits doomed to the Gallies, whose appearance we conjecture, excites inthe goddess a feeling diametrically opposite to that conveyed in the followingcouplet, though her action of diving to the bottom, may be conceived very natural upon such an occasion." Jalouse de l'eclat de ces honneurs nouveaux," Amphitrite se cache au plus profond des eaux?From the above accurate description, some readers might be led to imaginethat our poet was skilled in the art of reading physiognomies, and that he hadmade a Taisnerus, a Cocles, a Balbus, a Porta, &c. his studies; we know nothow far the lineaments thus pourtrayed, are in unison with the rules establishedby Lavater, but we must allow him to have painted as hideous a scoundrel asever appeared to disgrace humanity; had Voltaire existed at the present period,he might however have heightened the representation by informing us according to the system of Doctor Gall, what Bosses were predominant in thescull, which, as propelling to iniquity, would have rendered but negative thevices of our criminal.NOTES. 183• It appears that our author had no very great predeliction for Anchorites,since he above depicts one under the form of Lucifer concealing his claws andtail; he perhaps thought that these hermits retired into deserts from the commerce of mankind, fearful that they might have the misfortune to be useful tothe community at large.• In a very ancient edifice called the Chatelet, used as a prison, where formerly united all the jurisdictions of Paris: it was there that culprits were tried,and sentence pronounced in all civil as well as criminal cases.10 It is tothe city of Marseilles, a famous sea port of Provence, that criminals are sent, condemned to labour on board of the galleys." According to the chronicles of those times, there was a miserable creatureso called, who produced his periodical sheets at the Charnel Houses of theSaints Innocents. This individual performed some slippery tricks, for whichhe was several times confined in the prisons of the Châtelet, Bicetre, and FortL'Eveque. He had been for a certain period a Monk, but was driven awayfrom his convent; after which he succeeded well in the mode of life he adopted,namely, that of author, and found several writers who came forward to do himjustice. He was originally a native of Nantz, and exercised at Paris the function of a satirical gazetteer. No man was ever more despised and detestedthan this Freron, according to the chronicle of Froissart.12 This habiliament is sacred to monks, who are sanctified men, and towhom by an astonishing miracle, the Frock communicates the gift of continence the moment it is put on, if we may accredit their assertion. No less apersonage however, than Richard the First of England, was of a different opinion; for, waging war in France against King Philip, a French priest calledFulco, came to him, saying, that he had three bad daughters which he wishedto bestow from him in marriage. Upon this the monarch marvelling greatlywho they should be, knowing he had none, the churchman made answer -yes,thou cherishest three daughters, Pride, Covetousness, and Lechery; which theKing seeming to take merrily, said to his Lords, " This hypocritical priest hathfound that I have these three daughters, whom he would forthwith I should bestow, so ifany such I possess, I have found out fitting husbands for them. Mydaughter Pride, I bequeath to the haughty Templars and Hospitallers, who areas proud as Lucifer himself; my daughter Covetousness, I give to the WhiteMonks of the Cistercian Order, for they covet the very Devil and all; and184 NOTES.as for my daughter Lechery, I can bestow her no where better than upon themonks, priests, and prelates of our time. "13 This assertion, though proceeding from the lips of a scoundrel, is so fullyfraught with truth, as to belie in its effects, even the great Corneille, whenhe says:-" Quand un menteur la dit," Enpassant par sa bouche, elle perd son credit.”14 Guyon or Goyon, a writer of the period of Charles the Seventh, composeda Roman History, detestable in itself, but which was rendered passable considering the period when he lived . He was also author of l'Oracle des Philosophes, being a tissue of the most ridiculous calumnies, whereof he repentedat the end of his life, as we are given to understand by Monstrelet.15 Abraham Chaumeix, the greatest hero of literature, was born at Orleansonthe feast of St. Mathurin in 1713; he came into the world with a bewilderedintellect, and lungs which were not of straw. He made a rapid progress in literature, and at seventeen years of age knew his Croix de Dieu, as well as hisown hands; at twenty- seven he signed his name with all the elegance of aparish beadle, and at forty he reasoned as no one ever reasoned before. Itwas at this period he wrote against the Encyclopedia and M. de Voltaire.The high and puissant genealogy of l'Ane Literaire, the Literary Ass, is veryancient: John Blaise Catherine Freron is not originally of Quimper Corentin,as announced. The sublime historiographer of France seems to think that thisfamily sprang from the Orleanais, and that it was at the habitation of a Canonof Cleri, who protected pregnant females that his great ancestor first saw thelight, being twin born, having an elder brother called Giles Chaumeix, whilehe was called Martin Freron. The first born remained in his own country,and in the year 1713, one of his descendants innundated the world with theponderous burthen of Abraham Chaumeix who has for some time past madea terrible noise. His younger brother Martin Freron, established himself atParis in the Rue Sabot, at the end of the narrow Rue Taranne, where he performed the distinguished part of a water carrier, in which employment he acquired some money and so much addicted himself to wine, that all his descendants were marked with that liquor. Distress forced him to quit the capital,NOTES. 185when he repaired to Quimper, and cried mustard for sale, and the descendantsof this man have handed down, even to us, that Cartouche who composes theAnné Litteraire." Freron disait: j'ai dans plus d'une veille," Avec succés fait d'un stile ennuyant," A mon compere un sonnet innocent;" Dans mes chiffons j'ai décrié Voltaire . . . ." Le fier Chaumeix en rampant terre à terre," Disait ma foi , j'ai vaincu Diderot. "....LE BALAI Poeme Heroique, 1774, page 86.16 Gauchet, was another of our poet's vile calumniators.17 Sabatier, author of two dictionaries, containing the pour and the contre;was a most daring calumniator, and all upon the principle of lucre . He betrayed his employer, M. Le Comte de L and for this ingratitude, wasdriven away in a manner the most disgraceful, the poignant effects of whichhe experienced for a considerable length of time.,18 There be poets , who altogether unmindful of former flights and of formeropinions, coincide with Freron and affirm, that men should live by their witscoute qui coute, and who for the sake of a butt of sack, an annual stipend, andthe enviable title of a Laureat, will compose Birth Day and New Year's Odes,as the drudging shoe-maker executes the order of his employer for which he isto be paid." I had rather be a kitten and cry mew," Than one of these ODAIC metre-mongers;" I'd rather hear a brazen candle- stick turn'd" Or a dry wheel grate on the axle-tree," And that would nothing set my teeth on edge," Nothing so much as LAUREAT poetry:" 'Tis like theforc'd gait of a shuffling nag. " SHAKSPEARE.19 Freron produced a weekly sheet wherein he sometimes hazarded littleuntruths, calumnies and injuries, for which he was legally pursued, as we havealready stated.186 NOTES.20 It appears that the present canto of the Abbé Tritemus is a completeprophecy, since it is well known that one Fantin, a Doctor and a Curate ofVersailles, was surprised in the very act of purloining a Rouleau of fifty LouisD'ors from a sick person whom he had confessed, and for which larceny hewasignominiously expulsed, but not hanged.21 This is another prophecy, as all Paris knows one Abbe Grisel, famousdirector of women of quality, who dissipated in secret debaucheries the sums ofmoney swindled from his devotees, and which were deposited in his hands forthe purpose of rendering assistance to the poor and the unfortunate. It ismore than probable, that some individual, well acquainted with the morals ofour age has inserted a portion of the present attack in his new edition of thedivine poem of the Abbe Tritemus. It might have been as well had our poetstated something respecting the Abbe la Coste, condemned to be branded uponthe shoulder with a burning iron, as well as to perpetual hard labour as a galleyslave, in the year 1759 for having committed many forgeries . This sameAbbe la Coste was a fellow labourer with Freron in his work entitled AnneeLitteraire.Pour vous instruire, vousfaut la dessus,Vous addresser a L'Abbe de Grisel;C'est un bon homme, il a beaucoup de zele:Confidemment montrez lui votre cas,Ne craignez rien, il est comme Pontas,Expert, habile et secret comme un ange.LE BALAI Poeme Heroique, page 90.L'Abbe Griselle was Grand Penitentiary of the Cathedral of Notre Dameat Paris.22 La Beaumelle, sometime preacher at Geneva, afterwards preceptor at themansion of Monsieur le Boisi, then took refuge at Copenhagen, from whencebeing expelled he repaired to Gotha, at which place a lady's toilette beingstripped of her lace, he fled from thence with the chamber maid who had beenguilty ofthe theft, a fact perfectly well known to all the Court of Gotha. Hewas twice imprisoned in dungeons at Paris, and subsequently banished, notwithstanding which, the wretch ultimately found protection. La Beaumelleis the author of a poor work entitled Mes Pensees, wherein he lavishes themost cowardly abuse against the major portion of personages high in office . Itis this same individual who has adulterated the letters ofMadamede Maintenon,NOTES. 187and caused them to be printed with the most scandalous and defamatory notes;he also published at Frankfort the age of Louis the XIVth in four volumes,which he falsified and burthened with annotations, not only disgusting onaccount of their low ignorance, but rendered punishable by law for the atrocious calumnies, which they disseminated against the Royal Family and themost illustrious houses of France.All the above cited persons have produced filthy volumes against the poetwho thus deigns to usher them into publicity. There are individuals that experience a secret satisfaction on beholding celebrated characters insulted andcalumniated by arrant scoundrels whose constant cry is: -" Pay no attention,letthe miserable reptiles spit their venom, that we may enjoy the satisfactionof seeing rascals bespatter you with mud. " We are not however, of the sameopinion; conceiving it but just to punish vagabonds, if they prove insolentrogues, and above all when they become wearisome . These anecdotes, toowell grounded in fact, are to be found in twenty places, and should thereforebe rendered equally as public as the actions of culprits , which are placarded atthe corner ofevery street." Oportet cognosci malos."23 It is melancholy to remark how venality will corrupt the minds ofthe mostclever and enlighted geniuses, whose motto consists in the following words:" Payus, and then no matter for whom, or in support of what opinions theywrite, ” for the mind so enslaved mechanically toils, and thus the goose's quillrecords the accumulated shame of the author, as publicity encreases in a ratiowith the worth of his talent; so that his time-serving meanness, only rendershim at length the object of universal contempt and obloquy.24 Afamous code of laws, the author of which is not ascertained; some attribute it to Pharamond, and others to Clovis, having its origin at the periodwhen the Francs entered the territory of the Gauls. It consists of seventy-twoarticles, the sixth of the 62nd head excluding females from inheriting the Saliquelands; for it is an erroneous opinion to suppose that this law applied solely tothe inheritance of the crown, as it extended to the lineal possession of lands bythe females of every rank in society, though it was afterwards restricted to thepossession of the Royal Dignity. Some historians alledge that the termSalique is derived from a river called Sala in ancient Germany, the borders ofwhich were peopled by the Francs, who bore that name; others attribute it toan ancient Teutonic word signifying Salutary, while a third opinion entertainedis that this title proceeds from the words Si aliquis or Si aliqua, with whichmost of the articles contained in this code are headed .188 NOTES.25 On the third of January, 1420, the act of banishment in case of non- appearance within three days was proclaimed by sound of trumpet at the MarbleTable against Charles the Seventh then Dauphin, by order of Desmarets, solicitor-general of his father Charles the Sixth, for the alledged murder of theDuke of Burgundy, which act had been committed at the instigation of theDauphin.26 Whether the martial spirit of our Joan, estimating at such a mediocre pricethe lives of her brethren, prompted her to make this trim reckoning, or whethershe was of opinion, that benefits when ill bestowed, are the sources of ingratitude, we will not pretend to determine; be therefore the sequel of our tale, thetouchstone of her sagacity.27 These supposed doctrines of Freron precisely coincide with the speculativephilosophical opinions wherewith we were amused some twenty years back, byMessrs. Godwin, Holcroft and Co. not forgetting Rousseau of an antecedentdate, whose perturbed and jaundiced imagination gave rise to visionary scenesofterrestrial beatitude, that are only realized when our minds, dwelling upon hisfascinating pages, own the powers of his matchless eloquence, and yield for aperiod to the entrancing infatuation.28 Harpyia were winged monsters having the faces of women, the bodiesofvultures, and the feet and fingers armed with sharp claws. They werethree in number, namely, Aello, Ocypete, and Celeus, who were the daughters ofNeptune and Terra. They were dispatched by Juno to plunder the tables ofPhineas King of Thrace, from whence they were driven to the islands calledStrophades by Zethes and Calais . They emitted a most infectious smell, andspoiled whatsoever they touched by their filth and excrements, and afterwardstreated Æneas during his voyage to Italy as they had previously done the Kingof Thrace, yet are they raised by Virgil to the dignity of Prophetesses.-Agreeable objects these to be inspired by the divinities!Virginei volucrum vultus, fædessima ventrisProluvies, unaque manus, et pallida semperOrafame.VIRGIL'S NEID, Book III.They complained to Æneas that he sought to make war against themonaccount of some pieces of beef, and in consequence predicted for his pains thathe should one day be compelled to eat his plates in Italy. Your sticklers forantique lore, alledge that this fiction is sublimely beautiful.NOTES. 18929However this attack against writers may appear harsh, it is neverthelesstoo certain, that no class ofindividuals is so well enabled to repay favours withingratitude as men of genius, if so inclined; as a stroke of the pen has too frequently held up a generous benefactor to ridicule, while the source from whencethe sarcasm has originated, was never even suspected by the injured party, whohas received the condolements of bis insidious assassin, while partaking oftheluxuries of his hospitable board.Blow, blow, thou winter's wind,Thou art not so unkind,As man's ingratitude.30 Frelon is intended as a jeu d'esprit upon the name of Freron, and signifies an Hornet, famous only for the venom of its sting, and an instinctive predeliction for plundering honey from the hive of the industrious Bees.

