Class XI Support Material.pdf - English - Notes - Teachmint (2024)

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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA, SANGATHAN, STUDENT SUPPORT MATERIAL, , CLASS XI, ENGLISH CORE (301), 2021-22, , CHANDIGARH REGION, , Page 1 of 175


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ACADEMIC PLAN 2021-22 CLASS – XI, SECTION, , A, , B, , TERM I, , WEIGHTAGE, (IN MARKS), , Reading Comprehension:, Unseen passage (factual,, descriptive or literary/, discursive or, persuasive), Case Based Unseen (Factual), Passage, Creative Writing, Grammar:, , Skills, , 8, +, 5, = 13, , +, 5, = 13, , Short Writing Tasks, 3, , Posters, , +, , Long Writing Tasks, Official Letters: e.g. to, school/college, authorities, , 5, , (regarding admissions,, school issues,, requirements / suitability, of courses), Debate, , +, , 4, , Grammar, , 3, +, , 5, , +, , 4, , Grammar, , Determiners, Tenses, Re-ordering of Sentences, , C, , 8, , Creative Writing Skills and Grammar:, , Notice Writing, Long Writing, Tasks, Business or Official Letters(, Making, enquiries, registering complaints,, asking, for or giving information, placing, orders, and sending replies), Speech, , on, Gap, Transformation of, Sentences}, , Reading Comprehension:, Unseen passage (factual,, descriptive or literary /discursive, or, persuasive), Unseen passage for Note Making, And Summarising, , WEIGHTAGE, (IN MARKS), , and, , Short Writing Tasks, , {MCQs, , TERM II, , = 12, , filling/, , Literature:, Literary-prose/poetry extracts (, seen- texts ), comprehension and appreciation., (Two, Extracts), Questions Based on Texts to assess, comprehension and appreciation,, analysis,, inference, extrapolation, , Determiners, Tenses, Re-ordering of Sentences, {MCQs on Gap filling/ Transformation of, Sentences }, , Literature:, 9 Marks for, , Questions based on extracts/texts to assess, , 9 Marks for, , Hornbill + 6 comprehension and appreciation, analysis,, Marks for inference, extrapolation, Snapshots =, , Hornbill + 6, Marks for, Snapshots =, , 15 Marks, , 15 Marks, Book-Hornbill:, The Voice of the Rain, , BookHornbill, , :, The Portrait of a Lady, (Prose), A Photograph (Poem), “We’re Not Afraid to Die… if, , We, , = 12, , (Poem), The Ailing Planet: The Green, Movement’s Role (Prose), The Browning Version( Play), , Can All Be Together”, (Prose), Discovering Tut: the Saga, Continues, , Childhood (Poem), Silk Road (Prose), , Page 3 of 175


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The Laburnum Top (Poem), BookSnapshots:, , Landscape of the Soul (Prose), BookSnapshots:, The Summer of the Beautiful, White, Horse(Prose), The Address (Prose), Ranga’s, Marriage, (Prose), , Albert Einstein at School (Prose), Mother’s Day (Play), Birth ( Prose), , TOTAL, , 40, , TOTAL, , 40, , ASL, , 10, , ASL, , 10, , GRAND TOTAL, , 40+10=50, MARKS, , GRAND TOTAL, , 40+10=50, MARKS, , Salient features of Student Support Material, ➢ This student Support Material is in the form of a booklet comprising all the, topics in the syllabus for Term-I Examination., ➢ It is a collection of a number of MCQs based on HOT/CCT skills of the, students., ➢ It aims at providing help not only to very high scorer students because of not, being exposed to new type of questions but to average students also who are, in habit of using only conventional types of questions and not paying, attention towards the topics which are given in the reference books and, syllabus of English Core as per CBSE latest guidelines., ➢ It contains guidelines, hints and solutions for really challenging questions, and topics. All the important MCQs are also included., ➢ It contains a number of fresh/new questions (solved) and unsolved questions, for practice which shall increase the confidence level of the students when, they will solve questions as per CBSE guidelines., , ***ALL THE BEST ***, , Page 4 of 175


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INDEX, S.NO, , NAME, SECTION, , OF, , PAGE, NUMBER, , NAME OF TOPIC, , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, , UNSEEN PASSAGE: DESCRIPTIVE OR, READING, LITERARY / DISCURSIVE OR PERSUASIVE, COMPREHENSION, UNSEEN PASSAGE: CASE BASED, NOTICE WRITING, LETTER WRITING : BUSINESS LETTERS &, OFFICIAL LETTERS(COMPLAINT,ENQUIRY), CREATIVE, WRITING SKILLS SPEECH WRITING, AND GRAMMAR, GRAMMAR : DETERMINERS, GRAMMAR : TENSES, GRAMMAR :REORDERING OF SENTENCES, , 10, , POEM : A PHOTOGRAPH, , 79-84, , 11, , POEM : THE LABURNUM TOP, HORNBILL : THE PORTRAIT OF A LADY, , 84-89, , 1, , 12, 13, 14, , LITERATURE, , HORNBILL : LANDSCAPE OF THE SOUL, , 16, , SNAPSHOTS : THE SUMMER, BEAUTIFUL WHITE HORSE, , 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, , SAMPLE, QUESTION, PAPERS, , 15-24, 25-32, 33-52, 53-57, 58-61, 62-74, 74-78, , 90-99, , HORNBILL : WE’RE NOT AFRAID TO DIE, 100-111, HORNBILL:DISCOVERING TUT: THE SAGA, CONTINUES, 112-122, , 15, , 17, , 6-14, , OF, , 123-129, THE, , 130-134, , SNAPSHOTS : THE ADDRESS, SNAPSHOTS :RANGA’S MARRIAGE, , 135-139, , SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER – SET I, SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER – SET II, SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER – SET III, MARKING SCHEME FOR SET-I, II & III, , 150-155, 156-162, 163-170, 171-175, , Page 5 of 175, , 140-149


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SECTION – A, , READING COMPREHENSION, (13 MARKS), , Page 6 of 175


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UNSEEN PASSAGE, DESCRIPTIVE OR LITERARY/ DISCURSIVE OR PERSUASIVE, I. Multiple Choice questions based on one unseen passage. The passage may be factual,, descriptive or literary/discursive or persuasive. (8 Marks), , Passage -1, 1.Read the following passage carefully and answer any EIGHT questions (1x8=8M), Today we know about each and every part of the world. There is no land or sea that is not known, to us. Man has explored every corner of the world, and he knows all the ways and routes from, anywhere to everywhere in the world. He can reach from one place to the other as safely, easily, and quickly as he likes. He has maps to guide him and fastest means of transport to carry him., But for ages, most of the world was unknown to man. To begin with, he lived in caves. Then he, came out of caves and started making homes in little corners of forests or behind the hills. He, was afraid of wild animals and also of the clouds and the winds. He offered prayers and sacrifices, to gods who, he thought, controlled the clouds and the winds. But slowly, through long centuries,, men began to explore what lay beyond their caves, hills and forests where they had their homes., They went in their boats, first on the rivers and then across the seas. At first they remained close, to the shore, and each new voyager went a little further than the previous one., To those early travellers, the earth seemed to be a vast, flat world. They feared what would, happen if they reached the edge. They believed that if they sailed southward, the sea would, become so hot and boiling that life would be impossible. Toward the north, they thought, it must, be too cold for anything to live. Till only five hundred years ago, nearly all men believed this., When some Portuguese explorers began to sail southward, their seamen revolted and refused to, go further. They believed that the steaming waters of southern seas would boil them like, potatoes., When some clever men of those days said that the earth was not flat but a ball of sphere, people, would laugh at them. ‘How could there be people or trees on the other side of the world?’ they, would say. ‘Would men walk and trees grow upside down? And how could they stay on the, other side? Surely they would fall off.’, i), We can travel as …………as we like., , (ii), , (iii), , (iv), , (v), , (vi), , (a), Safely, (b), Easily, (c), Quickly, (d), All the, above, The modern man can reach anywhere he likes with the help of………….., (a), Maps to guide him, (b), Fastest means of transport, (c), Both (a) and (b) above, (d), Neither (a) nor (b), After leaving the caves, man started making little homes………, (a), In corners of forests, (b), away from the forests, (c), on the tree tops, (d), above the hills, Why would people not believe that the earth was not flat but round?, (a), if the earth were round, it would roll away like a ball., (b), if the earth were round, people and trees on the other side would fall off., (c), if the earth were round, water would not stay at one place., (d), if the earth were round, it would look like the sun and the moon., Voyager is a person……………., (a), who makes sacrifices in order to please gods., (b), who goes about begging from place to place., (c), who wants to explore new lands., (d), making a long journey by sea., What is the opposite of ‘previous’?, Page 7 of 175