CANTO XIX .ARGUMENT.DEATH OF THE BRAVE AND TENDER TRIMQUILLE AND OF THE CHARMING DOROTHY-THE OBDURATE TYRCONNEL BECOMES A MONK OFTHE ORDER OF CHARTREUX.O DIREFUL war, of death the sister dread,The cut throat's right-or Hero's as ' tis said;Thou monster bloody from the loins deriv'dOf Atropos:-how have thy crimes depriv'd,This earth of souls-'Tis thou inspir'st those fearsWide spreading devastation, blood and tears.But when the pangs of gentle love combineWith those of Mars-Ah! when the hand benign,Oflovers kind, by favours quite subdu'dWith stream from heart ador'd, becomes imbru’d,And that her breath to save, he'd life lay low,As ill directed dagger deals the blow,192 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Piercing that bosom, glowing lips so oftHave seal'd with love's ecstatic transports soft;Thus seeing clos'd on light of radiant day,Those eyes that erst beam'd naught but love's pureray;A scene like this more terror far imparts,To bosoms bless'd with sympathetic hearts,Than hosts of warriors, earning mundane doom,By monarchs fee'd, to gallop to the tomb.2Charles thus encircled by his royal train,The fatal gift of reason had reta'en,³(Present accurs'd which men so loudly boast:)But to seek combats ' mid opposing host;To city's bulwarks now they wend their way,This castellated pile their surest stay,Wherein of Mars the magazines were stor❜dOf glittering lances pointed spears an hoard,And cannon cast by Hell's infernal spite,To hurl us headlong to the realms of night;In distance turrets greeted now their view,Fast trotting thither Knights their course pursue,Replete with hope and warm'd by valour's glow;But La Trimouille, in whom the chief we knowOf Poitou's knights, and lover the most kind,Now slowly ambling with his fair behind,And of his flame conversing on the way,Thus from the path direct was led astray.THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 193•In valley water'd by a limpid flood,Deeply embosom'd in a cypress wood,By nature rear'd in Pyramidic form,Whose tops a century had brav'd the storm,Was seen a cave where oft the Naiads fairAnd the Silvani tasted cooling air,5A chrystal stream, which subterranean stray'd,There forming sheet where twenty cascades played,Near which was spread a carpet ever green:The wild thyme there, and balmy mint were seen,The fragrant jonquil, and the jas'mine white,Seem'd all the neighb'ring shepherds to invite;Whispering: " Upon this couch of Love recline. ”Our youth of Poitou heard the call benignFrom heart's recess, sweet Zephyr's sighs engageThe time, the place, his tenderness, his age,But more than all his charmer fann'd the fire:Their steeds they left, both glowing with desire,And side by side on turf their transports lull'd,As now sweet flowr's, now kisses rich they cull'dVenus and Mars regarding from above,Objects, ne'er saw more worthy of their love;From forest's deep recesses, echo'd round,Of gazing wood nymphs the applauding sound,The sparrows, pigeons too, link'd in warm fetter,Example took, and learn'd to love the better.VOL. II.194 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.In this same wood, a chapel's structure rose,Sacred to such as in death's arms repose;Whither foregoing eve, to grave was borneThe corpse of Chandos, from earth's region torn;Two parish clerks in surplices all white,Of Deprofundis long rehears'd the rite; 6To this sad service, Paul Tyrconnel sped,Not from a taste for pure devotion led,But through attachment for departed knight;Brother he rank'd of Chandos, bold in fight,Haughty like him, debauch'd and void of fear;Stranger to love, nor ever shedding tear,He still for Chandos cherished friendship's germ,And in his wrath to this incitement firm,Swore by just heav'n his vengeance should be wrought,More spurr'd by passion, than with pity fraught.7away,He, thro' the corner of a casem*nt spied,The palfreys ' twain then grazing side by side;Tow'rd them he moves: they kicking hiedDirect to fountain where our lovers layYielding in secret to the soft control,Themselves excepted-seeing not a soul..Bold Paul Tyrconnel, whose inhuman mind,To neighbour's pleasures, ever prov'd unkind;Grinding his teeth exclaimed: " Ye souls most vile,""Tis thus then, ye with transports base must defile"An Hero's Tomb--insulting his remains,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 195-" Refuse of courts, which nothing pure retains," Base foes, when some brave Briton yields to fate," 'Tis thus the rare event ye celebrate;66 To outrage his lov'd manes you presume," And act your wanton frolics on his tomb.66 Speak recreant knight, in thee do I behold," Made for a court-by softest spells enroll'd," The man whose weak arm; -chance-directed" Death, to the bravest warrior of the brave?8" What, no reply, and ogling still the fair,66gaveThy shame thou feel'st, thy heart can nothing dare?"To this address Trimouille at length replied:-" No sword of mine with his life's blood was dyed," Heav'n that conducts all heroes to renown," Can, as it lists, accord the victor's crown;" "Gainst Chandos I, with honour strove to shine," Fate will'd an hand more fortunate than mine" Should seal on plain of Mars its dread decree," And there cut short at once his destiny," Thus I perhaps, ere morning's ray we view," May punish in my turn, some Briton too."As fresh'ning breezes which in murmurs creep,And whistling ruffle surface of the deep,Swell high their roar, and wrecking barks on strand,Spread horror o'er the surface of the land;So fierce Tyrconnel and Trimouille in rage,• 2196 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Prepar'd in direful duel to engage.Urg'd by these terms of wrath and menace dread,Of cuirass each bereft, nor helm on head,The Poitou knight upon the flow'ry glade,Had near his charming fair of Milan laidLance, morion, breast plate, glave, his limbs to freeAnd trappings all the more at ease to be.Who in amours requires a pond'rous blade?Tyrconnel always march'd in armour ray'd,But he within illumin'd fane had plac'dHis polish'd cuirass -helm with gold enchas'dIn charge of squire -with costly brassets too,⁹The shoulder belt alone appear'd in viewAppendant, bearing his broad glittering brand;He drew it -La Trimouille was quick at hand,Prepar'd the brutal Islander to brave,Springing with lightsome bound, he grasp'd his glave;Then wav'd it high with choler boiling o'er,Crying: " Thou monster cruel, list my lore," What merit thy deserts, thou soon shalt feel," Cut throat, that in hypocrisy can deal;" Thus coming with impertinence in view," Of lovers to molest the Rendez-vous. "So speaking, on the Briton bold he burst:In Phrygia, Menelaus and Hector erst, 16Roar❜d menaces and dealt death dooming blow,'Fore Helen guilty, and o'er fraught with woe.10THE MAID OF ORLEANS, 197From cave, air, heav'n, and forest echos rose,Responsive to sad Dorothea's woes,Love never with such thrills her breast had fir'd,Nor had she felt her tender heart inspir'dWith equal pain: —what, on the very green,Of pure voluptuousness so late the scene:" All potent Heav'n, and must I even here," Lose what I hold on earth, supremely dear?“ Ador'd Trimouille! barbarian stay thy rage" And let my timid breast this wrath assuage. "Exclaiming thus, from dread of fear beguil'd,She flew with outstretch'd arms, eyes sparkling wild,And rushing 'twixt the combatants distress'd,The gallant lover's alabaster breast,Soft as the satin , idoliz'd , ador'd,Was by a grievous wound already gor'd;From blow terrific, parried off with pain,The knight thus gall'd, his rage could not restrain,And headlong rush'd the Briton to subdue,But Dorothy was just between the two.O! God oflove! O! Heav'n! O! direful blow,What faithful lover e'er the truth shall knowAnd not with floods of tears bedew my flight,When the most tender, true, and lovely knight,Bless'd with unnumbered favors of his fair,Of belle could strike the breast beyond compare;That fateful steel, that dread ensanguin'd blade,198 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Transpierc'd the heart for love's warm transports made,Which ever burnt for him, her soul desir'd,She stagger'd, sighing forth, as she expir'd;" Trimouille, sole monarch of my heart. "-But death,Grim spectre, seiz'd upon her fleeting breath,She felt it, glancing once more on the lightThose eyes unclos'd , which an eternal nightWas soon to seal: -her feeble hand, —the breastStill of her lover with warm ardour press'd,Vowing to cherish an immortal glow,Forth ebb'd her life, in sighs and sobbings low," I love!-I love! "-In fault'ring accents broke,Such the last words this faithful fair one spoke.'Twas all in vain-Alas! Trimouille rever'dHeard nought--for now to him death's shades appear'dHis form surrounding, as beside her charms,Of mem❜ry ' reft, he slumber'd in her arms,Bath'd in her blood, and yet not knowing aught:At sight so tender, yet with horror fraught,Aghast and chill'd , awhile Tyrconnel stood,His senses fled, and frozen was life's flood:So erst, if heathen records tell us true,Was Atlas, whom no feeling could subdue,¹¹When for obduracy, ' twas Heav'n's decree,Chang'd into flinty rock his form should be.But pity, gentle nature's soft behest,Dispens'd to quell the fury of the breast,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 199Awoke at length within his harden'd heart,He join'd the fair, assistance to impart,And found two miniatures on neck so fair,Portraits preserv'd by Dorothy with careThro' all adventures, and for times long past,In one Trimouille, with azure eyes was castAnd flaxen locks, possessing beauty's trace,With softness, energy-with courage, grace,United there; combining each soft art:" Ah!" quoth Tyrconnel, " he deserv'd an heart:"But at the other semblance loud his cry,For lo! his portrait there enchain'd his eye;He gaz`d, beholding trait for trait design'd;O! what surprise! —as straight he call'd to mind,That journeying once to Milan's famous town,He Carminetta knew of high renown,Gallant and noble, kind to Albion's race;When quitting, after months elaps'd, that place,She pregnant proving, complaisantly he,Gave, to destroy of absence the ennui,This portrait, trac'd by the all skilful handOfgreat Bellini, chief of Lombard band: 12"Twas Dorothy's own mother: -truth how dire,All was reveal'd:-Tyrconnel prov'd her sire.Tho' haughty he, indifferent and cold,His heart if prob'd would gen'rous germs unfold;When by such characters the bitter draught200 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Of poignant agony is amply quaff'd,Its dire effects impressions strong impart,Which ne'er assail an ordinary heartToo open to receive warm passion's flow;As brass or steel more powerfully glowThan rushes burnt, when trifling flame they meetOur Briton view'd his daughter at his feetWho death had glutted with her cherish'd blood,Her he consider'd, as from eyes a floodOf tears fast flow'd, he ne'er had wept before;With streams he bath'd her, kissing o'er and o'er,His loud cries echoing thro' the woods around,As fraught with anguish, he breathed grief profound;And cursing fortune, war, and direful death,Fell quite o'ercome, bereft of voice and breath. 13Thy lids unclos'd at sounds so fraught with fate,Trimouille once more thou saw'st the day, and straight,For the remaining light possess'd no charm,Shudd'ring thou didst withdraw thy murd'rous arm,Which had with agonising fervor press'd,The lily beauties of that cherish'd breast;Thy sword hilt placing on th' ensanguin'd plain,Upon its point then rushing on amain,Transpierc'd by mortal blow, with crimson tideOfheart's warm blood, soon was thy mistress dy❜d.THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 201At screams thus utter'd by the chief distress'd,The squires and priests enquiring, round him press'd,Affrighted gazing at the cruel deed,Their stony hearts, as well as his could bleed, 14And, but for them, Tyrconnel by self doom,Lovers had follow'd to the silent tomb.At length the horror of his anguish o'er,And master of his faculties once more,He caus'd clay- cold lovers to be plac'dOn litter, form'd by lances interlac'd;Thus were they borne by knights in sad array,To royal camp, moist'ning with tears the way.Tyrconnel, who made violence his guide,And ever prompt on matters to decide,From the dread hour this fatal deed took place,· Detested woman, maid, all nature's face;His beard grew long, no valet with him sped,Mournful his eye, nor word he ever said;His heart sore pent, and in this sombre mood,To Paris roam'd, leaving Loire's limpid flood;Ere long he gain'd at Calais ocean's strandEmbark'd, and safely trod his native land,There took the frock, in sainted pile to dwell,Of Bruno's monks, his ennui to dispel. 15Himself and mundane joys, for Heaven resign'd,Spurning his state, as well as all mankind;202 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.And thus with thoughts on melancholy bent,His days were pass'd in everlasting Lent,'Twas there he liv'd, no sentence e'er breath'd he,And yet, he never prov'd, a devotee.As monarch Charles, and Joan the warrior maid,Beheld thus pass the mourning cavalcade,No sooner they the gen'rous pair espied,Happy so long, and erst bright beauty's pride;All bath'd in blood, their forms with dust besmear'd,Then struck with dread, each personage appear'd,While ev'ry eye the glist'ning drops distill'd,Each sympathetic heart, with anguish thrill'd.In Troy they wept not thus, the bloody day,When Hector of grim death became the prey;As when Achilles, crown'd by victory,So justly famous for his modesty;Caus'd him with gentleness to be dragg'd round,His feet made fast, head trailing on the groundBehind his car; that o'er the slaughter'd roll'd---For fair Andromache, at least we're toldA living widow was, when spouse pass'd o'erThe Styx-to visit Hell's infernal shore.Agnes, the lovely Agnes, shook by fears,Whose arms the King entwin'd, subdu'd by fears,Exclaim'd:-" Alas! my love, we thus some day," May both to Charnel house be borne away;THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 203" Ah! that my soul, as well as body too," May ever be, united dear, to you. ”At these soft words, each heart felt weight oppressOf timid sorrow, feminine distress;When lo! the maid assuming martial tone,Male organ, proof of courage all her own,Cried out:-" "Tis not by wailings, and by sighs,66 By tears, by sobbings, and such doleful cries," That we may vengeance for love's sufferers take," "Tis blood, lets arm to-morrow for his sake;" Behold Oh! King, of Orleans yonder walls," Sad ramparts, subject now to Britain's thralls," Its plains still smoking, by fell carnage fed" Of those, who by your royal prowess bled," As in your suite the Gallic legions went;" Let us prepare, pursue the grand intent;" This debt is due to bleeding shades we see" Of La Trimouille, and his lov'd Dorothy;" "Tis meet a king should conquer and not weep," Sweet Agnes, in oblivion quick ensteep" Those soft emotions of a gentle heart,6666Agnes, to royal lover should impartThoughts worthier of his crown and station high,"" Leave me alone!" quoth Agnes, " let me cry."END OF CANTO NINETEEN.

NOTES TO CANTO XIX.1 Atropos, is very justly pictured as the mother of Bellona, being the third ofthe Parcæ, and represented by the ancients, as holding the scissors destined tocut the thread oflife." La main des parques blêmes," De vosjours et des miens sejoue egalement . "LA FONTAINE.2 When we contemplate the dreadful trade of war, it is impossible to refrainfrom shuddering, and particularly if we call to recollection, that the caprice,passion, or jealousy of a single crowned head, may cause the marshalling ofthousands from a state of rude wealth, to premature mortality. Rousseau, inhis Ode upon the Birth of the Duke of Burgundy, has well depicted warfare inthe following lines."Quel monstre, de carnage avide," S'est emparé de l'Univers?" Qu'elle impitoyable Euménide," De ses feux infecte les airs?" Quel Dieu souffle en tous lieux la guerre," Et semble, à depeupler la terre," Exciter vos sanglantes mains?" Mégère, des Enfers bannie," Est elle aujourd'hui le Genie," Quipreside au sort des humains?”206 NOTES.3 Voltaire is perfectly correct in designating Reason a fatal gift; since hewho makes the most use of it, becomes the direct enemy of priestcraft, whosedogmas will then no longer pass for holy writ. Andrea Solaris, in an allegoricalpicture of Reason, represented as her attribute a lighted lamp, whose feeblerays were nearly obscured by the bright radiance of a torch borne in the handof Faith, who preceded her.The Naïads were young and beautiful divinities, who presided over fountainsand rivers, whose flaxen locks luxuriantly flowing over their shoulders, are represented as crowned with coronets of reeds.Sylvanus, the rustic god of the ancients, presided over forests and herds,who, together with Pan, was pictured under the form of a satyr.Zephyr. " Sur un lit de roses," Fraichement écloses," Flore du graudjour," Attend le retour;" Lejeune Zéphire," Ases pieds soupire:" Et le Dieu badin," Volant autour délle," Du bout de son aille" Decouvre son sein."De Profundis, the commencement of a Latin psalm, recited over thedead, which is now employed by the French as if it constituted part of theirlanguage, as they thus express themselves in conversation-" Dire un de profundis. Chanter le de profundis; on ne chante ici que des de profundis; "meaning to say, that there is a great mortality in such a place, or, that nothingbut funerals are seen." Suspendons le cours de nos larmes," Faisons tréve aux de profundis,”

  • As an unfeigned glowing zeal for religion appears to have formed no feature

in the character of Tyrconnel, he might well have exclaimed, addressing theshade of his departed friend Chandos, and applying the words of Moliere, inhis Tartuffe.NOTES. 207" J'aurai toujours pour vous, ô suave merveille," Une devotion à mille autre pareille.”The above line draws forth a sigh to the memory of Marshal Ney, who,be bis political faults what they might, most undoubtedly merited by his actsof dauntless bravery, the epithet bestowed upon him by Napoleon , when hestyled him Le Plus brave des brave.This earth that bears thee dead" BEARS NOT ALIVE SO STOUT A GENTLEMAN." Adieu, and take thy praise with thee to heaven;" Thy ignominy sleep with thee in the grave," But not remember'd in thy epitaph. "The almost incredible intrepidity and coolness of Marshal Ney, in the mosttrying periods of danger, was not only proverbial throughout the French army,but even excited the most unqualified applause in his enemies, a feeling thatwas never more exemplified than upon the first entry of the Allies into Paris,upon which occasion, the Marshal having given a splendid ball, where the Sovereigns and their Generals were present, and among the rest, the famous Hetman Platoff, the latter was so forcibly struck at being in the presence of thismagnanimous chief, that he remained nearly the whole of the evening, attentively scrutinizing his person, a circ*mstance generally noticed, and detailed tothe writer, by Monsieur Gamot, his brother in law, an eye witness of the fact.It is almost superfluous to add, that the heroic conduct subsequently displayedby this extraordinary man after the affair of Moscow, in rescuing thirty thousand men, with a train of ten thousand sick and wounded, amidst an enemy'scountry, and incessantly harassed by an army of an hundred and forty thousand victorious Russians and Cossacks, did not a little tend to encrease theformer feeling of admiration which he had raised in the bosom of every braveand honorable soldier.9 Brasset, is that part ofancient armour, which served as a covering forthearm of the warrior.10 You are doubtless acquainted with the combat which took place betweenHector and Menelaus, and that the fair Helen looked upon the conflict with a208 NOTES.most tranquil eye. Our Dorothy, you must allow, possessed much more virtue;indeed our nation surpasses by far that of the Greeks in point of morality.Our women are gallant, but at the bottom they possess infinitely more of tenderness, as I have demonstrated in my Philosophe Chretien, volume the twelfth,page 169.11 It is presumable that our author in the above line alludes to the hardnessof heart displayed by Atlas in refusing his hospitality to Perseus, who afterhis conquest of the Gorgons, in vain demanded admittance to that Monarch'spalace, for which obduracy he was punished by order of Jupiter, being transformed into a mountain, as every one knows on beholding Medusa's head,which was presented to him by the injured Perseus.12 Gentile Bellini, was the eldest son of Giacopo Bellini, born at Venice in1421, and instructed by his father in the art of painting in distemper as well asin oil. He was accounted the greatest proficient of his time, and was employed by the Doge to paint the Hall of the Grand Council. The reputation ofthis artist was at that time so extensive, that it reached the Ottoman Court, andthe Emperor Mahomet the Second, having seen some of his performances, invited him to Constantinople, received him with great respect, sat to him for hisportrait, and engaged him there for some time, loading him with rich presentsand many marks of his peculiar regard. This Emperor, however, having ordered the head of a slave to be cut off before Gentile, in order to convince himof an incorrectness in a picture of the decollation of Saint John, he was soaffected and terrified at the sight, that he never enjoyed peace of mind till heobtained permission to return to his own country. Mahomet honoured him byplacing a gold chain round his neck, and wrote to the Senate in his favour,which at his return procured him a pension for life, and the honourable distinction ofthe order of Saint Mark. He died in 1501, at the age of eighty.Pilkington.19 " Naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret. "HORACE.14 A most virulent attack upon the priestly character, for which our poet welldeserves all the obloquy reflected on his memory bythe sons of the Church, andthe intended expulsion of his remains from consecrated ground.NOTES. 20915 SaintBruno was founder ofthe Carthusian order, in 1080 from a very extraordinary event, if we may credit the historians of that period; the circ*mstance being as follows: -A Professor of the University of Paris, very commendable as well for his doctrine as the apparent integrity of a well spent life, died,but as the burial service was performing, he suddeuly sat upright upon the bierand cried with a lamentable voice, " I am accused by the just judgment ofGod." This circ*mstance put all the spectators into a dreadful consternation, so that the interment was deferred until the ensuing day, when the defunctagain cried out, " I amjudged by the just judgment ofGod;" in consequenceof which the burial was postponed for another day, on the arrival of which, inthe presence of a large concourse of spectators assembled, the dead man a thirdtime exclaimed in a terrible voice, " By the just judgment of God, am Icondemned;" which event being witnessed by one Bruno, who happened to bepresent, he was so forcibly penetrated by the spectacle, that he delivered along barangue to the assembly, and concluded by remarking that it was utterlyimpossible for them to enjoy salvation, unless they renounced the world and retired into the deserts; a line of conduct he immediately adopted, departingforthwith accompanied by six of his companions to a desolate place namedChartreuse, amidst the mountains in the Diocese of Grenoble. In this desert,the resort of wild beasts, they constructed small cells at some distance fromeach other, where they lived in a state of silence , following a most rigid courseof life, from which circ*mstance was afterwards founded the celebrated monastery ofthe Chartreux.16 If Tyrconnel had the same opinion of a devotee as is expressed by Deshouliers in the subjoined lines we cannot altogether blame his obduracy uponthis point.Onpeut impunement, pour l'interet du CielEtre dur, se venger, faire des injustices;Tout n'est pour les Devots, que péchés veniel.17 Our grave Author appears to be ironical upon the subject of the modestand gentle Achilles trailing round the walls of Troy the dead body of thegallant Hector, most ignominiously attached to the hinder part of his chariot,leaving the tender Andromache to witness this exposition with all the characteristic refinement of true Grecian gallantry.VOL. II. P210 NOTES.18 Additional matter concerning Agnes Sorel and her royal lover not knownto the translator, until after the notes of the First Canto, relating to the Damede Beauté, were committed to press. It has very frequently afforded matterof astonishment to observe, the peculiar apathy displayed by the Frenchnation in regard to every thing that is connected with the romantic and splendidremnants of antiquity, which are so profusely scattered over the Gallic soil .Since thevaluable labours ofMontfaucon, nothing of moment has appeared uponthis subject, and we have therefore to hail with an increase of pleasure the splendid and interesting work of Messrs. Nodier, Taylor, and De Cailleux, fromwhich the following extract is taken, the work being entitled, " Voyages pittoresques et Romantiques dans l'Ancienne France," in folio , printed by Didot,and ornamented by plates of the most celebrated French engravers." The monastery of Jumieges, established under the rule of Saint Bennet,was founded in six hundred and forty. After the expiration of a few years,Dagobert paid a visit to this republic of Saints, and ceded to it all the territorywhichit occupies, as if a divine foresight had announced to him, that it wouldone day become the asylum of some unfortunate Princes of his family. Itwas in this sanctified spot, that the two eldest sons of Clovis the secondand Saint Bathilda, were destined by heaven to pass their days in penitence.This touching episode in the history of France, has not been neglected by thepoet Ronsard, who has given it a place in the fourth canto of La Franciade,and Jumieges having been rendered illustrious bythe miracles of saints, and enriched by the munificence of Kings, became by degrees one ofthe most important monuments of ancient France. It was several times devastated during thewars, and as frequently arose anew from its ruins. This Abbey was burned bythe Danes in the year eight hundred and forty, in remembrance of which invasion and the horrible excesses committed, nothing now remains but a painting in fresco upon its walls, whereof no vestige will soon be perceptible."At a much later period, Charles the Seventh here sought an asylum, andAgnes Sorel a sepulchre; and we shall soon contemplate, in the adjacentpicturesque hamlet of Du Mesnil , the modest Mansion house of La Belle des Belles." On arriving at the grand arch of the choir of the monastery, at this porticoof the sanctuary, whereof all the supporting buttresses are fallen, a sensationof dread operates upon the mind, lest the very echo from a foot-fall shouldloosen a grain of sand that might draw down the whole remaining fabric in itsoverthrow. It is near this spot, behind the northern branch of the cross, that theNOTES. 211mausoleum ofa*gnes was placed; or rather if we are to credit a tradition whichseems better founded, a small monument enclosing her heart. When thefuries of revolutionary fanaticism, devoted like vampires to the violation ofsepulchres, raised up the stone which covered this ' depository, in the hope offinding some hidden treasure with the remains of La Dame de Beauté, it issaid that nothing was discovered but a few ashes, which were immediately dispersed among them bythe wind. Such were the remains of the heart ofa*gnes; that heart once animated by so much love, and a passion so noble,that France was not perhaps less indebted to her for its salvation, than to theintrepidity of Joan of Arc. A well informed and feeling gentleman was luckyenough to rescue this tomb from the saw and the hammer; yes, the cenotaphof the mistress of a monarch, whose noble counsels greatly contributed to saveher country from the English yoke, is now become the ornament of a privategarden. O may the simplicity of its materials and the obscurity of its asylumhenceforth preserve it from the attacks of barbarism!! Above the spot wherethe mausoleum stood, is an high arched narrow window, through which therays of the setting sun were wont to dart upon this naïve and charmingepitaph of the ancient poet. "" Hicjacet in tumba mitis simplexque columba.”" Ici repòse dans la tombe,Une douce et simple colombe. ”" I have before stated that the residence of Agnes still exists, for to what goodpurpose could its ruins have been applied? Between east and south of theAbbey, near the margin of the river, rises the small mansion of Mesnil. Itsaspect at the same time mysterious and enchanting, immediately fascinates theattention of the stranger, before he is made acquainted with the original proprietors ofthe dwelling. Inthe front court is an ancient chesnut tree, coevalwith the period when the structure was raised, and a witness of all the secretsof the Manor House. The interior of the building is only remarkable for along gallery with which several apartments communicate, whose projectingbeams, at certain intervals, still display the traces of Agnes Sorel's cypher, andat the extremity is a chapel, above which appears a tribune for the Lord of theManor. The Gothic windows are still preserved, with the stone benches fixedin their wide embrasures; those very seats, whereon rested beneath the purplecoloured glass enriched with gold and fret work, the dames and knights ofthose days, and upon which Agnes herself has so often reclined, while withoutP 2212 NOTES.appear the traces of a mysterious pathway conducting from the retreat ofCharles the Seventh to the Manor house, having never since been frequented. "Translated from the original of Monsieur Ch. Nodier, inserted in theArchives de Literature et des Arts, No. 4, as a specimen of theliterary style of the Voyages Pittoresques, &c. mentioned in the introductory lines of the present note.29 This naïve and affecting reply of Agnes Sorel, affords a matchless contrastwith the bold style ofthe belligerent Joan of Arc, and it must certainly be allowedthat never were two characters more exquisitely pourtrayed to grace an epic;they act as light and shade beautifully blended in a fine picture, whose tintsimperceptibly softening, form a tout ensemble chastely correct and harmoniously pleasing.In order however, to demonstrate that Joan of Arc was not only masculinein speaking, but equally so upon the eve of acting, we are told in history, thatupon preparing for a coup de guerre, and when the soldiers were ranged in orderof battle, she, by her harangues knew how to inspire them and invigorate theirspirits for the action; and that whensoever the cry was To ARMS; " Elleetoit la premiere et la plus diligente, fut a pied ou a cheval." " She was thefirst and the most active whether on foot or on horseback . " In addition towhich a contemporary historian, speaking of her equestrian prowess states:Aprincipio ætatis suæ . · pascendo pecora ..... sæpius cursumexercebat; et modo huc atque illuc illi frequens cursus erat; et aliquandocurrendo hastam ut fortis eques manucapiebat et arborum truncoscutiebat &c......· perSee Phillipe de Bergame, in Hordal. page 40. who according to Moreri,under the head Foresti, was born in 1434.It must be allowed that in the researches and interrogatories relative toour Pucelle, no mention is made of this particularity, neither does any thingtherein contained tend to invalidate the supposition; Phillipe adduces an ocular witness, from whom he heard it; and the Duke of Alençon indirectly confirms it; " For no sooner had he learned the arrival of Jeanne at Chinon, thanhe forthwith repaired to Saint Florent, and on the following day beheld herpass;" Une lance a la main, qu'elle portait et faisait mouvoir avec beaucoupde grace, et alors il lui fit don d'un beau cheval ." Bearing a lance in thehand which she carried and wielded with much grace, and then he made hera present of a fine horse. " Saint Florent is about seventy-five miles fromNOTES. 213Chinon, consequently there could not have been a greater interval of time thanfour or five days between her arrival and rencontre with the Duke. Anotherfact is, that Joan was ' not admitted to the King, until after the expiration oftwo days, (see Dunois in Laverdy, page 352, Note 26, ) consequently therecould only have been a lapse of two or three days, and is it probable that duringso short a space of time she could have learned to exercise a lance with grace?