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(a), , Last, , (b), , Next, , (c), , Immediate, , (d), , simultaneous, , Which word in the passage means ‘rose in protest’?, (a), revoke, (b), revolt, (c), refuse, (d), fall off, (viii) The sacrifices offered to gods by man because….., (a), most of the world was unknown to him, (b) he was afraid of wild animals, ( c), he was afraid of the clouds and the winds (d) they controlled the clouds and, the winds, (ix) When some Portuguese explorers began to sail northward, their seamen revolted and, refused to go further., (a ), True, (b), False, ( c) Partially true, ( d) partially, false, (vii), , Passage-2, Read the passage given below:, BURNING PLASTICS IS NO SOLUTION, , When plastic waste is burnt, a complex weave of toxic chemicals is released. Breaking down, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) — used for packaging, toys and coating electrical wires — produces, dioxin, an organochlorine which belongs to the family of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)., A recent Dioxin Assessment Report brought out by the United States Environment Protection, Agency (USEPA) says the risk of getting cancer from dioxin is ten times higher than reported, by, the agency in 1994.Yet the Delhi government is giving the green signal to a gasification project, which will convert garbage into energy without removing plastic waste. Former transport, minister Rajendra Gupta, the promoter of this project, says this is not necessary., He claims no air pollution will be caused and that the ash produced can be used as manure. An, earlier waste-to-energy project set up in Timarpur failed. The new one, built with Australian, assistance, will cost ₹ 200 crore. It will generate 25 megawatts of power and gobble 1,000 tonnes, of garbage every day., “Technologies like gasification are a form of incineration,” says MadhumitaDutta, central, coordinator with Toxics Link, New Delhi. Incineration merely transfers hazardous waste from a, solid form to air, water and ash, she points out., Toxins produced during incineration include acidic gases, heavy metals as well as dioxins and, furans. “The ‘manure’ will be hazardous and a problem to dispose,” says Dutta., Municipal solid waste contains a mix of plastics. Breaking down this waste emits hydrochloric, acid which attacks the respiratory system, skin and eyes, resulting in coughing, vomiting and, nausea., Polyethylene generates volatile compounds like formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, both suspected, carcinogenic. Breathing styrene from polystyrene can cause leukaemia. Polyurethane is, associated with asthma. Dioxin released by PVC is a powerful hormone disrupter and causes, birth defects and reproductive problems. There is no threshold dose to prevent it and our bodies, have, no, defence, against, it., “Even the best run incinerators in the world have to deal with stringent norms, apart from, contaminated filters and ash, making them hugely expensive to operate,” says Dutta. In, Germany, air pollution devices accounted for two-thirds the cost of incineration. Despite such, efforts, the European Dioxin Inventory noted that the input of dioxin into the atmosphere was, the highest from incineration.“India does not have the facility to test dioxin and the cost of setting, one up is prohibitively expensive,” says Dutta.Besides, Indian garbage has a low calorific content, of about 800 cal/kg, since it has high moisture and requires additional fuel to burn. Toxics Link, calculates that the electricity generated from such technology will cost between ₹ 5-7 per unit,, which is six times higher than conventional energy. India has chosen a dioxin preventive route, Page 8 of 175


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and burning of chlorinated plastics is prohibited under Municipal Solid Waste and Biomedical, Rules., Nearly 80 per cent of Indian garbage is recyclable or compostable. Resident associations, the, informal sector and the municipal corporation can make Delhi’s garbage disappear in a, sustainable manner. “Instead, the government promotes end of pipeline solutions,” says Dutta., 1.1.On the basis of the understanding of the passage above, answer any EIGHT of the, following questions by choosing the most appropriate options., (1 x 8 = 8 marks), (a) Which organochlorine belongs to the family of Persistent Organic Pollutants?, (i)Hydro chlorine (ii) Carbon dioxide, (iii) Styrene, (iv)Dioxine, (b) Dioxine causes ……………….., (i) cancer (ii) heart attack, (iii) sickness (iv) hypertension, (c) The gasification process transforms ……………….., (i) energy into garbage, (ii) garbage into energy(iii)water into energy (iv)energy, into water, (d) Garbage can be converted into energy by………, (i) Gasification (ii)gratification, (iii)a chemical process, (iv)firing, (e) Indian garbage contains …………………, (i) low moisture (ii)high moisture, (iii)no moisture, (iv)only moisture, (f) Incineration merely transfers hazardous waste from a solid form to, (i) air, water and ash, (ii)water and ash, (iii)air and water., (iv)waste,, ash and gas, (g) Breathing styrene from polystyrene can cause …….., (i) Asthama, (ii)Leukaemia, (iii)Coughing, (iv)Nausea, (h) Nearly 80 per cent of Indian garbage ………………………., (i) is recyclable or compostable., (ii)is dumped in seas and oceans, (iii)is dumped in outskirts of the cities (iv)is dumped in the forests, (i) India has chosen a dioxin preventive route because……, (i) electricity generated from such technology will cost between ₹ 5-7 per unit., (ii) burning of chlorinated plastics is prohibited under Municipal Solid Waste and, Biomedical Rules., (iii)Indian garbage has a low calorific content of about 800 cal/kg., (iv) All the above., , Passage -3, 3. Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below., (1 x 8 = 8 marks):, 1. Among the natural resources which can be called upon in national plans for development,, possibly the most important is human labor. Since the English language suffers from a certain, weakness in its ability to describe groups composed of both male and female members, this is, usually described as Manpower., 2. Without a productive labour force, including effective leadership and intelligent middle, management, no amount of foreign assistance or of natural wealth can ensure successful, development and modernization., 3. The manpower for development during the next quarter century will come from the world’s, present population of infants, children and adolescents. But we are not sure that they will be, equal to task. Will they have the health, the education, the skills, the socio-cultural attitudes, essential for the responsibilities of development?, 4. For far too many of them the answer is no. The reason is basic. A child’s most critical years,, with regard to physical, intellectual, social, and emotional development, are those before he, Page 9 of 175


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reaches five years of age. During those critical formative years he is cared for almost exclusively, by his mother and in many parts of the world the mother may not have the capacity to raise a, superior child. She is incapable of doing so by reason of her own poor health, her ignorance and, her lack of status and recognition of social and legal rights, of economic party of independence., One essential factor has been overlooked and ignored. The forgotten factor is the role of women., Development will be handicapped as long as women remain second class citizen, uneducated, without any voice in family or community, decisions without legal or economic status, married, when they are still practically children, and henceforth producing one baby after another, often, to see half of them die before they are of school age., 5. We can enhance development by improving women power by giving women the opportunity, to develop themselves. Statistics show that the average family size increases in inverse ratio to, the Mother’s years of education- is lowest among college graduates, highest among those with, only primary school training, or no education. Malnutrition is most frequent in large families,, and increases in frequency with each additional sibling. The principle seems established that an, educated mother has healthier and more intelligent children, and that is related to the fact that, she has fewer children. The tendency of educated, upper class mothers to have fewer children, operates even without access to contraceptive services., 6. The educational level of women is significant also because it has a direct influence upon their, chances of employment, and the number of employed women in countries total labour force has, a direct bearing on both the gross national product and disposable income of the individual, family. Disposable income, especially in the hands of women, influences food purchasing and, therefore the nutritional status of the family. The fact that the additional income derives from the, paid employment of women provides a logical incentive to restrict the size of the family., Answer the questions. (1 x 8 = 8 marks):, 1. Choose the most appropriate option:, (Q1.) Among the natural resources which can be called upon in national plans for, development…………….., (i) The most important is certainly human labour., (ii) The most important is possibly human labour., (iii) The least developed is certainly human labour., (iv) The least developed is undoubtedly human labour., (Q2.) Without a productive labour force, including effective leadership and intelligent, middle management…………….., (i) No productive work is possible., (ii) Entrepreneurs will incur heavy losses., (iii) Economic development will not keep pace with national movements., (iv) No amount of foreign assistance or of natural wealth can ensure successful, development, and modernization., (Q3.) Development will be handicapped as long as women remain….., (i) second class citizen, (ii) third class citizen, (iii) first class citizen, (iv) fourth class citizen, (Q4.) Disposable income in the hands of women strengthen, (i) Family bond, (ii) Nutritional status of the family, (iii) Spiritual status of the family, (iv) None of these, (Q5.) What happens to the family size from an educated mother to an illiterate mother?, (i) Increases in direct proportion, (ii) Increases in reverse proportion, Page 10 of 175