CANTO XX.ARGUMENT.HOW JOAN FELL INTO A STRANGE TEMPTATION-TENDER TEMERITYOF HER ASS-AND THE NOBLE RESISTANCE OF OUR MAID.FRAGILE is man and woman too, my Friend,Wherefore take heed, on Virtue ne'er depend,The vase tho' fair, is only form'd of clay,'Tis easy broken; mend it faith you may;The enterprise is difficult and rare;This precious vessel, to preserve with careUntarnish'd-is a vision that believe,Which none attains, witness the spouse of Eve;Old Lot and Samson, ' reft of both his eyes;David the saintly; Solomon the wise;And you fair sex, foremost of all enrolled,In the new Testament as well as old;216 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.In page of history, and e'en in fable;I pardon sex devout, your minds unstable,Your little errings and caprices quaint,Your soft refusals and each charming feint,But, I must own, some acts my reason views,Some certain tastes I never can excuse.¹An ape, a very puppy have I seen,Fat, squat, and tann'd-frowsy ' neath linen clean,E'en as a youth caress'd within your arms—I feel distress'd for your bright tender charms;An Ass perhaps with wings is ten times greaterThan coxcomb dizen'd, or dull Petit Maitre;Toyou I've consecrated, sex divine,The gift poetic of celestial nine,For your instruction now 'tis fit ye learn,How of our Joan, a fine grey ass could turnThe martial brain for momentary seasonAnd lead astray her yirgin thoughts from reason,It is not I -'tis old Tritemus' sage,That worthy Abbé who endites this page.Monk Grisbourdon, who shar'd of damn'd the lot,Direful, at bottom of his cauldron hot,Blaspheming ever, sought occasion still,To wreak on Joan of Arc some vengeful ill,Before whose sabre, when on earth he shrunk,Which of its tonsur'd sconce, depriv'd the trunk.Aloud he cried:-" O! Belzebub, my sire,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 217" With some dread sin, Ah! canst thou not inspire," The mind of Joan severe, and seal her fall?" Methinks thou'rt urg'd to this, by honor's call."While speaking thus, arriv'd from passing Styx,With rage o'er boiling, foul Hermaphrodix,The holy water glist'ning on his cheek,The beast amphibious, vengeance fell to wreak,Came to consult of ev'ry sin, the sire:Behold the trio met, thus to conspireAgainst our Joan. Alas! in love's soft trade,Fewer are needed to seduce a maid:Long had it been to gracious three reveal'd,That Joan of Arc, ' neath petticoat conceal'dOftown besieg'd, the famous guardian key,And that of mourning France, the destinyUpon her saintly mission then depended,Satan's inventive genius was commended;Who quickly sped to note upon the earth,How were employ'd his friends of British birth,And to what feats of body as of mind,Joan after mighty battles felt inclin'd.Dunois, the King, Agnes in Faith now true,The ass, the maid, Bonneau and Bonifoux,Had enter'd in the fort with closing night,Waiting fresh reinforcements for the fight;The dreadful breach of the besieg'd now clos'd,A barrier to assailants thus oppos'd,218 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.From ramparts, lo! the hostile band had sped:Bedford- the townsfolk- Charles by hunger ledSupp'd safe at home-hast'ning to get to bed.At strange adventure-O! ye muses quake,Which to a future race my verse must break,And ye, my readers, in whom Heav'n hath plac'd,Ofpurest tenderness the sapient taste;Thank Dunois, Denis, who themselves acquittedRight well; -whereby great sin was not committed.Ifye remember right, I promis'd erst,That gallant wonders all, should be rehears'dOf this same Pegasus, with ears so lank;縣Joining ' neath Joan and Dunois battle's rank,To dare the enemies of King and Maid,You've seen him with his golden wings array'd,Dunois transporting to the Lombard plains,Whence he return'd, but rack'd with jealous pains:Full well you know, that bearing Joan of Arc,He felt in bosom lighted up the sparkOf that sweet fire, more ardent far than soft,Soul, spring and principle of worlds aloft;Which in the air, the woods and waves createsEach body, and alike all animates.This sacred fire of which there still appearSome feeble rays, in this our worn out sphere,Was from on high to warm Pandora ta'en,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 219Since which the flambeau hath been on the wane.All's faded, nature's force now languishingIn these our wretched days: Time's rapid wingNought now produces, save imperfect fires; 3If still a vivifying flame inspires,An happy germ of principle benignWith bright Uranian Venus the divine*Ne'er seek it, or below court flame so rare,But to Arcadia's heroes waft the prayer.Ye lovely Celadons whom beauty's powers,5Have bound in chains of blooming fragrant flow'rs,Lovers in cassock or the cuirass dress'd,Ye lawyers, colonels, prelates, abbes bless'd;Those of high ton, nay e'en a CordelierRanks not in love with donkey the compeer;The golden ass in Latium erst so fam'd,"In metamorphosis aloud proclaim'd,Can ne'er with this on Fame's bright record dwell,He was but man, and that's a Bagatelle!Tritemus sage, whose mental powers could rise,Than pedant Larchet more discreet and wise; 8The modest author of this noble taleCould scarce believe: -he felt affright prevail,When 'twas his task to chronicle the writ,And to posterity this theme transmit.His fingers three could scarce find pow'r to guide,220 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.The nibs of pen and o'er the paper glide,Frighten'd at length it fell—but soon his breast,Became with agitation less oppress'd,Reflecting sagely on the fund of evilAnd malice dire, arising from the Devil.This foe to man, the source of all transgression,Is tempter general by his profession;Under his special care he takes all souls:This formidable sire, who sin controuls,Rival of Heav'n, seduc'd mankind, to spiteOur common mother, near a wood one night9In garden:-serpent of deceiver's worst,Caus'd her to eat the apple there accurs'd;Some think he guilty was ofgreaterHowe'er it be, she lost gay paradise.vice:Since which, in ev'ry house the fiend's espied,Of wives and daughters all, the constant guide,And sage Tritemus in his time I weenHad with his eyes, examples touching seen:Thus is detail'd, by good men fraught with senseOf saintly ass, the shame and insolence..Joan the robust, with cheeks of damask rose,Refresh'd by soothing poppies of repose,Gently tuck'd up within her lily sheets,Of her past life, retrac'd the fateful feats.Such deeds recalling, pride her soul ' gan taint,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 221The glory she denied to Denis Saint,And fed of puff'd up vanity a grain; 01This you may well conceive gave Denis pain,Who for punition left his protegée,For period short her wishes to obey:Denis desir'd that Joan his leading star,11 Should know at length, what of ourselves we are, ¹¹And that on each occasion, 'tis decreed,Women in acting always patron need.Right near she was becoming thus a preyTo trap; which Satan in his malice lay ---Ourselves misleading, we go far astray.The tempter ne'er neglecting direful spell,Chose his own time; he always chooses well: -He's ev'ry where; -he glides with ruse refin'dInto the ass's frame; he forms its mind,Its tongue instructs in value of soft sounds,Its voice no longer with harsh tone abounds;And tutors also, cunning of that artBy Bernard sung, which Ovid knew by heart.12The ass enlighten'd, straightway rear'd its headFrom stable, quickly up the staircase spedTo foot of couch, where quietly lay dosingJoan, who in mind on labours past was prosing;Then gently crouching at her side took place,222 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.He prais'd her as o'er-topping hero race,As matchless and the fairest fair of all:Thus serpent erst seducing to our thrall,When on our mother he essay'd his guiles,Began to subjugate with winning smiles,With flatt'ring compliments, commenced soft teazing,With art of praising, ' gins the art of pleasing." Oh! heav'n where am I," cried out Joan of Arc," What is't I hear, by Luke, and by St. Mark!" Is it my ass? O prodigy! O wonder!66 My donkey speaks nor utters he a blunder. ”The Ass on knees, demeanour then compos'd,And cried, " Oh! Joan, no falsehood is disclosed;" In me the ass of Canaan behold," Nourish'd was I, by Balaam the old;" Balaam, Pagan priest-Q! sad disaster, 13" A Jew was I-without me my dear master¹4" Had curs'd the race elect, and then no doubt," Some bad mischance from thence had fallen out;" My zeal was recompensed by Adonai.15" Soon to old Enoch was I giv'n away; 16“ That Enoch who immortal life possess'd," I had the same, and 'twas high heav'n's behest," That cruel Parca's life-bereaving shears," Should hold in due respect my blissful years,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 225" Thus an eternal spring-time do I feel:" The master of our meadow quite genteel," Save only one thing, granted all to me," Commanding I should live in chastity:" This, for a donkey's the severest lot," Young, without curb, and in this charming spot," Of all the master, I could all things do," By day, by night, all; save in love to woo;" Far better I, than the first man obey'd,“ Who for an apple ev'ry bliss betray'd;66 My constitution's warmth I could defy,“ The flesh was mute, no weaknesses had I;" But wouldst thou know how all this came to pass?" Throughout the plains there was not one she Ass-17" With mine estate content, thus roll'd on fleet," A thousand years, in celibacy sweet." From depths of Greece, when Bacchus came divine," With glorious Thyrsus, drunkenness and wine, ¹8" Into those realms, where Ganges' currents roll ," I serv❜d as trumpet, this heroic soul," And Indians civiliz'd who own his will," Chant with their overthrow, my glory still." Silenus and myself are better known,19" Than all the great, surrounding Bacchus' throne,66 My simple name and virtues signaliz'd," Have 'ray'd with honour Apuleius priz'd; 20224 THE MAID OF ORLEANS." In short, amidst the heav'n's empyreal glow,"When George the Saint, of Gaul redoubted foe;" That Hero fierce, enamour'd of war's deed," Desir'd to have for palfrey British steed;" When Martin famous for his mantle wide, 21" Obtain'd a very decent nag to ride;" Our Mister Denis, cutting too a figure,66 Wanting alike a trotter to look bigger" Made choice of me, so I became his care;" Of brilliant wings he clapp'd on me a pair:" My flight I took to raise in heav'n a stir," When bit, my rump was, by Saint Roche's cur; 22" The hog of Anthony, sworn friend was there" Celestial pig, with which all monks compare: 23" Gold stirrups had I, housings all were gay," Fed on ambrosia was I ev'ry day; 24" But Ah! my Joan, such blissful life can't measure," With that full portion of ecstatic pleasure" Which now I feel, your martial charms to view," The cur, the hog, St. George with Denis too" Are not conjoin'd, worth your all-radiant beauty;" Of tasks which to fulfil it was my duty,"Whereto by star benign I have been rais'd," By me, none e'er was yet so justly prais'd," And which perhaps, I'm form'd to fill the best," As to comply with your august behest."When heav'n's empyreum bright was left by me,THE MAID OF ORLEANS.225< Honor'd I found, my fortune was by thee;" No:-I have ne'er abandon'd radiant skies," I still am there, for heav'n is in your eyes."25At speech so daring, very far from sage:Joan justly found in breast, enkindled rage:" What love an ass, and thus resign my fame," Ah! let me not the fell dishonour name;66 Having till now, my innocence kept clear," From Gallia's knights as well as muleteer;" And being blest with heav'nly grace a store,“ Made Chandos imbecile when fight was o'er." Yet in this ass, what merits I descry," Ah! may he not with goat well favour'd vie" Of a Calabrian when with wreaths entwin'd?" No; let's dispel such horrors from the mind."These varied thoughts an inward tempest bredIn heart of Joan, confounding too her head;Thus we behold deep Ocean's surges bear,The tyrants fierce, of billows and of air;Some rushing furious from their southern caves,As others sweep with icy blasts the waves,Driving the bark that ploughs each liquid wall,Bound for Sumatra, Ceylon or Bengal;Sometimes in clouds is seen the uprais'd stern,Dash'd tow'rd the rocks, it now appears in turn,VOL. II.1226 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Then yawns in liquid gulf the ship to doom,Or now it soars as from infernal tomb.The child so arch, whose pow'r all might surpasses,Charming alike mankind, the gods, and asses;Hover'd in azure heights with bow in hand,And maiden Joan regarded, smiling bland;In faith the heart of heroine elect,Felt flutter'd at the singular effectWhich was produc'd by her attractive smile,Upon the sense of beast, so gross and vile;She to her lover hand extended thenThoughtless; and quickly drew it back again;Straight blushing blam'd herself, fell fears alarming,Then courage taking, cried out, " Donkey charming;" By hope chimerical you're led astray," Respect my glory, and my duty pray;" Between our species, distance is too wide,No, all your tenderness must be denied;" Wherefore I charge you ere it be too late," Take heed by times, nor dare provoke your fate."" Love equals all," the ass anon replied," Think of that Swan who rank'd fair Leda's pride,2666 Touching whose honour, no one e'er reflected;" Know'st thou not Minos daughter, who neglected27" The heroes all, embracing Bull instead,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 227" And sighing for her lovely quadruped;" Learn too, that erst in claws the tow'ring Eagle," From earth could youthful Ganymede inveigle; 28" And that Philyra favour'd at her ease,2966 Disguis'd as Horse, the monarch of the seas."His speech he follow'd up, and Satan sable,First author of each legendary fable,Instill'd such fam'd examples to surprise,As rang'd our ass on level with the wise.While thus he dar'd in polish'd lays presume,Dunois, who occupied adjoining room,Attentive listen'd; -stupified to hearStrains breath'd so eloquently in Joan's ear!He wish'd to view the hero who thus prated,And what fell rival, Love had now created:He enter❜d; and quite stupified survey'd,The beast bewitched with monstrous ears array'd:O! prodigy-O! marvel to surprise,He saw, yet doubted, truth before his eyes.Venus of old, felt thus of shame the dread,When o'er her, wiry net of brass was spreadBy wretched Vulcan; who to gods display'dMars with his rib, devoid of covering laid.Joan, after all was not subdu'd ' tis plain,Q 2228 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.31Denis o'er Satan, held the curbing rein,Near the abyss, her steps he guarded still,And snatch'd her from the dire effects of ill .Joan now indignant, found in breast an host;Just so a soldier sleeping at his post,Who as the first alarms his senses greet,Springs up and sudden stands upon his feet,Rubs either eye, attires himself, -and lo! 30Seizes his arms, prepar❜d to meet the foe.Of Deborah, the all redoubted spear,Hanging the bed's head of our maiden near,Which rescu'd her from perils ev'ry day,She seiz'd, the pow'r of Satan to dismay,Who ne'er could stand against its dint divine:Dunois and Joan attack'd the fiend malign;Foul Satan fled, and while he hideous cried,The woods of Orleans, Blois, and Nantz replied,And Poitou's donkeys, that in meadows stray'd,In harsh tones answering, more discordant bray'd.The Devil sped; but in his quicken❜d pace,He thought on England's ills, his own disgrace,So flew like arrow into Orleans straight,And pass'd of Louvet president, the gateThen enter'd snug, the body of his dame,Sure of controlling there, the mental flame,Such was his goal-the tempter knew full well,The secret sin whereof she own'd the spell,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 229He solv'd her passion, Talbot rul'd her will,The wily snake to evil prompting still,Spurr'd and inflam'd her, hoping in the end,Some friendly succour he might thus extend,And thro' the gates of Orleans lead amainThe valiant Talbot and his fiery train;Yet while thus toiling for each British elf,He knew full well he fought but for himself, 32END OF CANTO TWENTY.

NOTES TO CANTO XX.1 De gustibus non est disputandum, and if we take into consideration theversatility ofthe female character, it is somewhat astonishing, that our poet,who is usually lenient, should prove thus inexorable to the ladies; he perhapsonly looked upon the bad side of the picture, without calling to mind thisaxiom of La Bruyere," Les femmes sont extremes; elles sont mellieurs ou pire que les hommes. ”2 of the venerable Tritemus, we have spoken upon former occasions.•3 There is little consolation to be derived from the above lines, which inferthat we are only blessed with the dregs of love, as all its real extacies wereshowered upon Pandora, to whom we are indebted for every evil, Hope excepted; since from her fatal box-"Omnia in orbem evolarunt mala; sola spe infundo relictâ.”Urania, is here used as the surname of Venus, or Celestial; in whichcharacter, she was supposed to preside over beauty and generation, and wascalled daughter of Uranus or Cœlus, by the light.232 NOTES.5 Celadon, is a name very frequently applied to amorous and languishingshepherd swains, in the Pastoral Eclogues, and Idyls of the Poets.6 Voltaire, for some reason unknown to the annotator, seems to regardthese Monks of Saint Francis as very devils in the sports of Venus, whichmust be the effect of constitutional vigour, as the Cordeliers are of the mendicant order, and consequently find no auxiliaries in the delights of a wellstocked table, or the overflowing goblets of rich and rosy wine." Sine Cerere et Baccho friget Venus. "7 The Golden Ass, is an excellent allegorical production, replete with morality, comprised in eleven books, and was composed by Apuleius, a verylearned man of Mudaura, in Africa.⁹ Larchet, surnamed by our author the Pedant, rendered himself ridiculousas an enthusiastical supporter of Cardinal Mazarine; he was a complete collegian, who, in a critical work after Herodotus, asserts that in Babylon thefemales prostituted themselves in the Temple by way of devotion, and thatall the young Gauls were of the race of Sodom and Gomorrah.? It is thus, that the Devil should be spoken of at all times, as well as allthe devils that succeeded to the furies, and equally the modern fooleries whichare derived from the fooleries of the ancients. It is pretty well known, thatSatan, Beelzebub, and Astaroth, have no more real existence than Tisiphone,Alecto, and Megara. The sombre and fanatic Milton, of the party of theRound Heads or Independents, and infamous Latin Secretary of the Parliament surnamed the Rump, and still more detestable, as having been the apologist of the assassination of Charles the First, may continue to eulogise Hellas long as he chooses, or depict the Devil disguised as a Cormorant or aToad, and arrange all the infernal Cohort as pigmies in a vast hall; these disgusting, terrible, and absurd chimeras, may have been agreeable to somefanatics like himself, but we must declare, that such abominable pleasantries,are regarded by us with horror; as we only desire on the contrary, that suchpersonages should prove conducive to our amusem*nt." Note inserted in French Editions of LA PUCELLE. "NOTES. 23366 a10 Joan seems to have forgotten the adage that un once de Vanité gate unquintal de merite. " I once knew," said the Marquis de Lwitty gentleman whose father had been a coachman, (which was certainly novery great misfortune, ) and who was sometimes desirous of passing for thenatural son of a Prince, and at others, for that of Voltaire; thus prostitutingthe fame of his mother, at the shrine of his egregious vanity."11 Denis must have been most deeply offended at these movements excited inthe brain of his protegée, which had nothing to do with priestly intervention;since our heroine had the presumption to rely solely upon her own judgment,without any reference whatsoever to his opinion. To punish this obduracyand awaken contrition, our Saint had recourse to the very best expedientpossible, that of abandoning her to her own free-will, by the aid of which,our refractory Joan, being arbiter of her own destiny, was certain of damnation, as the soundest efforts of reason and common sense, without the interposition of the Church, would have been fruitless; and in consequence,Mister Saint Denis, with true paternal feeling, rescued his maiden fromthe fate which infallibly awaited her, and thus placed Joan upon the stoolof repentance.12 Bernard, here alluded to, was the author of an opera, entitled Castor andPollux, together with some fugitive pieces, and also produced an Art ofLove, after the manner of Ovid.13 The false prophet Balaam, had a she ass which possessed the faculty ofspeech, a circ*mstance regarded by wise heads, as a tale to make a man sleepwhile standing. This miracle is , however, perpetuated even to the presentday, since nothing is more common, than to hear asses of both sexes, disputeupon abstruse subjects of theology and metaphysics.14 A very left handed compliment this paid to the sons of Israel; such licences are, however, permitted to poets of our author's rank in the annals ofliterary celebrity.15 Adonai, means Lord or Master.234 NOTES.16 There were two scriptural personages of the names of Enoch, one beingthe eldest son of Cain, the other a saintly patriarch, and the father of Methusalem, but to which of these reverend individuals our famous ass devolved, weleave to the sage determination of Theologians, to whom it must be a matterof unspeakable consequence.17 A more decided proof of continence than this, was never adduced; wherefore the situation of our donkey forcibly calls to mind, Sheridan's remark inthe Critic, when he states that" Thefleet was not in sight, because the fleet could not be seen."18 The Thyrsus, is a lance or javeline, environed with branches of ivy andthe vine, being one of the attributes given by the poets to the god Bacchus,displaying according to some, the fury which wine inspires, while others imagine, that it bears reference to the necessity which drunkards have of a stick ,in order to support themselves.19 Silenus, generally represented as a fat jolly old man, crowned with flowersand intoxicated, is uniformly depicted riding upon an ass, which animal isshrewdly surmised to have served as Trumpeter to the god Bacchus and hisfestive train.20 Apuleus's donkey did not speak; he could never pronounce more than Ohand No; but he enjoyed an excellent fortune with a lady, as may be seen inthe two volumes quarto Cum Notis ad Usum Delphini. In short, at all periods the same sentiments have been attributed to beasts as to men; in the Iliadand Odyssey, we are told that horses wept; while in the Fables of Æsop, Pilpay, and Lockman, animals of every description converse as familiarly asyour humble servant.21 It is highly requisite for my heretical readers to learn, that the Devil,under the semblance of a pauper, having craved charity of Saint Martin, thelatter very philanthropically bestowed upon him the half of his Tunic.NOTES. 235At the city of Tours, are displayed to devotees, the body of this charitableSaint, and the sword with which he so severed his garment, as well as theremains of the Seven Sleepers. Being now upon the subject of relics, let usrecord some of those stated to have belonged to Jean, Duc de Berri, brotherof Charles the Fifth of France, according to the account handed down to usby Laboureur, in the Introduction to his History, page eighty-five , which consisted of-First, a Rib of Saint Zacharius.-Second, a Rib of Saint Barbara. -Third, half of one of the feet of Saint Cyprian. -Fourth, half ofthe Sponge used by the Virgin Mary, when she wept for Saint Stephen.—Fifth, half of Saint Laurence's Gridiron. -Sixth, half of a Rib of SaintAnthony. In addition to these, the above named Prince is stated to havemade presents of numerous relics to different churches, and among the rest,part of the head and arm of Saint Bennet to the Abbey of Saint Denis, forwhich he procured by way of exchange, the chin of Saint Hilary, and subsequently the hand of Saint Thomas the Apostle, &c. &c.See id: His.; 249, 327, 436: JUVENAL DES URSINS, 127.22 As the Legenda Sanctorum, is little studied by my countrymen, in general, it is essential I should advertize them, that Saint Roch was afamous curerof the plague, and that in all pictures and images, he is represented accompanied by a Dog, just as Saint Anthony, so renowned for resisting the temptation of the Flend, has always at his side a friendly Pig; all good Christiansknowthe Eagle of Saint John, the Ox, of St. Luke, and in short the severalother beasts that are received as inhabitants of Paradise. I cannot think ofterminating this note, without remarking that the Legenda Aurea, an immensethick folio, is replete with such exaggerated tales as are to be found in thepages of Mother Goose, &c.; to such therefore, as are enamoured of theGood Olden Times and venerable fooleries, we strenuously recommend a perusal of the volume in question, which cannot fail to afford them an abundantharvest, at the expence of the folly of human nature, and the establishing aneternal monument of the infatuated ignorance of our reverend fore-fathers."23 If the fraternity of the Frock, have thundered forth their anathemasagainst the Pucelle of Voltaire, it is not to be wondered at, since we find ourpoem frequently interlarded with couplets similar to the above; besides, itshould notbe forgotten that Bigots are the most unforgiving race of men; andto say that Monks are not at least outwardly bigolted to their tenets, would beto aver, that a man does not uphold the doctrine which maintains him in idle-236 NOTES.ness, at the expence of his fellow-men. Des Houlieres, has very justly remarked-" Fâche t'on-un DEVOT, c'est Dieu qu'on fâche en lui."24 An exquisite food serving as nourishment to the gods, according to theancients. Ambrosia quasi cibus deorum; be this however as it may, analderman set before a well covered table of terrestrial dainties, would doubtlessexclaim-" Soule toi de Nectar, crève- toi D'Ambrosie," Nous n'avous pour ces mets, aucune jalousie. "25 Never was a compliment more adroitly turned than this of our donkey;poor Joan was indeed in a perilous situation, and Satan doubtless calculatedthat the victory was all his own; but the tempter found to his cost, that asaintly Ægis invulnerable, and that Denis, though without his sconce, wasmore than a match for the foul fiend armed with his caput and horns to boot.26 Leda, the wife of Tyndarus, King of Sparta, having accorded her favours to Jupiter, under the semblance of a Swan, at the expiration of ninemonths was delivered of two eggs, from one of which sprang Pollux and Helena, and from the other, Castor and Clytemnestra.27 Pasaphae, the wife of Minos, King of Crete, is said to have disgracedherself by an unnatural passion for a Bull, the fruit of which infamous commerce was the Minotaur.Ganymede, a beautiful youth, is reported by some authors to have beencarried away by an Eagle, in order to satisfy the shameful and unnatural desires of Jupiter; and Philyra, one of the Oceanides, having had commercewith a Horse, brought forth the Centaur Chiron, who was afterwards thepreceptor of Achilles. It may be requisite to remark, that it was not NeptuneNOTES. 237but Saturn, who assumed the shape of the palfrey; in this point our poet hasbeen led into an error, but I will not take upon myself to state that somesages may not have entertained a similar opinion.26 Ganymede, a young Trojan prince, passionately enamoured of the chase,was, according to the fable of the ancients, borne away by the Eagle of Jupiter while hunting on Mount Ida, and installed in the post of cup bearer to theKing of the Gods, which Hebe had forfeited by falling in an indecent posture,while pouring out nectar to the gods at a grand festival.29 Philyra, one of the Oceanides, was met by Saturn in Thrace, who inorder to escape the vigilance of Rhea, changed himself into a horse, that hemight enjoy the company of Philyra, by whom he had a son, half a man andhalf a horse, called Chiron.30 The above idea, brings to mind the following curious and authenticanecdote respecting Napoleon.The army of Italy, under General Bonaparte, having been engaged againstthe Austrians during the whole day, at length terminated the desperate conflictby gaining a complete victory, at the very moment when the setting sun threwa faint gleam upon the western horizon. As the troops for two successiveday's had not tasted repose, the complete flight of the enemy at this particularjuncture was the more fortunate, as the French were thereby enabled to enjoyrepose during the night, of which they very gladly took advantage.Notwithstanding this harassed state of the army, it was necessary to establish outposts; when a grenadier, stationed upon this service, which precludedthe enjoyment of rest, being quite exhausted with fatigue, fell fast asleep athis post.Napoleon, who offered up repose as a sacrifice to the more imperious callsof vigilance and glory, proceeded alone to visit the outskirts of the camp, andduring this survey, arrived at the spot where lay extended the sleeping sentinel,238 NOTES.who could not be said to have been guilty of a breach of duty, but the unwilling victim of the extreme fatigue that wholly overpowered him.Napoleon, unmindful of his dignity, and actuated only from a noble principle, took up the soldier's musket which lay beside him, and placing it uponhis own shoulder, continued thus to mount guard for nearly an hour, in orderto watch over the safety of the camp. The grenadier at length awoke, andsought for his piece in vain, but by the light of the moon, perceived his General, who had thus magnanimously paid respect to his hour of repose." Oh! I am undone!" vociferated the affrighted soldier, on recognizingNapoleon, whose lineaments were graven upon the heart of every warrior." No, myfriend, ” replied the General, with extreme affability, at the sametime surrendering him up his arms: -" The battle was obstinate and sufficiently long to excuse your having thus yielded to the impulse offatigue;one moment of inattention might endanger the fate of the camp; I washowever awake, and have only to advise, that you would be more upon yourguardfor the future."31 This terrible weapon of the Jewish heroine, was presented to Joan bySaint Denis, in the church bearing his name, as appears in Canto the Secondof our poem; no wonder therefore, that the fiend fled before its murderouspoint, since Joan was a prophetess as well as Deborah, and we know thattwo ordinary women will outmatch the Devil at any time. Having just spoken of the patron of Gaul, it may not be irrelevant to mention the town whichderived from him its name, and whither his corpse was conveyed by means ofa miracle. [ See Note thirty, to Canto the First. ]" Res mira est caput ipse suum Dionisius illac," Truncatum portans requievit in illo .”It is also stated, that the Church of our Saint, was consecrated by the handof Christ himself, according to the testimony of a Leper, who chanced to sleepNOTES. 239in that edifice, and whom the Lord transported to the walls of the Church, inorder that he might not discredit the reality of his vision, which fully accountsfor the remains of this Leper having been there preserved and duly reverencedwith those of the headless Mister Saint Denis.32 Satan is a dreadful double dealer, who never accords a favour, withoutthe certainty of reaping a quid pro quo, with some little douceur to boot." Trust not th' equivocation of the fiend," That lies like truth."How Talbot and his band will fare, let the ensuing Canto make manifest.