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(iii) Increases in inverse proportion (iv) There is no relation, (Q6.) What will happen to development if the womenfolk is neglected?, (i) There will strong infrastructure, (ii) There will be no growth and everything will stagnate., (iii) There will be growth and everything will stagnate., (iv) None of these., (Q7.) Find a word in the passage (Para 5) which means ‘Increase’., (i) High, (ii) Reduction, (iii) Decrease, (iv) Enhance, (Q8.) During which period is the child growth maximum?, (i) Before age of five, (ii) After age of five, (iii) Infant, (iv) Teenage, (Q9.) The synonym of tendency( para-5), i., Inclination, ii.Tangency, iii. Opposition, iv.deviation, , Passage -4, Q4. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow: (1x8=8 Marks), A pacifist at heart and an inventor by nature, Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel invented dynamite., He was sure his creation would help bring about the end of war. “When two armies of equal, strength can annihilate each other in an instant”, he once wrote, “then all civilised nations will, retreat and disband their troops”. Things didn‟t quite go according to plan., The invention that he thought would end all wars was seen by many others as an extremely, deadly product. In 1888, when Alfred‟s brother Ludvig died, a French newspaper mistakenly ran, an obituary for Alfred which called him the “merchant of death”. Not wanting to go down in, history with such a horrible epitaph, Nobel created a will that soon shocked his relatives and, established the now famous Nobel prizes., According to his will, Alfred Nobel‟s enormous fortune was to be used to establish prizes to, award those who had done their best to benefit mankind in the field of physics, chemistry,, medicine, literature and peace. The first Nobel Prizes were awarded in 1901, five years after, Nobel‟s death. Page 2 of 13 Nobel initially donated 35 million Swedish Kronor (about $225, million today); the prizes come from the fortune‟s annual interest., The Nobel Laureates are announced at the beginning of October each year. A couple of months, later, on 10th December, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel‟s death, they receive their prize from, the Swedish King – a Nobel Diploma, a medal and 10 million Swedish crowns per prize. All, Nobel prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden, except for the Nobel Peace Prize which is, awarded in Oslo, Norway., Each award is decided by separate institutions which form assemblies to select the actual prize, recipients. Some prizes (medicine) require Nobel assembly members to remain active in their, fields, while others (literature) appoint members for life. The Peace prize is actually decided by, five members of the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel Prize winners must be living; there are no, posthumous awards. Each year, the Nobel committees distribute nomination forms to an, undisclosed number of recipients – past winners, prominent institutions and respected members, of the field – who are allowed to choose as many nominees as they want. Self-nomination is not, permitted. The winner is decided by a simple majority vote., (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, answer the following questions by, choosing the correct option. Answer any ten, (1×8 = 8), (i) Alfred Nobel invented dynamite with an aim of…………., (a) Enabling wars, (b) without any intention, (c) ending wars, (d) cannot be said, (ii) What shocked Alfred‟s relatives?, Page 11 of 175


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(a) The invention of dynamite, (b) His will, (c) His will of donating money, (d) Both (a) and (b), (iii) Why did Alfred establish the Nobel prizes?, (a) So that he is not regarded as Merchant of death (b) To have a good name in history, (c) To shock his relatives, (d) To undo the loss of his brother, (iv) What does the phrase “merchant of death” imply? Page 3 of 13, (a) A person who sells arms / is a reason for deaths (b) A person who kills others, (c) A person who sells death, (d) None of these, (v) The synonym of „annihilate‟ in the first paragraph, is ……….., (a) Destroy (b) Aid, (c) Nullify, (d) Protect, (vi) The word……… in the first paragraph, is a synonym of word „disperse‟., (a) disband, (b) retreat, (c) announce (d) shock, (vii) The recipients receive the award on this day, (a) The birth anniversary of Nobel, (b) The death anniversary of Nobel, (c) The day Nobel invented dynamite, (d) Marriage anniversary of Nobel, (viii) What is the compulsory condition for Nobel Prize winners?, (a) A dignitary of the UN, (b) Must be living, (c) A person with other awards to his credit (d) One selected by the US, (ix) How is the fairness of these awards ensured?, (a) Each award decided by separate institutions, (b) Self-nomination is permitted, (c) Nomination forms are distributed to the public (d) The number of nominees is limited, , Passage -5, 5. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (Any8)., Marks), , (1×8=8, , INDIA'S PLACE IN THE NEW WORLD ORDER, We have entered a new world. The fall of the Berlin wall put an end to the bipolar world and, gave birth to hope for freedom and prosperity; there were States that gained their independence., Most adopted the democratic model, which corresponds to our shared political values., Globalization further enhances these changes. It offers extra-ordinary opportunities to, individuals who are in a position to seize them; easier access to information, speedier, communications and unimpeded travels. But it also develops new forms of vulnerabilities; a, financial crisis can run from Thailand to Russia via Latin America. Epidemics spread faster, and, further, be it mad cow’s disease or bird flu., Therefore, our destiny is no longer shaped within safe frontiers but on an international scale., Given the extent of these changes, we must define our world’s new principles of organization., In this endeavor for a new order, India has a major role to play. First because it is an example, of dynamism and energy. Your country is one of youth; 33 percent of population is under the, age of 15. You are aware of the tremendous asset and the immense responsibility that this, represents. A young population is a guarantee of imagination, renewal, awakening and hope., But it is also a challenge in terms of education, health and training., India has been able to make the most of globalization and has gained a pivotal role. It provides, the example of an economy which has allied dynamism and equilibrium. The past year offers, the two- fold satisfaction of a spectacular 7.5 percent growth rate and inflation under control., Thanks to the size and dynamism of its domestic market, it can project itself into the future with, confidence., India is now the biggest international service provider in information technologies, and this at, a time when the western countries are experiencing a real shortage of manpower in this very, field. A scientific power, India, today, is also a key player in space research. Thanks to the, Page 12 of 175


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excellence of the Indian Space Research Organization, it is the forefront of technologies for, launchers and the construction of satellites., This economic vitality has developed on the basis of a strong concern for social justice. In the, face of inequalities that still remain and could be increasing, India has given priority, to poverty, reduction, job creation and support of the agricultural sector. Your country has shown that, economic growth and concern for the greater good are not incompatible. India, however, does, not only offer an economic model. It stands as an example for nations that show due respect for, cultural identities. This represents a major challenge as globalization has inherent in it two-fold, risk. First of all, there is the risk of domination of certain forms of thinking, of certain ways of, life and expression. The diversity of cultures, religions, traditions and memories is an essential, component of the richness of our world. If we are not careful, it could die one day., Then there is the risk of confrontation of-identities. Lack of respect for what people stand. For, can nurture claims of nationalists and fundamentalists. The more an identity feels the threatened,, the more it tends to be in world looking, rejects the diversity and finally gives into confrontation., These are the patterns that we saw in action in the worst post cold war confrontation, from the, explosion of the Balkans to the genocide in the Rwanda. With 18 official languages and over, 1652 dialects, India is at the forefront of cultural diversity. It is a proof that openness to the, outside world and preservation of its own roots can go hand in hand. The movement of exchange, between cultures must not let to silencing the polyphony of voices and views., In the heart of its democracy, India has been able to define an identity respectfully of each and, everyone’s specificity. It is home to one of the largest Muslim communities of the world, with, over 120 million believers. The religious patchwork of India offers to each minority, whether it, be the two million Christians, the 16 million Sikhs or the Budish, Jains and Parsis, the possibility, of keeping alive their own religious beliefs in harmony with the India identity. This original and, exemplary synthesis is difficult to achieve. Your will to promote democracy is undoubtedly the, strongest political message of the Indian nation. At the heart of new world geography lies the, democratic challenge…Thanks to you we know that the size of the population, that the force of, history and traditions is not an obstacle. India is proof that the universality of Human Rights is, a realistic emotion. It shows us that State secularism can be reconciled with the vigour of, identities and beliefs., -Villepin, On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing, the most appropriate option. (Any 8), (8x 1=8 marks), 1. India has a major role to play because, a. It has a rich geographical area., b. It is rich in natural resources., c. It is an example of enthusiasm and energy to make new things happen successfully., d. India is a secular country., 2. India is the biggest service provider in the period of information technologies as……., a. Unemployed youths are more in number in India., b. Western countries have a shortage of manpower in this very field., c. People outside India are not willing to work., d. Indian population is educated., 3 The speaker thanks the Indian Space Research Organization because....., a. It is in a leading position in the field of satellites, b. It is leading in producing rockets., c. There is a strong group of scientists working together in this field., d. Indian scientists are very intelligent., 4 When the speaker says “Your country has shown that economic growth and concern for the, greater good are not incompatible”, he is, a. Complaining, b.giving compliments, c.finding faults., D.Discussing, Page 13 of 175