CANTO XXI.ARGUMENT.THE CHASTITY OF JOAN DEMONSTRATED-MALICE OF THE DEVILRENDEZVOUS GIVEN TO TALBOT BY THE WIFE OF LOUVET THEPRESIDENT-SERVICES RENDERED BY BROTHER LOURDIS-CHARMING CONDUCT OF THE DISCREET AGNES-REPENTANCE OF THE ASS-EXPLOITS OF JOAN-TRIUMPHS OF THE GOOD KING CHARLES VII.EXPERIENCE hath no doubt, taught reader's mind,That the sweet deity as boy design'd,Whose sports, an infant's gambols ne'er unfold,Two diff'rent quivers hath, his shafts to hold;One only filled with tender striking darts,Void of all pain or danger, wound imparts;Which time encreasing, penetrates the breast,And leaves you with the deepest wound impress'd:The other darts raise fire's consuming glow,Which, as they part, inflame and strike the blow:VOL. II. R242 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.They to the senses five, destruction déal,Impressing on the front a ruby seal;A new born life we then appear to claim,Fresh crimson currents seem to fire the frame;We nothing hear; then sparkling beams the sight,As water boiling o'er the flame so bright,Which, mounting in the vessel overflows,And in the ardent flame its bubble throws;To mind such image faintly can express,Desires thus raging, followed to excess.¹Ye worthless scribes, to all profaneness prone,Ye, who dar'd sully glory of my Joan;Ye writers vile, with love of falsehood smitten,Who bold belie the works by sages written;"Tis ye pretend, my maiden could retain,And for grey donkey, cherish fire profane,Ye publish, that she argued ill -to vex,Insulting thus, her virtue and her sex:Compilers base, such infamy your trade is,Learn, ' tis your duty to respect the ladies;Say not this weakness e'er in Joan could dwell,The into such error never fell, sageCOLLOWTNone could with these untruths the hearing wound;In this, the time and action ye confound,And rare events, most marvellous impede; mhmulo siftRespect the ass, and laud his ev'ry deed;THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 248His talents never grac'd your senseless throng,And yet your ears, good folks, are just as long.On this occasion, if indeed the maid,A smile of satisfaction e'er betray'd,The novel flame with which she so had fir'dThe long ear'd beast, this sentiment inspir'd;'Twas vanity, which none in maids rèprove,An amour propre, not the other love.³In fine, this point, to set forth free from varnish,Shewing of Joan nought could the lustre tarnish,To prove that to the malice foul of Hell,The Donkey's eloquence and transports fellHer heart was proof, in virtue's armour clad.Know, that the maid, another lover had:'Twas Dunois, as my readers all well know,The bastard bold, who had inspir'd the glow,At speech of ass; surprize the mind may seize,One may indulge a vain desire to please,A turn so innocent and light, ' tis clear,Could ne'er the traitor prove, to love sincere.On page historical, the truth is told,How Dunois the sublime, that hero boldFelt, with a golden shaft, his heart pierc'd through,Which Cupid smiling, from first quiver drew;He ever in obedience kept the flame,R 2244 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Weakness in his proud heart ne'er took the rein,Nought save his monarch, and the state he saw,In him their int'rest reign'd, the ruling law.*He knew, Oh! Joan, thy blooming virgin flower,Ofvict'ry the pledge in battle's hour.Respected were thy charms and Denis too;Just like the pointer-dog, well taught and true,Who staunch the calls of hunger can defeat,The patridge holding, which it will not eat;But, when celestial Jack-ass, thus he found,On flame descanting of Love's bleeding wound,Dunois conceiv'd that he might speak in turn;Sages sometimes forget themselves, we learn.No doubt, a flagrant folly it had prov'd,To sacrifice the state for her he lov'd;"Twas all to lose, and Joan still feeling shame,For having donkey heard avow his flame,Resisted ill her hero's ardent speech,Love strove in soul so pure, to make a breach;All had been done; when lo! her patron bright,His ray detaching from celestial height,That golden beam, his glory and his steed,Bearing his saintly form in time of need,As when he sought, impelled by pressing call,A virgin flow'r to rescue Orleans' wall;THE MAID OF ORLEANS.245This heavenly ray that pierc'd Joan's better sense,Each sentiment profane remov'd from thence:" Dear Bastard stop:" she cried, " O! shun the crime," Our Loves are reckon'd, ' tis not yet the time;" Let us nought mar of sovereign fate's decree," My solemn faith is plighted but to thee," Thine I protest the virgin bud shall be:" Let us await until your vengeful arm," Your virtues, which in Britons strike alarm," Have from our soil the vile usurpers driv'n," Then, ' neath the laurel stretch'd, we'll taste love's heav'n. "At this address the Bastard calm'd hisAnd hearing oracle, submitted sage;rage,Joan modestly receiv'd his homage spoken,So pure, so soft, and gave him straight for tokenChaste kisses thirty, with a glow replete,5Such as when brother's lips, a sister's meet!Each bridled in the torrent of desire,And modestly agreed to quench the fire:Denis beheld;-the saint was satisfied,And straight his projects hast'ned to decide.That night, bold Talbot, chief of high renown,By ruse resolv'd to enter Orleans' town,Exploit quite new to haughty Briton's feeling,More hardy far in feats than double dealing."246 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.O God of Love! O weakness, mighty pow'r!O fatal love! thy will was in that hourOf France to yield this rampart to the foe,Whereof no Briton hop'd the overthrow.That which had baffled Bedford's thinking brain,What Talbot's prowess vainly strove to gain,Thou didst, Oh Love, essay; replete with guile,Of ills the source: sweet child ah! wherefore smile?If in his course of conquering career,Agentle shaft to heart of Joan could veer;Another arrow from his bow- string flew,Dame President's five senses to subdue.With hand he struck her, which triumphant rules,Directing dart that turns us all to fools;78'Gainst tow'r you've seen the scaling ladder laid,Assault so bloody, direful cannonade;These conflicts hardy, and these efforts stout,On battlements perform'd, within, without,As Talbot and his thund'ring legions pour,Forcing the walls, and breaking down each door,While show'ring from the height of bastions cameWith death combin'd, destruction, fire and flame:The ardent Talbot with an agile pace,Enter'd o'er dying, ramparts of the place,O'erthrowing all; crying with lungs of Stentor," Townsmen, your arms throw down, my Britons enter! "THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 247To war's dread god, he bore resemblance strong,When Earth re-echoes as he strides along;While fell Bellona, Discord, dooming Fate,Nerve his dire arm, who rules grim death in state.Our Lady President, thro' mansion's wall,Close to a ruin'd pile had lattice small,From whence upon her lover's form she gaz'd,His golden casque, his wavy plume high rais'd;His steel-cas'd arms, as sparks of fiery dieForth from each pupil shot, of vivid eye;That glance so god-like and that lofty frame,All in Dame President illum'd the flame,Of sense depriving her, as well as shame.Thus from stage-box upon a time we saw,Dame Audou, to whom Love prescribed the law,Ogling of Baron, Thespian pow'rs divine,As with gaze ardent she devour'd each line,His fine demeanour, action chastely true,And costume suited to the subject too;Mingled with his, her accents in tones low,Love's flames receiv'd, her senses own'd the glow.In Dame the subtle fiend was thron'd in state,Acquiring post, though not importunate,And that archangel black, Hell's ravenous King,The Devil or Love, which mean the self-same thing, 10.Had ta'en of Sue the Coiffe and ev'ry feature,248 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Who long had serv'd a most obsequious creature,Agirl both active and instructed too,Dressing and frizzing, bearing Billet doux,In double rendezvous a careful elf,The one for mistress, t'other for herself,Satan, concealed beneath her semblance well,Thus held harangue, with our puissant belle." Alike, my heart and talents you must know," I wish to aid your bosom's ardent glow;" Your int'rest nearly now concerns my mind," This night, my own first cousin, as I find" Stands sentry at a certain postern gate," Where nought against your fame can doubt create;" In secret there, bold Talbot you may meet," Dispatch a note, my cousin is discreet," Your message trust me, he'll perform with care. ”11 Dame President anon penn'd billet fair, ¹¹Impassion'd, tender words, that strike heart's goal,And with voluptuous furor, fire the soul;"Twas easy seen, that Satan had dictated:Talbot expert, with love infatuated,12 Made oath his fair at rendezvous to meet, ¹But swore alike, that in this conflict sweet,The path of pleasure should to glory lead;All things were ready for the purpos'd deed,Thus springing from the couch, 'twas plann'd that heShould leap into the arms of victory.THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 249Our reverend Lourdis, you well know was sent,By saintly Denis with the wise intent,Of serving him ' mid Britain's cohorts dire,In acting free, he sang the chant of choir,Said mass, and even to confession hied;Talbot upon his parole giv'n relied,Ne'er thinking, one so dull, a rustic vile,A brainless monk-dross of conventual pile,Who, by his order had borne public whipping,Could thus be found sage General out-stripping.But righteous Heav'n in this judg'd otherwiseIn its decrees, strange whims will oft ariseTo mock and make the greatest merely tools,Sages confounding by the means of fools;From Paradise dispatch'd, a ray of senseBeam'd to illume of Lourdis', sconce so dense,The mass of thickened brain, within his scullLighter became anon, and far less dull,Struck:-he felt intellect his head endow, 13Alas! we think, the Lord above knows how!Let us for springs invisible enquire,That more or less with thought the brains inspire:Those divers atoms, let our wits descry,That from sound sense, or reason turn awry;¹4In what sly nook of Perecranium's plac'd,An Homer's genius and a Virgil's taste?And by what leav'n, with coldest poison fraught,250 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Was Zoilus, Freron, and Thersites taught:15A friend of Flora's regions of perfumeNe'er pink beholds the baleful hemlock bloom,"Tis the Creator's will, holds sov'reign sway,That hidden hand which all things must obey,Unseen by eyes in doctor's pedant pate,Their useless prattle we'll not imitate.Lourdis right curious, now sought all to see,And his new sight employ'd most usefully;Tow'rd night he spied to city's wall repairingA train of cooks, such dainty viands bearing,As sumptuous banquet for the board supplies,Hams, truffles, wood hens, partridges, and pies; 16Decanters ample, with rich sculptures graced,Refresh'd,—as round them piles of ice were placed:That brilliant liquid -juice of ruby glow,Rang'd in the cellars bless'd of fam'd Citeaux.17Tow'rd Postern gate in silence thus they sped:Lourdis, who science then possess'd in headNot Latin; but that still more happy code,Leading us thro' this rugged world's sad road; 16Of eloquence the flow, he then display'd,By kindest courtesy and prudence ray'd;Regarding all thro' corner of keen eye,With deepest craft abounding-courtier sly;The monk in fine, of monks was most complete,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 251"Tis thus in all times we our equals meet:Speeding from kitchen, to the council hall,Disturbing peace, in war intriguers all,O'er mansion now, of Burgess rude presiding,Then into cabinets of monarchs gliding,Troubling the world; in fine on discord bent,Sometimes expert, at others insolent;Now greedy wolves, now fraught with fox's wiles,Now antic apes, or full of serpent's guiles,¹9For which the miscreant Britons erst decreed,That England should be purg'd of such a breed.∞By unfrequented path, our Lourdis sped,Which, thro' a wood to royal quarters led;Conning this mighty mystery in mindHe went, sworn brother Bonifoux to find:Don Bonifoux, just then with thought sedatePros'd most profoundly o'er the page of fate,He measur❜d links invisible to sight,Which destiny and time in bonds unite;Deeds trifling and events supremely great,The world to come, and our material state;The whole he drew to focus in his mind,Effect and cause, enraptured he defin’d,Their order saw, and found a rendezvousMight save an empire, or a state subdue.The Confessor in thought still kept enroll'd20252 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.·How once were seen, three lilies all of goldOn alabaster field.-The rump of page,An English youth, nor less did thoughts engageWalls ruin'd, of Hermaphrodix fell sage.But what astounded most his wond'ring brain,Was to see Lourdis stock of sense attainFrom which, he well foresaw that in the end,To good Saint Denis, Britain's host must bend.Lourdis by Bonifoux, in form politePresented was, to lovely Agnes' sight;Her beauty and his monarch complimented,Then straight explaining, forthwith representedHow prudence of bold Talbot lull'd asleep,Was that same Night a rendezvous to keepNear Postern; and, that war's fell chief would thereOf Louvet meet, the love sick Dame so fair,Quoth he, " A stratagem one may pursue," There trace his steps, surprize his person too," As by Dalilah Sampson was of old," Oh! Agnes most divine, this theme unfold" To mighty Charles. " " Ah!, reverend man, " she said," Think you the monarch is at all times led" On me love's soft effusions to bestow?" I think he damns himself, tho' naught I know!”Lourdis replied:-" My robe condemns love's sway," My heart absolves him:-Fortunate are theyTHE MAID OF ORLEANS. 2531 פיי" Who at some epoch shall be damned for thee."Quoth Agnes: " Monk, your converse flatters me," And proves your head, with store of sense supplied: "To corner then, conducting him asideThus whisper'd she: " Hast thou amidst our foes," The youthful Briton seen, y'clept Monrose?"22The subtle monk in black replied: " In sooth,"As lending ear—" I've seen the charming youth. "Agnes deep blushing bent to earth a look,Then muscles smoothing, hand with kindness tookOf wily Lourdis, and ere Sol's ray fled,To dear Lord Paramount his foot-steps led.Lourdis then made a more than mortal speech;To this, as wits of Charly could not reach,23His sov'reign counsel he assembled straight,His Almoners. -War's chieftains too sedate.Amidst these heroes like herself, was JoanWith mind for counsel as to combats prone;24While Agnes, in a manner form'd to wheedle,Discreetly occupied o'er thread and needle25From time to time, deliver'd good advice,Which monarch Charles adopted in a trice."Twas then propos'd to seize with skilful care,Beneath the ramparts, Talbot and his fair:So Vulcan and the Sun in Heav'n we're taught;254 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Mars, with his lovely Aphrodisia caught: 26.Each to prepare this enterprize was led,At once demanding strength of hand and head.Dunois proceeded first by lengthen'd route,Hard march performing, which proved mind acute,Feat of war's art, that claim'd of old renown:The army pass'd, safe enter'd then the town.Near Postern gate the force was thus employ'd,As Talbot with dame President enjoy'd,Of dawning union the first keen delights,Flatt'ring himself, that from the couch, to fightsQuite hero like, but one jump he should make;Six regiments in defile were road to take:Command was giv'n.-The city had been ta'en,But the foregoing eve each soldier's brainWas petrified with Lourdis' long discourse,Each gap'd, bereft of motion and of force;Asleep and side by side, on plain they laid,So great the miracle- which Denis play'd.Joan with Dunois and the selected trainOf gallant knights, soon having pass'd the plain,Already lin'd, ' neath Orleans' ramparts strongOfthe beseigers camp, the trenches long.Mounted on horse of Barbary's fam❜d breed,In Charles's stable, then the only steedJoan ambled, grasping in her dexter hand,THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 255Of Deborah renown'd, the Heav'nly brand,While noble broad sword did her side adorn,Wherewith poor Holophernes' head was shorn,27And thus equipp'd, with thoughts devout, our maidInternally to Denis' saint, thus pray'd." Thou who hast deign'd to feeble maid like me," These glorious arms confide, at Donremi," Prove of my frailty now support benign;" O! pardon, if some vanity was mine" When flatter'd senses heard thy faithless ass," With freedom hail me, as the fairest lass." Dear patron deign to recollection call," That thro' my means the Britons were to fall," Thus punishing foul deeds in ardour done," Having polluted each afflicted nun." A greater feat presents itself to-day;66 Nought can I act, without thy fost'ring ray," Endow this arm with force like thine to toil," At its last gasp, preserve the Gallic soil," Avenge of Charles the lily's tarnished hue,"With threatened honour of sage Louvet too;" Ah! let us to this gracious end be led," And Heav'n in safety still preserve thy head. ”28From height celestial, goodly Denis heard,And in the camp the donkey felt the word;256 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.'Twas Joan he felt, and clapping pennons tooAnon with crest erect, towards her flew,On knee crav'd grace, his pardon to ensureFor late attempts of tenderness impure:66 By demon, " he exclaimed, " I was possess'd," I now repent," he wept with grief oppress'd;Conjur'd her then, his willing back to cross,He could not of her weight sustain the loss,Nor bear another 'neath our maid to trot:Joan well perceiv'd an Heav'nly beam, I wot29Restor❜d the flighty donkey for her steed,Ofgrace, our penitent, received the meed;Her ass then strode, and gave him counsel meetTo prove from thenceforth sober and discreet,The donkey swore and fir'd with courage rare,Proud of his charge, ' gan flights thro' realms of air.On Britons, swift as lightning's flash he dartsLike forked fire, that with the thunder parts;Joan flying, overwhelm'd the country round,With streams of blood imbruing verdant ground,On every side, of limbs dispers'd the wrecks,While heap'd were seen by hundreds, slaughter'd necks.In crescent then, the harbinger of night,Widely dispens'd a pale and dubious light;Still stunn'd, the Britons own'd assailing dreadTHE MAID OF ORLEANS. 257To view whence came the blow, each rear'd his head,In vain he strove to see death's dooming blade,With panic struck, they ran misled , dismay'd;And rushing on, fell into Dunois' power,Charles was of kings, the happiest in that hour,His foes rushed on, impending fate to dare:So scatter'd partridges, ' mid realms of air,In numbers falling bruis'd by pointer keenAnd torn by shot; imbru'd the heath is seen:The donkey's brayings loudly roar'd alarm,Fierce Joan extended high, her vengeful arm,Pursu'd, cut, pierced, tore, sever'd, bruis'd, and rent,All force oppos'd to Dunois' prowess bent,While good king Charles at pleasure aimed aright,Shooting all those, whom fear had put toflight.30Talbot, intoxicated with the charmsOf Louvet-and joys tasted in her arms,As on her bosom languishingly laid,At Postern gate, heard din of war's fell trade:Glowing with triumph:-" By my soul," cried he," There are my troops, Orleans now yields to me. ”Aloud he thus extoll'd his wily pains," O! love ' tis thou," he cried, " who cities gains; "Our knight thus fed by hope, replete with bliss,Gave to his tender fair, a parting kiss,Sprang from the couch, attir'd himself, and fleet,Repair'd the vanquishers of France to meet.VOL. II.258 THE MAID OF ORLEANS.Nought but a single squire appear'd to view,Who ever dar'd bold Talbot's steps pursue:Deep in his confidence, a valiant wightAnd worthy vassal of so brave a knight,Guarding no less his wardrobe than his lance:" Come seize your prey, my gallant friends advance. ”Talbot exclaim'd-but soon joy disappear'd,Instead of friends, our Joan with lance uprear'dBore down upon him on celestial ass,He saw two hundred French through portal pass;Great Talbot shudder'd, palsied o'er with dread:" Long live the King," each Gallic champion said." Let's drink; let's drink; advance, myfriends, with me;" On, Gascons, Picards; yield to jollity," No quarter give, ofcarnage take your fill," Yonder they are, myfriends! shoot, fire, and kill.”5¹Talbot recover'd from the dire control,Which first held potent empire o'er his soul;Resolv'd at Postern freedom to maintain:So erst, all bleeding, ' midst the burnt up plain,Anchisis straight his conq'ror dar'd engage:Talbot yet combatted with greater rage,Briton was he, and seconded by squire,Both would a world attack with courage dire.Now front to front, now back to back they strove,And torrents of the victims 'fore them drove;At length their vigour spent, on well fought field,An easy vict'ry to Gaul's sons they yield;THE MAID OF ORLEANS. 259Talbot surrender'd tho' unbeaten still ,Dunois and Joan extoll'd his gallant skill , 32And both proceeding, complaisantly tender'dThe Dame, who thus to President was render'd;Without suspicion he receiv'd her well,Your gentle husbands never ought can tell,Nor e'er did Louvet learn, the fateful chance, 333That thro' his dame, was sav'd the realm of France.Denis applauded loud from Heav'nly height,Saint George on horseback shudder'd at the sight;The ass discordant octaves thund'ring near,In British souls, augmented still the fear.The King then rank'd ' mid conq'rors of renown,With lovely Agnes supped in Orleans' town;Joan fierce and tender, having sent awayThat self same night, to Heav'n her Donkey grey,Of sacred oath accomplishing the law, 34Kept promise made to well belov'd Dunois,As Lourdis, midst the faithful cohort stray'dBawling out still: " Ye Britons she's a maid. "35END OF CANTO TWENTY-FIRST.$ 2wo.IatWith one quidwnlNOTES TO CANTO XXI.From the tenor of these introductory lines, our poet infers that Cupid possesses two quivers, stored with darts, the one inflicting wounds, which areproductive of a tender and durable love, the other, armed with shafts, whoseenvenomed points only give rise to the grosser feelings of sensual desire andunbridled lust.2 The author of the Testament of Cardinal Alberoni and some other worksofa similar nature, took upon himself to publish an edition of La Pucelle,interpolated and versified according to his own ideas; concerning which, wehave spoken in the preface. This miserable wretch was an unfrocked monkof the Capucin order, who sought refuge at Lauzun, as well as in Holland,where he filled the employ of superintendant of a printing-press.3 L'amour propre est le plus grand de tous les flatteurs, is a maxim ofRochefoucault; yet there is a species of noble vanity, whereof few persons arecapable, which is that of distinguishing oneself by a show of excessive simplicity, a mode of action formerly adopted by the famous Bossi D'Amboise,who, on a grand court day, when each was desirous of outvying the other inmagnificence, appeared habited in the most simple manner possible, while hisvalets were covered with the richest liveries that could be procured. By thismeans, the eyes of the whole assembly were directed towards him, so thatevery one appeared to form a part of his retinue, while he had alone the airof a man of distinction. A similar conduct was pursued by the great Frederie262 NOTES.of Prussia, nor less adopted by Napoleon, the Gallic Emperor, who, thoughenvironed by his Marshals and Ministers in the most sumptuous attire , has frequently appeared to the writer like a sun in the hemisphere of brilliancy, thoughcovered only with an old grey surtout, and a little co*cked hat the worse forwear.Afervent, and honorable love, like that possessed by the brave Dunois,cannot be more beautifully described, than in the following couplets." Projets flatteurs de seduire une belle," Soins concertés de luifaire la cour," Tendres ecrits, sermens d'etre fidele," Airs empressés, vous n'êtes point l'amour:" Mais se donner sans espoir de rétour," Par son desordre annoncer que l'on aime," Respect timide avec ardeur extréme," Persevérence au comble du malheur," Voila l'amour, mais il n'est qu'en mon cœur."VERRIERES.• Voltaire seems to have intended these thirty embrassades, as a just sarcasm upon the kissing salutations so incessantly practised among his countrymen, where in the open street one gentleman embraces another; while onpaying the matin visit, females rush into each other's arms with a stage effectthat might prompt a foreigner to believe that they had not met for the last tenyears, whereas, they perhaps only parted at a Soirée the preceding evening,after dancing quadrilles, and rehearsing the same scene of affected friendship,as truly heartless as it is nauseating and ridiculous. I humbly beg LadyMorgan's forgiveness, should the foregoing note chance to meet her disapprobation.• IfI have had occasion in one or two instances to dwell upon an illiberalremark of our poet in regard to my countrymen, it is but just I shouldnotice the above line, so truly characteristic of the spirit pervading the breastofevery true born Englishman, whose inherent feeling would rather prompthim to face even Lucifer, than ignominiously stab him in the dark.NOTES. 2637 This was the flaming dart whose effects were so diametrically the reverseof those produced by the arrow which pierced the heart of the brave Dunois;the latter however, appears to be the weapon usually resorted to in thesedegenerate days by the hoodwinked divinity, of whom it is said-" Certain enfant qu'avec crainte on caresse," Et qu'on connoit à son malin souris," Court en tous lieux précédé par les ris," Mais trop souvent suivi de la tristesse." Dans le cœur des humains il entre avec souplesse," Habite avec fierté, s'envole avec mepris."