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5. Find out the word which means: the act of killing the whole race, a. Genocide, b.Polyphony c. Explosion d. Confrontation., 6. Why did the speaker say that we have entered a world?, a. We are adopting democracy, b. Using technology, c. practicing computer., d. landing on the moon., 7. Find words from passage which means the opposite of ' laziness', a. Dynamism, b.inactivity c.Sloth, d. renewal, 8. We should save the culture of India because, a. It has the largest Muslim community., b. It is the home of many religions keeping alive their own beliefs in harmony., c. It is politically very strong., d. India is a democratic country., 9. Find words from the passage which means the opposite of 'well matched, a. Vitality, b.Inequalities, c.congruous, d.incompatible, , Marking Scheme, Passage-1(1x8=8M) (Any eight), , (i)D, , (ii)c, , (iii)a, , (iv)b, , (v)d, , (vi)b, , (vii)b (viii)d (ix)b, , Passage-2, a.Dioxine, f.Air, water and ash, , b.Cancer, g.Leukaemia, , c.Garbage into energy d.Gasification e.High moisture, h.Is recyclable and compostable., i.All the above., , Passage-3, , (1.) (ii) The most important is possibly human labour, (2.) (iv) No amount of foreign assistance or of natural wealth can ensure successful, development, andmodernization., (3.) (i) second class citizen (4.) (ii) nutritional status of the, family, (5.) (iii) Increases in inverse proportion, (6.) (ii) There will be no growth and, everything will stagnate., (7.) (iv) Enhance, (8.) (i)Before age of five, 9.(i)Inclination, Passage-4, , (1) (c) Ending Wars (2) (b) His Will, (3) (b) To have a good name in history, (4) (a) A person who sells arms / is a reason for deaths, (5) (a) Destroy, (6) (a), disband, (7) (b) Death Anniversary of Nobel, (8) (b) Must be living, (9) (a) Each award is decided by separate institutions, Passage-51 c It is an example of enthusiasm and energy to make new things happen successfully., 2 b Western countries have a shortage of manpower in this very field., 3 a It is in a leading position in the field of satellites., 4 b giving compliments, 5a, genocide, 6 b using technology, 7 a dynamism, 8 b It is the home of many religions keeping alive their own believes in harmony.9 d, incompatible, , Page 14 of 175


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Case Based Unseen Passage, II. Multiple Choice questions based on one unseen case-based factual passage with, verbal/visual inputs like statistical data, charts etc. (5 Marks), , Skills needed to solve Case Based Unseen Passage, ⮚ Data Analysis, , ⮚, ⮚, ⮚, ⮚, ⮚, , Decoding text/ word problems to cull out and use data., Basic Arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc., Number Sense like greater, lesser, understand quantities., Making observations about range of data given., Finding patterns, identifying, sorting and classifying a given set of data or numbers to, extract relevant information., ⮚ Summarizing data through statistical measures like mean, percentile etc., ⮚ Making inferences and determining trends, correlations., ⮚ Making hypotheses and drawing conclusions., , Guidelines for Solving Case Based Unseen Passage, Pre Reading, , ⮚ Understand different types of graphs like pie chart, bar graph, line graph, tree diagram,, flow chart etc. and the fundamental differences between their appropriate use., ⮚ Ensure understanding of basic mathematical operations & concepts like ratio,, percentage etc. Take help of mathematics teacher if needed as it is an interdisciplinary, field. Take a visual format like pie chart, flow chart and convert it into text., ⮚ Take different types of graphs and infer as many data points as possible. Take open, time and note different levels of information you get., ⮚ Conduct real life surveys in areas of your concern or interest and summaries data using, statistical measures thus sharing your main findings., ⮚ Select such passages for practice where verbal input supplements data rather than, explaining it otherwise there will be no scope for you to analyses., ⮚ While selecting passages for practice, ensure that questions involve analysis of data., While Reading, ⮚ Underline important data & phrases while reading. Discriminate between relevant &, irrelevant information., ⮚ Nudge yourself from superficial decoding of data to next level of deeper study/, identification of overall & comparative trends, comparison and contrast which will take, you to real conclusions., ⮚ While attempting MCQs, discuss with your teacher or classmates why an option is, incorrect., , Passage 1, 1.Read the passage given below:, Here’s good news for tiger conservationists, tiger authorities and wildlife lovers celebrating, International Tiger Day. According to the latest census of 2018 released by Prime Minister, Narendra Modi on International Tiger Day, India is home to 2,967 tigers. What makes this, figure significant is that it is an increase by a third as compared to 2014 and more than double, as compared to 2006. The latest census also reveals the states with the highest tiger populations, and those with the lower ones, along with the economic value (Pegged between 4200 crores to, 16000 crores annually) of tiger reserves in the country. See the given infographic., , Page 15 of 175


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The latest tiger census is very encouraging, and points to the successful strategies, methods and, techniques being adopted and pursued by wildlife authorities and wildlife conservationists to, protect the tiger., The tiger census 2018 was taken after a painstaking 15months’ work where the forest officials, surveyed 3,81,400 sq km of forested habitats. During the same period of time, they also, installed 26,760 camera traps, with wildlife biologists going through 35 million images of, wildlife. Of this astounding number of images, 76,523 were those of tigers. It is estimated that, almost 83% of the entire tiger population was represented in these images., The figures are certainly cause for enthusiasm, and a great deal of it was reflected in the, address by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on International Tiger Day. In it, he also stressed on, the need for striking a healthy balance between development and environment. Addressing this, issue, he went on to say, “There is a very old debate- development or environment. Both sides, present views as if they are mutually exclusive. In our policies, in our economics, we have to, change the conversation about conservation. I am confident that India will prosper both, economically and environmentally. India will build more roads and India will have cleaner, rivers. India will have better train connectivity and also greater tree coverage., , On the basis of your understanding of the passage, attempt any five questions out of the six that, follow:, ( 1 X 5 = 5M), i) Which of the following would be the most appropriate heading for the above passage?, a) The Return of the Cats, b) The Roar of the Lion, c) The King Makes a Comeback, d) The Roar is Back, ii) According to the 2018 survey, tick the statement which is true regarding the number of, tigers in each state., a) Madhya Pradesh vies closely with Karnataka for the first place., b) Uttarakhand trails behind Karnataka by 100 tigers., c) The combined tiger population of Kerala and Tamil Nadu is less than that of Uttarakhand, d) Assam has more tigers as compared to Tamil Nadu., iii) India achieved its target of doubling its tiger population years ahead of the target year., Page 16 of 175


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a) 3, b) 4, c) 5, d) 6, iv)The tiger population statistics of the world reveal that the tiger population of the top three, states of India ____________________________ that of the whole world., a) is as much as, b) is less than c) is equal to d) is more than, v) Among India’s neighbouring countries, which country has the highest tiger population?, a) Nepal, b) Bhutan, c) Bangladesh d) Myanmar, vi) What is the ‘old debate’ that the prime minister refers to?, a) conversation vs conservation, b) environment vs development, c) roads vs rivers, d) more roads vs greater tree coverage, , Passage 2, Read the passage given below:, 1. For most of our history, pregnancy and childbirth were dangerous for both baby and mother., If we look at long-term trends in maternal mortality – the likelihood a woman will die from, pregnancy-related causes – we see that every 100th to 200th birth led to the mother’s death., , 2. Improvements in healthcare, nutrition, and hygiene mean maternal deaths are much rarer, today. But women are still dying from pregnancy-related causes that are preventable., 3. The World Health Organization estimates that more than 300,000 women died from, pregnancy-related causes in 2015. That’s 830 women every day. In the chart here we see global, maternal deaths by region. Two-thirds – 201,000 – occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. 22% –, 66,000 – occurred in South Asia., 4. This is partly attributed to the fact that many more babies are born in Asia and Africa than in, other regions. But it is also largely the result of the much higher maternal mortality rates found, in lower-income countries. Per birth, a woman in Nigeria is more than 200 times more likely to, die in pregnancy or childbirth than a woman in Sweden., , 5. The five countries with the highest number of maternal deaths in 2015 were: Nigeria, (58,000); India (45,000); Democratic Republic of Congo (22,000); Ethiopia (11,000); and, Pakistan (9,700)., , Page 17 of 175