  • Any feats of bravery detailed by Voltaire, as having occurred during the

siege of Orleans, are fully verified by the historians, who state that—“ Lesfemmes ne cessaient pas de porter très- diligemment à ceux qui defendaient leboulevart plusieurs choses necessaires, comme eaux, huiles et graisses bouillans, chaux, cendres , chausse trapes . Anisi que des vivres et refraîchissem*ns • * quelques unes méme combattirent sur le parapet, à coupsde lances."--" The women never ceased diligently to supply those who defended the boulevard, with such necessary ingredients as boiling water, oil,grease, lime, cinders, &c .; as well as provisions and refreshmentssome even fought with lances upon the parapet. "" See Tripaut's His: de la Pucelle- Daniel, and Chronique de France."• Madame Audou was in all probability a lady of high fashion, who wasenamoured of the famous tragedian, named Baron, equally remarkable for his finesymmetry of shape as the abilities which he displayed in the histrionic art, còncerning whom, the following anecdote is related. A chevalier of the order ofSaint Louis, of ancient extraction, possessing nothing but his half-pay, and feeling highly indignant at the extravagant manner in which Baron lived, toldhim in conversation-" That it was shameful a mere vagabond like him,should adopt such a style, while men of his family and rank who had bled fortheir country, had barely the means of subsistence." To which our tragediancoolly made the following inimitable answer.·" Et contez vous pour rien, Monsieur le Chevalier, le droit que vousavez de mele dire? ” —“ And do you, Monsieur le Chevalier, count as nothingthe right you have of telling me so?"264 NOTES.10 The following characteristic description of the interior of the Temple ofLove, might well rank its divinity upon a par with Satan himself." Les plaintes, les dégoûts, l'imprudence, la peur," Font de ce beau sejour un sejour plein d'horreur," La sombrejalousie, au teint pâle et livide," Suit d'unpied chancelant le soupçon qui la guide." La haine et le corroux repandant leur venin," Marchent devant ses pas un poignard a la main." La malice les voit, et d'un souris perfide" Applaudit en passant à leur troupe homicide.“ Le repentir les suit, detestant leursfureurs," Et baisse en soupirant ses yeux mouillés de pleurs.”11 The billet doux, a term applied to amatory and tender notes, was formerly denominated un Poulet by the French, a name derived from the mannerof folding up these love- scrolls, which presented two points, resembling thewings of a fowl.12 This expression has been found of such utility, that most of the Europeannations have adopted it; their own languages being inadequate to frame aterm so truly explanatory of the meaning. Scarron says-" A woman's virtue is already shaken when she appoints a RENDEZVOUS: " and we find inRegnier, that the house of God was made a place of meeting for lovers." Les temples aujourd'hui servent aux rendezvous . ”This is doubtless, an allusion to the custom ofyoung lovers purposely entering a church at the same time, when both going up to the elevated vase, containing the holy water, a billet doux is thus conveyed from either party, bytheir hands meeting in the vessel, for the ostensible act of taking water andcrossing themselves, but in reality, for the more efficient purpose of conveyingthe billet doux, whose etymology we have illustrated in the preceding note.13 However we may be led to blame these acrimonious epithets of our authors, yet candidly speaking, Monks always retain some marks of worldlyNOTES. 265failing, for with them, as with mankind in general, we meet with apes, madmen, and crowds of individuals bereft of merit and virtue, and having nothingbut their consummate pride to render them conspicuous.14 Voltaire bas hit upon a knotty point, for the elucidation of which, we begto refer our reader to the Sorbonnic doctors, being perfectly satisfied ourselveswith the certainty, that deliramenta doctrinæ, only conduct us to the loss ofreason, or as Scuderi says-" Tous ces ambiteux desirs," Tous ses vastes pensers, dont nous sommes la proie" Que font ils, que rendre nosjours" Et moinsfortunés, et plus courts."

15 Zoilus, a sophist and grammarian of Amphipolis, flourished two hundred and fifty-nine years before the Christian æra, and became famous on account of his severe criticisms on the works of Isocrates and Plato, and the poems of Homer, for which he received the name of Homeromastic, or the chastiser of Homer. Zoilus, presented his criticisms to Ptolemy Philadelphus, who rejected them with indignation, though the author declared that he was starving for want. It was stated by some, that Zoilus was cruelly stoned to death, or affixed to a cross by order of Ptolemy, while others affirm that he was burnt alive at Smyrna; his name is generally applied to rigid critics, but all the works of this grammarian are unfortunately lost.

16 We know full well, that an alderman and turtle soup are synonymousterms, and it may alike be said of a French bon vivant , that gastronome andtruffles meanthe same thing; for a dinde farçi de truffes, ( a turkey stuffedwith truffles,) is a dish not to be resisted by a Parisian epicure, though death inthe form of apoplexy stood at his elbow. It is ludicrous though painful to observe, the old worn out debauchees prying into the shops of the marchands decomestibles of the Palais Royal and Panorama Passage, in order to select thebest and largest birds stuffed with truffles of Perigord, Limousin, Gascony,and other hot countries, as they are said to warm and strengthen the stomach,as well as conduce to renew youthful vigour.266 NOTES.17 There were in the convents of Citeaux and Clairvaux, two immense tonsconstructed for the receiving of wine, similar to that of Heidelberg, whereofso much has been said by travellers. The two vessels in question, were by farthe most estimable reliques of these respective monasteries.18 How well the above line applies to the mode of education formerlyadopted in England, which ushered a young man from the seminary well storedwith Latin and Greek, but without possessing another requisite to save himfrom starvation, which melancholy to relate, has too frequently been the fate ofdeep study, and the most profound erudition.19 Trust not the courtier in his bag wig and sword, but if he wears the scullcap and the cowl, then fly him as you would plague, pestilence, and famine." He'sfitfor treasons, stratagems and spoils;The motions of his spirits are dull as night," And his affections dark as Erebus:" Let no such man be trusted."Never was a more faithful delineation of the priestly courtier than the above,who draws from you in his ecclesiastical character the inmost secrets of themind at the confessional, for the sole purpose of profiting by them in hisworldly capacity; for, whether in the kitchen or the palace, he is the tartuffestill; as there exists no difference between the village priest and a Mazarineor a Richlieu; education being the same, and nothing but opportunity wantingto complete the master piece of villainy.20 Voltaire felicitates England upon the period of the Reformation, when achange of religion, by abolishing confession and priestly sway, discarded fromour cabinets such a dangerous race of men." This question of Agnes, seems to imply that even with a royal lover," hottest love will soonest cloy:" while the condemnation and absolution ofNOTES. 267our monk, pronounced in the same breath, afford a striking exemplificationof priestly apostacy, when descanting upon the sins of the great.22 For shame, gentle reader, wherefore dost thou smile? This tender demand of Agnes, concerning Monrose, does not in the smallest degree mitigate against the purity of her faith, in respect to her monarch Charles, it wasmerely the result of a recollection of past circ*mstances, still perhaps in myreader's recollection, and I am sure there is not one of my lovely femalefriends so circ*mstanced, who would not have ventured upon a similar interrogatory.23 It must be confessed, that this reflection on kingly intellect is somewhat too strong, and should have been softened down, were it not that mydread of criticism as a translator, surpassed my veneration for royalty, asa man.24 Joan's prowess in the field has already been adverted to, and upon consulting historic records, we find that while Charles the Seventh continued atChinon, Jeanne D'Arc made one of his privy council, where the wisdomof her opinions was such as to be generally adopted, while they excited universal astonishment in the minds of the grave personages and able warriorsassembled.As a peculiar curiosity, I shall now give the reader an original letter, as dictated by La Pucelle, which has recently been discovered in the Archives ofLisle, being addressed to the Duke of Burgundy, and particularly interesting,as it identifies the precise period of Charles's coronation at Rheims, hithertounknown. The document in question is penned in gothic characters, withmany abbreviations, but perfectly legible; it is folded very like our ordinaryletters of the present day but completely square, and at the bottom, on thefolded side ofthe epistle is subscribed-" Au Duc de Bourgoingue."268 NOTES.JESUS MARIA."Hault et redoubte prince Duc de Bourgoigne Jehanne La Pucelle vousrequiert de par le roy du ciel mon droiturier et souverain seigneur que leRoy de France, et vous faciez bonne paixferme qui dure longuement, pardonnez lun a lautre de bon cuer entirement ainsi que doivent faire loyaulxchristians, et sil vous plaist a guerroier si alez sur les Sarrazins. Prince deBourgoingue je vous prie supplie et requièrs tant humblement que requerirvous puis que ne guerroiez plus ou ( au) saint royaume de France, et faittesretraire incontinent et briefment voz gens qui sont en aucunes places et fortesses dud: saint royaume, et de la part du gentil roy de France il est prestdefaire paix a vous sauvre son honneur sil ne tient en vous et vous fais aSavoir de par le roy du ciel mon droiturier et souverain seigneur pour votrebien et pour votre honneur et sur voz vie que vous ny gaignerez point bataillea lencontre des loyaulx François, et que tous ceulx qui guerroient ou ( au)saint royaume de France guerroient contre le roy Jhus (Jesus) roy du ciel etde tout le monde mon droiturier et souverain seigneur et vous prie et requiersajointes mains que ne faittes nulle bataille ne guerroiez contre nous vousvos gens ou subgiez et croiez seurement que quelque nombre de gens queamenez contre nous quilz ny guignerout mie et sera grant pitie de la grantbataille et du sang quy y sera respendu de ceulx qui y vendront (viendront)contre nous, et ce trois sepmaines que je vous avoye escript et envoie bonneslettres par ung herault quefeussiez au sacre du roy qui aujourduy dimencheXVIIme jour de ce present mois de Juillet, ce fait en la cite de Reims, dontje nay eu point de reponse ne nouy oncques puiz nouvelles dud herault. ADieu vous commens et soit garde de vous sil luy plaist, et prie Dieu quil ymette bonne paix. Escript aud: lieu de Reims, led: VXIIme, jour deJuillet.The singular curiosity of this epistle, and the peculiarity of the style, will Itrust, apologise for the subjoined translation, as such of my readers that areconversant with the French, may not be able fully to comprehend the phraseology of the fifteenth century, while those unacquainted with the language, willno doubt, feel gratified with the perusal of a document produced from the dictation of a character so extraordinary on the page of history, as Jeanne D'ArcLa Pucelle d'Orleans.

  • The word Jesus, is thus curtailed in the original document JHUS.

NOTES. 269Jesus Maria.High and redoubted Prince Duke of Burgundy, Jeanne La Pucelle requiresyou in behalf ofthe King of Heaven, my rightful and sovereign Lord, that theKing of France and you enter into a good and firm peace that may last long,forgive one another entirely and in good heart, as ought to do loyal christians,and if it pleases you to go to war, then go against the Saracens. Prince ofBurgundy, I pray supplicate and require you most humbly, not to continuelonger any warfare in the saintly kingdom of France, and cause to march backincontinent and briefly, your people who occupy any places or fortresses oftheforesaid saint kingdom, and on the part of the Gentil, King of France, he isready to make peace with you preserving his honour; it therefore rests withyou, and he makes known to you in behalf of the King of Heaven, my rightful and sovereign Lord, for your good and for your honour, and upon your life,that you will gain no battle upon encountering the loyal French, and that allsuch as war in the saintly kingdom of France, make war against the KingJesus, King of Heaven and the whole world, my rightful and sovereign lord;and I pray and require you with joined hands, not to give battle nor enter intowarfare against us, you or your people or subjects, and assuredly believe, thatwhatsoever number of people you bring against us that they will gain nothing,and it will be a great pity to have a battle, and that the blood should be shedof those who shall come there against us, and three weeks past did I write andsent you good letters by an herald, who was at the coronation of the king,which took place three weeks past from this day, Sunday the seventeenth dayof the present month of July, in the city of Rheims, to which I have had noanswer, nor have since received any news of the herald aforesaid . To God'sholy keeping I commend you, if it so pleases him, and pray God that he restores a good peace . Written at the said place of Rheims, the said seventeenthday of July.I cannot conclude the subject of Joan's acquirements in regard to elocution,without referring to her infamous judgment, during which, it will be foundthat upon her trial, when asked by the judges if she thought herself "blessed bythe grace of God, she made answer" Si je n'y suis, Dieu veuille m'y mettre, et si j'y suis, Dieu veuille m'ytenir!" a reply which even the critic Luchet, allowed to be sublime; andupon the question being asked, why she assisted at the coronation of Charles270 NOTES.the VII.? " Il est juste que qui a eu part au travail en ait à l'honneur,"was the answer worthy an everlasting record, according to the opinion ofVoltaire, in his Essai sur les Mœurs, ch. CLXXX.; and upon the question being proposed whether she had given the soldiers to understand thather banner was the signal of prosperity? her reply was, -" Non, je leurdisois pour toute assurance, entrez hardiment au milieu des Anglois, ET J'YENTROIS MOI MEME: ( Villaret . XV. 51. ) Who can deny the sublimity ofsuch an answer?25 Alluding to the famous Madame de Maintenon, whose secret influenceover the mind of Louis the Fourteenth was so absolute, that he constantlyadmitted her to be a participator in the most secret councils of his Ministers,where she was in the habit of artfully insinuating her opinions, which becamelawwith the grand monarque.26 Aphrodisia is the Greek appellation of Venus; which only signifiesfroth.Yet how enchantingly sonorous are the Grecian terms! How charming is theallegory offroth! I pr'ythee, reader, refer to Hesiod. You would scarcelybelieve that the ancient fables are frequently no other than truths.27 Ingracing the thigh of La Pucelle with the well- tempered steel of Holofernes, our author did not call to mind the venerable historian, who states thatCharles the Seventh, satisfied with the reality ofJoan's celestial mission, causedher to appear at court caparisoned from head to foot; the weight of whosearmour did not prevent her from mounting on horseback unassisted, which themost robust knights could with difficulty accomplish. The king being desirousof presenting her with a fine sword, she requested his majesty to expedite amessenger to the Church of Saint Catherine de Fiere Bois, in Touraine, stating,that he would there find an old weapon, on whose blade were engraved fiveCrosses, and five Fleur de Lys, with which it was decreed that she should conquerthe English. Charles enquiring if she had ever visited that said church, was answered in the negative; and upon this a person being dispatched brought backthe sword indicated, and whereof she made use during all her rencontres withthe British . This licence of our author, in contradiction to chronicle records, isvery pardonable, as it was impossible to think of Deborah and her lance, without calling to mind Judith's trenchant scimitar, who, united with our Joan,form a trio of Amazonian belles unmatched in the history of the universe. I/ NOTES.271cannot conclude the present note, without adding an historical fact in regard tothis extraordinary woman, divested of all the marvellous circ*mstances subjoined by the chroniclers of her history, who conceived that she would acquiremore reputation if held forth as a prophetess, than an intrepid warrior. According to the narration of the valiant Dunois, we find: -Et Joanna posuitse super bordumfossati, et instante, ibi ipsâ existente, Anglici tremueruntet effecti sunt pavidi; armati verò Regis resumpserunt animum et ceperuntascendere. * • Bollevardumfuit captum, &c.See Laverdy, 361 , 362.28 In the ardour of her praying, it is presumed Joan totally forgot that thismust have been a very sore place for Mister Denis, who, no doubt called torecollection his headless perambulation from Paris, after his alleged martyr.dom.29 Superstition, which might be justly termed an epidemic disorder amongthe people at that period, was fully called into action upon the subject of Joan'sexploits; and a few instances will be sufficient to demonstrate how far thisweakness predominated, even with writers and studious personages, whose pursuits were calculated to dispel such chimeras from the brain. In the history ofthe Abbey ofSaint Dennis, which was translated by Le Laboureur, in a chapter where he treats of an eclipse of the sun, he seriously remarks that- " Theastrologers, judging from a natural science of effects from causes, prognosticated that extraordinary accidents would ensue, and which happened accordingly.-Laboureur, page 548.In Juvenal des Ursins, Archbishop of Rheims, we learn according to hisstatement-That sometimes the image ofa certain Saint has suddenly turnedits back upon a soldier who wished to take it, who, in eonsequence, lost hiswits, while the rest ofhis comrades turned devotees.- ( Page 50) .Sometimes priests, by means of invocations, raise the devil; and such was theconfidence placed in them, that the Council of Charles the Sixth enacted, thatthey should offer up their prayers in order to effect the king's recovery.- ( Page192.)