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On the basis of your understanding of the passage, attempt any five questions from the, six that follow:, ( 1m X 5 = 5m), i) What has the trend of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa been as compared from 1990, to 2015?, a. Significant rise, b. Significant decline, c. Slight decline, d. Slight rise, ii) Which of the following will not qualify as a maternal death?, a. Death within 42 days of termination of pregnancy b. Accidental or incidental death during, pregnancy, c. Death due to any cause aggravated by pregnancy d. Death during child birth, (iii) Which of the following statements is true based on the passage?, a. Income is directly proportional to maternal mortality rate, b. Income is inversely proportional to maternal mortality rate, c. Income is a small factor of maternal mortality rate, d. Income & maternal mortality rate go parallel, (iv) What is the tone of the author in the passage?, a. Accusatory, b. Critical, c. Sarcastic, , d. Solemn, , (v) Which of the given pie charts rightly shows the number of maternal deaths in 2015 in, different countries?, , Page 18 of 175


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a image – a, , b image - b, , c image - c, , d image - d, , (vi) What, according to the author, has reduced the rate of maternal mortality in modern times?, a. Healthcare, nutrition & hygiene, b. Genes, nutrition & healthcare, c. Awareness, alertness & quick help, d. Nutrition, Regular check-up & care, , Passage 3, 3. Read the passage given below., Most cities in India face water shortage problems. According to some reports, 182 cities require, urgent attention with regards to water and wastewater management. It is estimated that 35% of, water is lost every day in leakages in cities. The effective water supply after this loss is only, 125 litres/day per capita. This is considerably lower than the demand of 210 litres/day per, capita. The following graph shows the water demand in some major Indian cities in MLD, (million litres per day)., Wastewater management is becoming a major challenge in cities. Population growth and, urbanisation has put cities under unprecedented pressure. Development of infrastructure and, government regulations have not been able to keep pace with this. The other major concern is, groundwater exploitation. Many towns and cities still depend on hand pumps for their water, supply which depletes the water table., The way forward – Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM), The IUWM approach is a completely new way of looking at urban water management. It, encourages cities to align their socio-economic planning to a ‘hydrological’ context, without, losing sight of their developmental priorities. It is based on the following key concepts:, , Participation of public, private and social sectors in urban areas in activities that are water, related. The participation is needed to reach a common understanding of the challenges to, water management and identify a common vision., Page 19 of 175


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Considering the whole urban water cycle as one system. This covers various actions, such, as:, • matching water quality with the purpose of use, • using natural systems for water and wastewater treatment, • considering storm water/rainwater as a potential source of water, . preventing leakage, . strengthening urban water systems that often face acute shortage of water or floods, . managing the urban demand and use of water, . Regarding wastewater as a resource. Grey water (used water) can be reused for domestic, purposes, urban agriculture and industrial processes., . Optimum infrastructure design. This implies the selection of correct technology for water, supply, wastewater treatment and sanitation. The selection is based on factors such as water, quality, economic condition of households, size of population and availability of skilled, manpower, land and institutions., The IUWM is a holistic approach that links urban water management with overall urban, planning. If the government wishes to adopt IUWM, it has to adjust some of its policies and, regulations, and consider decentralising its activities. It has to also train its technical and, managerial staff and be open to sharing information with public., On the basis of your understanding of the passage, attempt ANY FIVE QUESTIONS, OUT OF SIX that follow. (1 × 5 = 5m), i) More than a third of the water in cities is lost due to, a. overuse., b. leakage., c. lack of wastewater management. d. pollution in the water., ii) Name two cities which constitute more than 50% of the water demand of all Indian cities, put together., a. Jaipur and Kanpur b. Mumbai and Delhi c. Surat and Lucknow d. Bengaluru and Chennai, iii). IUWM approach is a holistic way of looking at urban water management because it, a. ensures the participation of public, private and social sectors in urban water management., b. supports the use of grey water., c. aligns urban water management with urban planning., d. controls population growth., iv). By ‘hydrological context’ is meant, a. the context of hydroelectric power, b. the scientific study of water, c. the correct technology for water supply, wastewater treatment and sanitation., d. a perspective that recognizes issues related to water., v) Grey water can be reused for, a. domestic work, b. agriculture, c. drinking after purification, d. infrastructural processes, vi) Which of the following cities faced acute water crisis and was about to approach Day Zero, in 2018?, a. Canada, b. New York, c. New Delhi, d. Cape Town, , Passage 4, Read the following passage carefully:, 1.Fifty-three percent of Indians are connected to the internet every waking hour which is higher, than the global average of 51 percent, a new international study has found. The continuous, online connectivity is becoming a phenomenon in India with 53 percent respondents in the, country saying they are connected to the internet "every waking hour," said the study, conducted by a leading global management consulting firm, the London-based AT Kearney, , Page 20 of 175


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Global Research., , 2."That is higher than 51 per cent global average, 36 per cent in China and 39 per cent in, Japan," said the study titled 'Connected Consumers Are Not Created Equal: A Global, Perspective.' The study covered 10 countries involving 10,000 respondents in July this year., 3.The results of the study found that continuous connectivity is having a big impact on online, retail in the country with social networks becoming a major influencing factor., 4."97 per cent of the respondents from India said they have a Facebook account with 77 per, cent saying they logged in to the social network daily," said the study., 5.According to the study, there are three key, motivations for Indian people to be continuously, connected to internet. First is interpersonal, connection in which 94 per cent of respondents, said that connecting with other people is a key, motivation for going online. This factor is the, highest among Indian respondents. The second, factor, according to the study, is self-expression,, which is sharing opinions with others through the, internet. The study says this factor is particularly, strong in emerging markets and places where, offline self-expression is limited., 6.In India, 88 per cent of respondents cited this as a factor for staying connected to the internet., It is a big motivator in China as well where 89 per cent cited it as a reason to be connected to, the internet compared to the global average of 62 per cent. The third motivation is access to, services or products and making purchases online. On this front, 92 per cent of the Indian, respondents said they go online to access services or for shopping, the study said., On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer any five out of the six questions, that follow:, (1m X 5 =, 5m), i. In which consecutive years internet penetration growth rates were the highest?, a) 2017-18, b.2018-19, c.2019-20, d.2020-21, ii. What was the ratio of increase of internet penetration from 2016-17 to 2018-19?, a) 40:77, b.7:12, c.7:11, d.12:7, iii. What are the motivating factors for the increased use of internet in India?, i. Sharing opinions with others., ii. Limitations in other modes of, communication., Page 21 of 175


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iii. Interpersonal connection., a. i, ii, iii are true but iv is false., c.iii, iv, i are true but ii is false., , iv. Access to services or products., b.ii, iii, iv are true but i is false., d.All are true., , iv. “Interpersonal connection and relations have widened and become stronger with the, advent of internet and mobile users in India.” Do you agree?, i. Yes, we can stay connected with our near and dear ones at the press of a button., ii. No, internet has reduced in-person interaction. It has increased communication but, not connection., a) i is true but ii is false., b.ii is true but i is false., c.Both i and ii are true., d,.oth i and ii are false., v. Find a word from the passage which means “SOCIAL”, a) interpersonal, b.respondent, c.self-expression, , d.motivation, , vi. Who are the people who spend maximum time on smartphones?, I., Women, II . Men, III.Children, a) Both II AND III, b.Only II, c.Only I, , d.I, II & III, , Passage 5, Read the passage carefully:, 1. When plastic waste is burnt, a complex weave of toxic chemicals is released. Breaking down, Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) used for packaging, toys and coating electrical wires. It, produces dioxin, an organochlorine which belongs to the family of Persistent Organic, Pollutants (POPs). A recent Dioxin Assessment Report brought out by the United States, Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) says the risk of getting cancer from dioxin is ten, times higher than reported by the agency in 1994., 2. Yet the Delhi government is giving the green signal to a gasification project which will, convert garbage into energy without removing plastic waste. Former transport minister, Rajendra Gupta, the promoter of this project, says this is not necessary. He claims no air, pollution will be caused and that the ash produced can be used as manure. This project, built, with Australian assistance, will cost Rs 200 crore. It will generate 25 megawatts of power, and gobble 1,000 tonnes of garbage everyday., 3. “Technologies like gasification are a form of incineration,” says Madhumita Dutta, central, coordinator with Toxics Link, New Delhi. Incineration merely transfers hazardous waste, from a solid form to air, water and ash, she points out. Toxins produced during incineration, include acidic gases, heavy metals as well as dioxins and furans. “The ‘manure’ will be, hazardous and a problem to dispose,” says Dutta., 4.Municipal solid waste contains a mix of plastics. Breaking down this waste emits hydrochloric, acid, which attacks the respiratory system, skin and eyes, resulting in coughing, vomiting, and nausea., Polyethylene generates volatile compounds like formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, both, suspected carcinogenic. Breathing styrene from polystyrene can cause leukaemia., Polyurethane is associated with asthma. Dioxin released by PVC is a powerful hormone, disrupter and causes birth defects and reproductive problems. There is no threshold dose to, prevent it and our bodies have no defence against it., 5. How has global plastic waste disposal method changed over time? In the chart, we see the, share of global plastic waste that is discarded, recycled or incinerated from 1980 through to, 2015. Prior to 1980, recycling and incineration of plastic was negligible. From 1980 for, incineration and 1990 for recycling, rates increased on average by about 0.7 percent per year., Page 22 of 175


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6. “India does not have the facility to test dioxin and the cost of setting one up is prohibitively, expensive,” says Dutta. Besides, Indian garbage has a low calorific content of about 800 cal/kg,, since it has high moisture and requires additional fuel to burn. Toxics link calculates that the, electricity generated from such technology will cost between Rs 5-7 per unit, which is six times, higher than conventional energy. India has chosen a dioxin preventive route and burning of, chlorinated plastics is prohibited under Municipal Solid Waste and Biomedical Rules., , On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer any five of the following, questions by choosing the most appropriate option: (1m X 5 = 5m), (i)Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the passage?, a. India has adopted a preventive measure under which burning of chlorinated plastics is, prohibited., b. USEPA says that the risk of getting cancer from dioxin is hundred times higher than reported, by the agency in 1994., c. Incineration merely transfers hazardous waste from a solid form to air, water and ash., d. Hydrochloric acid attacks the digestive system, nose and eyes which results in diabetes and, nausea., ii.Based on the graphical chart in the passage, choose the option that correctly states the ratio, between discarded waste to recycled global plastic waste in 2015., , a. option 1, b. option 2, c. option 3, d. option 4, (iii)Based on the given graphical representation of data in the passage, choose the option that, lists the statement that is NOT TRUE., a. In the year 2015, the incinerated plastic waste disposal was 80%., b. In the year 1980, share of discarded plastic waste was 100%., c. Discarded plastic waste was 60% in the year 2010., d. Recycled plastic waste in the year 2000 was more than 70%., Page 23 of 175


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(iv)By 2015, how much global plastic waste was being incinerated?, a. 55%, b. 25%, c. 20%, d. 50%, (v)Which word in the passage means same as ‘waste material’? (para 2), a. gasification, b. garbage, c. pollution, d. manure, (vi) If formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are carcinogenic, it means they, a. produce carbon dioxide, b. cause asphyxiation, c. cause cancer, d. cause cardiac problems, , Answer Key, Passage 1:, i) a) The Return of the Cats ii) a) Madhya Pradesh vies closely with Karnataka for the, first place., iii) b) 4, iv) b) is less than, v) a) Nepal, vi) b) environment vs, development, Passage 2:, i, c. Slight decline, ii, b. Accidental or incidental death during pregnancy, iii, b. Income is inversely proportional to maternal mortality rate, iv, d. Solemn, v., a., vi, a. Healthcare, nutrition & hygiene, Passage 3:, i) b .leakage, ii) b. Mumbai & Delhi iii) c. Align urban water management with urban, planning, iv) b. the scientific study of water, v) a. Domestic work, vi) d. Cape Town, Passage 4:, i. d) 2020-21, ii. b) 7 : 12, iii c ) iii, iv and i are true but ii false, ii is false, v. a) Interpersonal, vi. c) Only Women, , iv. a) i is true but, , Passage 5, i. d. Hydrochloric acid attacks the digestive system, nose and eyes which results in diabetes and, nausea., ii. a. Option 1, iii .d. Recycled plastic waste in the year 2000 was more than 70%., iv. b. 25%, v. b. garbage, vi. c. cause cancer, , Page 24 of 175


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SECTION – B, , CREATIVE WRITING SKILLS AND, GRAMMAR, , (12 MARKS), , (Short Composition Task), , Page 25 of 175


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NOTICE WRITING - (3MARKS), 1. Introduction, Communication is a process by which we exchange information. Now the question arises,, How do we communicate?,  One to one?,  One to many?,  One to many for a period of time?, Many times, we need to communicate in a large group of people in a short time. This can, be an invitation for a meeting, certain instructions, certain appeals. This form of written, communication is called notice. It is generally displayed at public places, published in a, newspaper. Now a days, social media is also using display notices., , 1.1 Notice Writing, A notice is a written or printed news announcement or information. A notice may, contain news/information about something that has happened or is likely to happen. It may, be a formal announcement of public importance or an advance warning meant for, compliance and information. A notice can be about a meeting, an event, an excursion/a, historical trip/a picnic, lost and found, change of name/address/uniform/timings/venue etc., It is pinned up on specific display boards in schools / public places / newspapers, , 1.2. Why do we need Notice?, Notices are effective means of disseminating information related to different issues, or occasions. They reach to a large number of persons in a short time. Hence, a notice is, written in simple and formal language. It is clear, brief and to the point., , 2. Main Features:, (a) Format: It includes the word ‘NOTICE’, date, heading, writer’s name and designation., (b) Content: It must answer the questions -What? When? Where? How? etc., (c) Expression: It relates to the overall organization and relevance of the content as, well as grammatical accuracy and fluency., , 2.1 Content of Notice:, 1. Name of the organization issuing the notice is given in capital letters in the first line, 2. The title ‘NOTICE’ is written in second line, 3. The date of the Notice on which it is drafted on the left-hand side without writing the, word date., 4. Catchy Heading is given to introduce the subject of the notice., 5. Body of the notice- necessary details to be given., 6. Notice is ended with a closing line ‘For more details contact the undersigned.’, 7. Writer’s Sign, Name (in Capitals) Designation at the end of notice on the left-hand side, , Name of Organization/office issuing the Notice, NOTICE, dd/mm/yyyy, Heading, Body of the Notice, Signature, Name, Designation, , Page 26 of 175


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3. Points to Remember: 5 W’s, 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., , What is going to happen, the event, Where it will take place, the venue, When it will take place, date& time, Who can benefit from the information?, Whom to contact, , 3.1 Notice Writing: Important Tips, ▪, ▪, ▪, ▪, ▪, ▪, ▪, ▪, ▪, ▪, , It is written in passive voice., It is given in a box., Its word limit is: 40–50 (only words in body counted).Do not cross the word limit., Information given must be clear., It should not cause any misunderstanding or confusion., It should be catchy, appealing – attract attention at once., We can use bold letters, catchy slogans, striking words/ phrases., There should not be Personal Pronouns while writing the notice., Notice should be written in the present tense or future tense., It should have short but grammatically accurate sentences., , 4. Notice Writing: Marking Scheme, To score full marks we should know marking scheme. Notice is included in the short, writing task which will be of 3 marks., As per CBSE guidelines for 2020-21 marking scheme will be as follows:, ▪ Format:, 1mark, ▪ Content:, 1mark, ▪ Expression: 1mark, It is one of the easiest and the most scoring topics in class XI&XII. By following the, above-mentioned tips one can score full marks., , 5. SAMPLE QUESTION:,  On the occasion of National Science and Technology Day, the Delhi Public School, New, Delhi has decided to organize a Science Fair. Vikram, the secretary of the Science, Society, wants to call a meeting of the office bearers of the society to discuss the, arrangements for the fair. Write a notice in not more than 50 words., Delhi Public School, New Delhi, NOTICE, 18.2.2021., Fair on National Science Day, It is informed that a fair is going to be organized in the school premises to celebrate, the occasion of National Science and Technology Day. All office bearers are requested, to attend a meeting in the School Library on 20 Feb 2021 at 10 am to discuss the, arrangements for the fair. The meeting is compulsory to attend. Please come with your, unique ideas.For more details contact undersigned., Vikram, , Page 27 of 175