  • In another place the thunder enters the hotel of the Dauphin,

kills a child, and wounds others; in which strain he continues, -" Until asprinkling ofholy water in the chamber and about the dwelling, expelled thethunder no one knew whither.- (Page 206. )272 NOTES.While we are occupied upon the subject of visions and revelations, this sameJuvenal des Ursins testifies, that the most illustrious persons were not less superstitious than the poor. A Mathurin, a Carmelite, and others ofthe University,assembled in 1413, to IMAGINE what would be the termination of the Burgundian Government, and they in consequence entreated Juvenal de Treignel,father of the Archbishop, and one of the most eminent characters in the statetojoin them. They in consequence deliberated, and came to a determinationthat it was requisite to consult studious and religious persons; the latter thencommunicated their visions. The one having seen three suns;another three different periods; a third the king of England at the top of thetowers of Notre Dame. * • Upon which these grave and sapient doctorsdecided, that there might be a change in the government of the kingdom. - (Juvenal, page 316.) Seven years afterwards, the Archbishop of Rheims, whowas then occupied in writing his history, having occasion to speak of the treatyof Troyes, does not forget to call to mind Ces visions vues par bonnes créatures ***** de trois soleils: These visions seen by good creatures *ofthree suns; for, continues he gravely-" There were three kings in France,namely, the English monarch, and Monseigneur le Dauphin: (Juvenal, page477.) In short, his mother had equally visions of the same wonderfnl force:(id . 324. ) See also Voltaire's Essai sur les Mœurs, ch. LXXIX. , note 16.But to revert back to Joan and the influence of her presence, Dunois statedaccording to Laverdy, 354, note 31. Asserit quòd Anglici qui 200, priùs fugabant 800, aut 1000 de exercitu regis, à post et tunc 400, aut 500, armatorumpugnabant in conflictu contrà totam potestatem Anglicorum , &c. Andother contemporary writers affirm, that- " Before her arrival, two hundredEnglish put to flight in skirmishes five hundred Frenchmen, but that afterher coming, two hundred French drove four hundred Englishmen beforethem . "-See Histoire de La Pucelle, 510.30 Alluding to Charles the Ninth having fired upon his protestant subjects,during the infamous massacre of Saint Bartholomew, which cannot be betterprefaced, than by the subjoined letter sent to Catherine de Medicis, by PopePius the Fifth, a few days after that most sanguinary tragedy. “ Your maesty has recently acted as the heart of God directs, in causing the throatsto be cut of those good people, who have no faith in my purgatory, and wholove French verses . May your royal hand achieve the work of Heaven, incausing those infected men to be poignarded, who only trust in the Evange-NOTES. 273lists, without believing that the Romishfaithforms a part of Christianity.”A glorious epistle this for Pope Pius the Fifth, whom a friend and succeedingPope has beatified on account of his style.Brantome, in bis memoirs, speaking of this execrable deed, thus expresseshimself. " Upon the dawn of day, the King looking from the window ofhis apartment, and seeing many persons in the Fauxbourg Saint Germain,who stirred and fled, took a great arquebuse, used at the chase, and firedupon them several times, but in vain; for the piece would not reach to sucha distance, unceasingly crying out, KILL, KILL. ' "6Many persons heard Monsieur le Marechal de Tessé state that when young,he saw a gentleman aged one hundred, who had served in the guard of CharlestheNinth, and who upon enquiries being made respecting the Saint Barthelemi,and whether the King had really fired upon the Huguenots, made answer: -" C'etait moi Monsieur, qui chargeais son arquebuse."” -_" It was myself sir,who charged his arquebuse."Henry the Fourth was heard to state in public , at different times, that afterthe massacre, a cloud of crows perched upon the Louvre, and that duringseven nights the King himself and the whole court heard groanings and lamentable shrieks at the same hours . He also related a prodigy still more astonishing, saying, that some days prior to the Saint Barthelemi, while playingat dice with the Dukes of Alençon and Guise, he observed drops of blood uponthe table; when he caused them to be wiped away two different times, but thatthey re-appeared, upon which he quitted the game, struck with horror.Voltaire in the Henriade, thus expresses himself in regard to the subjectin question." Que dis -je! ô crime, á honte! 6 comble de nos maux!" Le Roi, le Roi lui méme, au milieu des bourreaux," Poursuivant des proscrits les troupes égarées,66 Du sang des sujets souillait ses manis sacrées."VOL. II. T274 NOTES.31 Still alluding to the conduct of Charles the Ninth, when urging on theassassins of Saint Barthelemi. The notorious fact of the King's having firedupon his subjects, was the cause of a board being placed during the late revolution under the balcony of the window from whence this act was perpetrated,and which continued affixed to the Louvre for some years, bearing the following inscription." De cefenetre Charles neuf d'cxecrable memoire tira sur son peuple.”32 The above lines display a very just picture of British valour, bravelycontending against unequal numbers, and though compelled to yield, supportingthe transient frown of fate with a countenance erect and a soul victorious, thoughsubdued by superior force." Fortis cadere, cedere non potest."33 The poor cornuted Louvet only acted in conformity with the conduct ofhis brethren in misfortune, who are uniformly blinded to the infidelity of theirmates, while the eyes of all the world besides can perceive her dereliction asplain as the sun at noon day; if, however, this sage personage was in the darkupon the matter in question, he was far otherwise in respect to worldly interest, as the following facts from history will fully manifest.The famous President Louvet, upon retiring from office, was desirous ofpreserving his influence, or rather sought to foment those disorders in whichhe could no longer participate. To effect this purpose, he left Giac, one of hiscreatures at court, whom he advised Charles to receive as a favourite; in fine,he had attained to such a height of power, that the Count Dunois did notdisdain to become his relative. See Daniel, VII . , Villaret, XIV. , 316.The Bastard Dunois, was born in 1402, the same year that gave birth toCharles the Seventh, his father being Louis Duc d'Orleans, brother ofCharles the Sixth, and his mother, the Lady de Cany. The celebrity of theBastard was such, that Valentine de Milan, duch*ess of Orleans, lamentedshe was not his mother, being in the habit of stating in the phraseology of thatNOTES. 275day—“ Quil lui avait été EMBLE, " (Derobé, )— “ That he had been surreptitiously obtained . "The half-brother of Dunois, was Charles Duke of Orleans, born thetwenty-sixth of May, 1391 , of whom I may be permitted to speak, on accountof his poetical talents , altogether unknown, which possess an indescribablecharm, breathing the innate effusions of the soul . It is indeed singular, thatthis most interesting versifier did not receive under the auspices of Louis theFourteenth, that justice which was so deservedly his due, and it is even moreastonishing, that he continued unknown to the great Boileau. He marriedthe widow of Richard the Second, of England, and was taken prisoner at thebattle of Agincourt, when he continued incarcerated for several years; he wasthe father of Louis the Twelfth, and uncle of Francis the First. Obit theeighth of January, 1466.As a specimen of his poetical talent, exerted while in confinement, may begratifying to the reader, I hereto subjoin a few lines, quoted from an originalmanuscript, preserved in the Public Library of Grenoble, and written by oneAstezan, First Secretary of the Duke, the passage being extracted from folio78, ofthe manuscript in question." Tempus quod regnat clamidem dimisit acerbam," Fentorum nec non frigoris ac pluvie." Et comptas claris radiis solaribus atque" Formosis. Vestes induit inde novas" Non est nunc ales; non est nunc bellua, quæ non" Cantet vel clamet more sonoque suo:" Tempus quod regnat clamidem dimisit acerbam" Ventorum nec nonfrigoris ac pluvie."Thus Anglicised." Old Time has cast his cloak away," Ofwind and rain and nipping cold," And now is clad in burnish'd gold," Of smiling Sol's unclouded ray,276 NOTES.·" Nor beast or feather'd warbler gay," But in its song or strain hath told," That time hath cast his cloak away." Stream, rivulet, and fountain's play," In beauty's guise are now enroll'd;" Gay glitt'ring jewels all enfold," Since each is deck'd in new array," For Time hath cast his cloak away. "34 Voltaire had no doubt consulted the history du Haillan, mentionedbelow, ere he committed the above line to paper.Many attempts have been made, to prove that the mission of Joan waseffected by celestial agency, which assertion is combatted by Robertson, inhis introduction to the history of Charles the Fifth, wherein he examines themission of the Pucelle in a political point of view, and while rendering justiceto her wisdom and courage, deploring her misfortunes, and most eloquentlyinveighing against the superstition to which she was sacrificed, he yet considersher but as an instrument and a victim to party. Our countryman, however,is not the only one who has raised objections against this heavenly mission,since we find that one Dr. Beaupère, who acted as an assessor during the trialof Joan, was of opinion, That her alleged visions and apparitions , were ratherthe effects of human invention, than originating in divine inspiration; andin the Histoire Generale des Rois de France depuis Pharamond jusqu'aCharles sept; written by Bernard de Girard, sieur du Haillan, first historianof France, and established genealogist of the Order of the Holy Ghost byHenry the Third, appears the following statement, given as nearly as possible verbatim." Some say that Joan was the mistress of John, bastard of Orleans; others,of the Lord of Baudricourt, who being wary and cunning, and seeing that theKing knew no longer what to do or to say, and the people on account ofcontinual wars so much oppressed as not to be able to raise their courage,betook themselves to have recourse to a miracle fabricated in false religion,being that which of all things most elevates the hearts, and makes men believe,even the most simple, that which is not, and the people was very proper toimbibe such superstitions. Those who believe she was a maid sent by God,NOTES. 277are not damned, neither are those who did not believe. Many esteem this lastassertion an heresy, but we will not dwell too much upon it, neither too muchon the contrary belief. Wherefore these lords for the space of some days, instructed her in all she was to answer to the demands which should be made ofher by the King and themselves when in his presence; for they were to inter- rogate her, and in order that she might recognise the monarch when conductedinto his presence, they caused her every day to see at various times his picture.The day appointed on which she was to be led to him in his chamber, whichthey had already arranged, they did not fail to be present. Being entered, thefirst who asked her what she wanted, were the Bastard of Orleans and Baudricourt, who demanded of her, her business? She replied she wanted to speakto the King. They presented to her another of the lords who was there, saying to her that he was the King, but she, instructed in all which should bedone and said, as well as what she was to do and say, said, that it was not theKing, and that he was hid in the alcove, containing the bed.invention and appearance of religion, was of such profit to theit raised the courage, lost and beaten down by despairthe King caused to be given to her horses and arms, and an army with a goodnumber of great captains, in company of whom she carried succour to those of Orleans. "This feignedkingdom thatWhereforeDu Haillan, our informant, being first historiographer of France, and livingbut one hundred and forty years after the death of Joan, must, from the post heoccupied, have possessed ample means of ascertaining the above facts, which iftrue, set the matter at rest concerning any supernatural interposition in herfavour, a circ*mstance that tends to exalt still more the noble disinterestednessof the heroic but unfortunate Maid of Orleans.35 The above line brings to mind the conduct adopted by our Joan upon thedoctors presenting themselves before her, deputed by the King, to ascertain hervirginity, and to whom she expressed herself as follows." Je le crois, je ne sais ni A, ni B, je viens de la part du Roi du Ciel,pour faire lever le siége D'Orleans, et mener le Roi à Rheims."-See Laverdy, CCCXII. and CCCLI., note 24.And upon the coronation of Charles as thus predicted, we find from a contemporary historian, that—278 NOTES." Au dit sacrefut toujours pres et presente la dicte Jehanne La Pucelle,tout arméé à blanc, et tenant son estandard en la main, et bien y devoitestre, comme celle qui estoit principallement cause de l'ordonnance et vobunte de Dieu d'icellay sacre. "So much for history; notwithstanding which, it must be allowed by all, thatthis assertion of father Lourdis is rather a bold one, when the two foregoinglines are taken into consideration, and even was it credited, would cast ashameful reflection upon the virile powers of the Bastard Dunois: we will ,however, leave the reader to form his own conjectures on this knotty point,and content ourselves with the hope that the renowned Joan of Arc, after herbelligerent toils, did not resemble Margaret of Austria, who was affiancedto the Dauphin of France, and by him sent away to espouse the Heir ofBrittany, which Margaret being afterwards on her passage to marry the InfantDon Juan of Spain, and very nearly shipwrecked, wrote her own epitaph inthe following lines." Cy-git Margot la gentil ' demoiselle," Qu'a deux maris, et encore est Pucelle."" Here Margot lies by Hymen twice betray'd," Who with two husbands, still remains a maid."There is every reason to conjecture from the abrupt termination of this poetieflight, that it was originally the intention of Voltaire to have prolonged LaPucelle; the reasons that operated upon him to alter his plan are not handeddown to us. On consulting the edition of 1756, very striking variations willbe found in every canto, most of which were no doubt the productions of LaBeaumelle and Maubert, as the publication in question was edited by themfrom their first edition of 1755. In the poem as again printed at Paris in1762, and authorized by Monsieur de Voltaire, considerable changes are observable, particularly in the number of cantos forming the poem, which theauthor ultimately fixed at twenty-one.·NOTES. 279Whatsoever emendations our poet may have thought fit to insert, it is evident, from the nature of the additions found in the first impressions of the work,that they were added by the publishers, as we have already remarked in thepreface, for the purposes of realizing money, or injuring the reputation ofMonsieur de Voltaire, and accumulating against him an host of enemies,since they not only disgraced his literary labour by their vulgar and very frequently obscene verses, but also outraged many of his friends and personagesofelevated rank, to whom he was particularly attached; and to effect a similar purpose, La Beaumelle was also prompted to falsify the Age of Louis theFourteenth.The conclusive canto of the edition of 1756, contains the ensuing lines,subjoined by way of epilogue." C'est par ces vers, enfans de mon loisir," Quej'egayais les soucis du vieil âge:" O, don du ciel! tendre amour! doux desir!" On est encore heureux par votre image;" L'illusion est le premier plaisir," J'allais enfin, libre en mon ermitage," Chantant les feux de Jeanne et de Dunois," Me consoler de la jalouse rage," Desfaux mepris, des cruautés des Rois," Des traits du sot, des sottises du sage;" Mais quel demon me vole cet ouvrage?" Brisons ma lyre; elle échappe a mes doigts." Ne t'attends pas à de nouveaux exploits," Lecteur: ma Jeanne aura son pucelage," Jusqu'a ce que les vierges du seigneur," Malgré leurs vœux, sachent garder le leur. "These verses appear to have been copied from some manuscript of the poemnot then completed, wherein Joan yielded no more to the solicitations of Dunois, than to the endeavours of her lank-eared lover. The editors, capucins, ordeacons of the holy evangelists have inserted them at the end of their finalcanto; a new and convincing proof of the modesty of these learned editors andtheir praise-worthy and virtuous intentions.961844101LONDON:SHACKELL AND ARROWSMITH, JOHNSON'S- COURT, FLEET-STREET.12


Chang


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