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5.1. Questions with solutions:, 1. You are Sonu /Sonali, Sports Secretary of Maharani Public School, Gwalior. Write, a notice in not more than 50 words for the school notice board, asking students, interested in playing hockey, to give their names for selection in the school hockey, team, event date, time, eligibility criteria, etc., , MAHARANI PUBLIC SCHOOL, GWALIOR, NOTICE, 15th March, 2021, HOCKEY MATCH, The selection for the school Hockey team will be made on 30th August.,2021 at 4 p.m., at the school ground. Those interested in playing hockey, must give their names to the, undersigned by 19th March. Selection will be made purely on performance on the field., Only the students of classes IX to XII are eligible for selection. For more details contact, undersigned., Signature, NAME, Sports Secretary, , 2. You are the Secretary of the English Literary Association of Tagore Memorial, School, Patna. Write out a notice for notice board, inviting names of those who, would like to participate in the proposed inter-house debate, oratorial and elocution, contest., S, TAGORE MEMORIAL SCHOOL, PATNA, NOTICE, 5th Aug. 2021, INTER-HOUSE COMPETITIONS, This is to inform that ‘The English Literary Association’ invites participants in the, following contests to be held in the school auditorium:, (a) Debate competition: 20 Aug. 2021 at 11.00 a.m., (b) Oratorial skills: 21 Aug. 2021 at 11.00 a.m., (c) Elocution contest: 21 Aug. 2021 at 2.00 p.m., Each house can send a team of two students per item.Last date for submission of names, is 10th August, 2021. For more details contact undersigned., Signature, Ravi Mohan, Secretary, ELA, , 3. You are Rahul /Rashmi. As President of the Literary Club of your school; you have, organised an inter-school debate competition on the occasion of the Silver Jubilee, celebrations of your school. Write a notice in about 50 words, informing the students, of your school about the competition., Page 28 of 175


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ST. THOMAS PUBLIC SCHOOL, LUCKNOW, NOTICE, 16th August 2021, , Debate Competition, This is to inform that The Literary Club is organising an inter-school debate competition, on the, occasion of the Silver Jubileecelebrations as per details given below:, Date: 18 Dec. 2019, Time: 11 a.m. onwards, Venue: Saraswati Auditorium, Topic: “Nuclear Armament is India’s best defence against cross-border terrorism”, Last date for receipt of names: 10 Dec. upto 4.30 p.m. in the Activities Room. For more, details contact undersigned., Signature, Rahul/Rashmi, President, , 4. You are Ravi/Rachna. As President of the Cultural Forum of your school, you have, organised an inter-school orchestra competition on the occasion of the Silver Jubilee, celebrations of your school., , RAS BIHARI MODEL SCHOOL, MATHURA, NOTICE, 6th November 2019, Inter-School Orchestra Competition, This is to inform that on the occasion of the Silver Jubilee celebrations, an Inter-School, Orchestra Competition will be held., Date : 14 Nov. 2019, Time : 2 p.m. onwards, Venue : Vikram Auditorium, Participants : Maximum 9 in an item, Last date for submission of Entry Forms: 10 Nov 2019. For more details contact, undersigned., Signature, Rachna/Ravi, President, Cultural Forum, , 5. You are Pradeep /Asha. As President of the Dramatic Club of your school; you have, organised an interschool competition in one-act plays on the occasion of the Silver, Jubilee celebrations of your school. Write a notice in about 50 words, informing the, students of your school about this proposed event., , Page 29 of 175


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SCINDIA SCHOOL, INDORE, NOTICE, 16th AUG. 2021, Interschool Competition, It is informed that on the occasion of the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the school, the, Dramatic Club has organized an Interschool Competition in one-act plays as per details, given below:, Date: 30 Aug 2021, Time: 10 a.m. onwards, Venue: Ashoka Auditorium, Participants: Maximum 7 in a team, Last Date for the receipt of Entry forms: 25 Aug. 2021 by 4.00 pm. For more details, contact undersigned., Pradeep /Asha, President, Dramatic Club, , 6. You are President of the Cultural Society of your school. You are planning to, organise a cultural programme. Write a notice for the school notice board inviting, names of students willing to participate. You are Sudhir,the secretary of the society., , ABC SCHOOL, BHOPAL, NOTICE, 9th Aug.2021., OPPORTUNITY FOR BUDDING ARTISTS, This is to inform that a great opportunity has been arranged for the budding artists of the, Vidyalaya. Talented students are invited to submit their names for a musical evening to, be held on 21st August 2021 in the school open air theatre from 6 p.m. onwards Items:, 1. Light vocal music (solo), 2. Group Song, 3. Group Dance, 4. Classical Dance (Solo), This competition is limited for the classes VI to XII. Contact the undersigned before 16th, Aug. 2021., Sudhir, Secretary, Cultural Society, , 7. You are David I Dorothy, the secretary of .the Dance and Drama Society of the, Sanskriti School, Patna. Write a notice for your school notice board inviting, students to give their names for a Fancy Dress Competition., , Page 30 of 175


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THE SANSKRITI SCHOOL, PATNA, NOTICE, 20thAugust 2021, , Fancy Dress Competition, This is to inform that ‘A FancyDress Competition’ will be held in the school given as, under:, Date: 25 Aug. 2019, Time: 11 a.m. onwards, Venue: School Auditorium, Duration of performance: 3 minutes, Last Date for submission of names: 16 Aug. 2019 by 4 p.m., For details contact the undersigned, DAVID DOROTHY, Secretary, Dance & Drama Society, , 8. You are Pushpak /Pooja. As the Secretary of the Social Service League of your, school; you have organised a cultural bene􀂦t show in aid of mentally handicapped, children of your town, Vijayawada. Write a notice in not more than 50 words for, your school notice board, giving necessary information about the programme., , CENTRAL PUBLIC SCHOOL, VIJAYWADA, , NOTICE, 05th Jan. 2021, Cultural Show to Aid Handicaps, This is to inform that in aid of mentally handicapped children we are presenting a cultural, show in Vijaywada . Its details are:Date: 14 January 2021, Time: 4.30 p.m. onwards, Venue: Community Centre, Vijayawada All are cordially invited. For more details, contact undersigned., Signature, Pushpak/Puja, Secretary, , 9. You are Rohit/Rashi. As the Secretary of the Cultural Club of your school, you have, organized a Cultural Evening as a thanks giving programme on the last day of your, school. Write a notice for your school notice board, giving necessary information, about this event in not more than 50 words., , Page 31 of 175


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HOLY CHILD ACADEMY, MANIPUR, NOTICE, 16th February 2021, THANKS GIVING CEREMONY, This is to inform that ‘The Cultural Club’ is organising a thanks giving ceremony as per, details given below:, Date: 20 February 2021, Time: 6 p.m. onwards, Venue: School Auditorium, Cultural Programme and refreshment will follow. Please be in your seats by 5.50 p.m., Maintain decency and decorum. For more details contact undersigned., Signature, Rohit/Rashi, Secretary, , 6. Questions for Practice:, 1. You are Seema/Sudhir, the Cultural Secretary of your school. Write a notice for your, school notice board in 50 words inviting students to participate in an inter-school poster, making contest., 2. You are Kamal/Komal. Your school has decided to organize a cultural programme to raise, funds for the victims of Orissa super cyclone. As the Cultural Secretary, write a notice in, about 50 words giving details to your schoolmates., 3. You are Navin/Namita, Head Boy/Girl of your school. You have organized a talk on career, guidance by Dr Arun Bajaj, the eminent counsellor SAHYOG. Write a notice in about, 50 words inviting students ofXI and XII to attend the lecture., 4. Mother Teresa Public School, Kolkata is organizing a debate on 15 Feb, 2019 at 11, a.m.The topic is ‘Environmental degradation is a global concern’. Two students can, participate from each school. As social secretary of your school put up a notice inviting, names of students who wish to participate in the debate., 5. You are Shakti/Shalini working as the Students’ Representative on the Management, Committee of your school. The committee is going to meet next week to chalk out an, academic programme for the next year. To ensure that the committee really prepares a, need-based programme for the students, you have decided to invite the students’, suggestions on this subject. Write a notice in this regard in not more than 50 words., , Page 32 of 175


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LETTER WRITING, Introduction:-A letter is a written message conveyed from one person to another person or, from one organization/institution etc. to another. It is used to convey information and a medium, of augmenting and promoting relationships- both in personal as well as a professional capacity., , Why do we write letter?, Formal Letters have a variety of purposes. Formal Letters are written to:, • Ask for/give information, • Apply for a job, • Make inquiries, • Register complaints about inadequate goods or services, • Place orders/send appropriate replies, • Apologize for behavior, • Solicit new customers for grievances, • Persuade others, • Make an appeal for help, • Send a recommendation, However, all of these letters have a common goal, which is to get the results you want from, Someone you may or may not know personally., , TYPES OF LETTERS, 1. FORMAL LETTERS : INCLUDE EVERY TYPE OF BUSINESS LETTERS SUCH AS, LETTER OF INQUIRY , LETTER OF ORDER, LETTER TO THE EDITOR , JOB, APPLICATION ETC ., 2. INFORMAL LETTERS : ARE MORE PERSONEL . THEY ARE GENERALLY WRITTEN, TO PARENTS , SIBLINGS , RELATIVES AND FRIENDS ., , What is a formal letter?, • Usually written to people you don’t know, Write about:, – Registering complaints and writing replies, – Making enquiries – Asking and giving information, – Creating awareness regarding some social issues, – Placing orders, cancellation of orders, – Business letters, – Job application, , Style / Language, • Not personal, • Need to give information in the shortest, clearest way possible, • Use language that is business-like but clear, , Page 33 of 175


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THE LAYOUT OF A BUSINESS LETTER/ AN OFFICIAL LETTER, 1. Sender’s Name, (At the top left hand corner), 2. The date, (The date should be written below the address of the sender), 3. Name and the address of addressee., (The name and designation of the addressee should be on the left margin), 4. Subject, (It should be an instant idea of the theme and should not be written in more than one, line), 5. Salutation, (Salutation is the mode of addressing a person. The usual form of salutation isi)Sir or Dear Sir, for individuals, ii)Sirs or Dear Sirs or Messers for companies and firms, iii)If the letter is addressed to a lady, salutation ‘Madam’ should be used.), 6. The Body Of The Letter, (Generally two or three paragraphs form the body of a letter. The first paragraph has, the introduction (purpose of writing). The second one has the details about the problem, or the subject (main information) and the final paragraph deals with the suggestions, toward the solution of the problem.), 7. Complimentary Close, (A formal letter can be ended with ‘Yours faithfully’, ‘Yours sincerely’ or ‘Yours truly’., Remember that ‘YOURS’ never takes an apostrophe and the second word is not, capitalized., This element is a single word or phrase, separated from the message by a blank line.), 8. Signature, (The sender’s full signature with name and designation comes at the end of a letter.), [You have to leave one line gap between various elements.], , Marks for Letter-writing are awarded as under:, Format – 1, content – 2, Expression – 2, Letter question is of 5 marks., However, no marks are given for format alone if there is no content., , 1. Golden Rule: Always use, (a) Suitable format, (b) Well-organised content, (c) Appropriate language, Study the formats given below, observe their use in solved examples and adopt them in the, exercises given for practice:, , Page 34 of 175


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A GENERAL FORMAT OF FORMAL LETTER, WRITING, 1.Sender’s, Address/Self Address, , 1.Delhi Public Library, Shyama Prasad Mrkh- Marg, Delhi-110006., 10th August 2021, , &, Date, 2.Addressee‘s, Address, , 2 M/s Jiwan Publishing House(P)Ltd. 24,, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002, , 3.Salutation, , 3. Sir/Madam, , 4.Subject, , 4. Subject: Order for Books, , 5.Content, , 5. It would be much obliged on your part if you could, kindly send me the following books by VPP. These are, urgently required., , 6., Complimentaryclose/, Signature, , - ------------ -- - - - - - - - - - - faithfully, -----------6. Yours, Sd/, (HARISH KUMAR), Chief Librarian, , Writing & Organizing a Formal Letter, • Plan layout/format, • Decide on greeting and ending, • Brainstorm, • Organise ideas, • Plan introduction, main body &conclusion, • Proof read, edit and redraft, Page 35 of 175


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Layout, 29H,Civil Lines, Allahabad, , Self Address/Sender’s Address, , 10th August 2021, , Date, , The Dealer, M/S Small World, , Receiver’s Address, , Lajpat Nagar, Allahabad, Sub: Defective inverter - regarding, , Subject, , Sir, , Salutation, , On 8thAugust 2021, I got an inverter of “ElectroCom” make, model no 26 T 5 installed through your, shop., , Introduction, , The first time the electricity went, it took over but the, very next day it refused to function. The electrician, who came to repair it told that the inverter has some, technical defect and must be replaced., , Main Body, , I am sorry to say that after having spent so much of, money, I am not able to avail the facility. Kindly, replace it immediately according to the terms and, conditions of the deal., , Conclusion, , Hoping for early action, Yours sincerely, Sd—, , Complimentary close/signatureCompli, , Complimentary close/signature, , (ANITA SEN), , Greetings/ Salutation..., • Dear Sir or Madam, , Page 36 of 175


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• Sir/ Madam, • Respected Sir (Principal), • Dear (Name)Use this if you have been given a person’s name or if, you have received a formal letter with the name of, the sender on it (reply), , Endings/ Complimentary /Subscription..., If you use:, • Dear Sir or Madam, Yours faithfully, Yours truly (The Editor), • Respected Sir/ Madam (The Principal), Yours obediently, • Dear (Name), Yours sincerely, , Organising Ideas:, • Think about the order of your information, • Decide what information to put in the:, – Introduction – beginning, – Main body – middle, – Conclusion – end, • Think again why you’re writing the letter, • Make sure you have all information you need written down in your brainstorm, • Cross out information you don’t need from your brainstorm, , Formal Letters..., Body of the letter- divided in short paragraphs, • Beginning = introduction (para1), State the purpose of the letter/ main idea/reference to the issue., • Middle = main body (para2), Comment on main issue, cause- effect, give examples- 3 to 4, good points to emphasize on your main point, • End = conclusion (para3), Sum up the letter with polite wish, ideas, suggestions, appeal or request., Page 37 of 175


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# BUSINESS OR OFFICIAL LETTERS:, -Asking for and giving information, ., -Placing orders and sending replies., , Solved Examples:, 1., You are Akshaya/Kajol of 123, Parade Ground Road, Secunderabad. You are, interested in doing short term course in computer programming during your summer, vacation. Write a letter to the Director, Computer World, Powar, Mumbai, inquiring about, the duration of such a course and the terms and conditions for admission., , 123, Parade Ground Road, Secunderabad, 10th August 2021, The Director, Computer World, Powai(Mumbai)., Sub : Seeking information about computer course., Sir, With reference to your advertisem*nt in the Times of India offering short term courses in, computer programming I want to know certain details about the same, ., I have recently passed my XII examination in the humanities stream. I have a very basic, knowledge of computers and want to learn programming in my free time. I want to know if I am, eligible for the course which your institute is offering. Also let me know about the duration of, the course, fee structure and mode of payment. Since I’m free in the evening only, can I join an, evening course, if you have one ?, Let me know all these details at the earliest so that I can decide accordingly., Yours sincerely, Sd—, (KAJOL), , 2. Enquiry regarding items rates and mode of payment, Self-Address, Date, Name&, Address of Receiver, Page 38 of 175


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Subject: Enquiry regarding items rates and mode of payment, Sir/Sirs, Through your advertisem*nt in a national daily, I come to know that yours is one of the leading, firms in the field of …………. We also deal in the same for the last ten years. We have enough, space along with wide contacts and sufficient experience of the market., We want to start business with your firm, but before this we need some information regarding, the items manufactured by your firm along with rate list, and your terms and conditions regarding, mode of payment., So you are requested to please furnish the required information as early as possible so that we, can start our business relation for mutual benefits., With thanks, Yours sincerely, (Signature), Name & designation, ………………, , 3. Reply to enquiry regarding items, rates and mode of payment, Self-Address, Date, Name&, Address of Receiver, Subject: Reply to enquiry regarding items, rates and mode of payment, Sir/Sirs, First of all thanks for your enquiry letter dated………… regarding items, rates and mode of, payment. We are pleased to inform you that our firm manufactures different items and the, detailed list of these items along with rates has been attached along with this letter., Regarding our mode of payment, this is to inform you that we demand 60% of the total amount, of order in advance along with the order letter and the rest 40% amount within ten days of, receiving of the order. Moreover we offer 10% additional discount on the bulk order along with, routine discount of 5%., We assure you of our best services in future., With thanks, Yours sincerely, (Signature), Name & designation, ……………, Page 39 of 175


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4. Enquiry regarding some Educational Course:, Self-Address, Date, Director/Principal, Name of Institute, Address, Subject: Enquiry regarding ……………….course, Sir, Through your advertisem*nt in a newspaper regarding admission in different courses, I come to, know that your institute offers ……….course. I have appeared in AISSSE-2020 and the result is, awaited. I am interested in …….course. I have heard a lot about your institute and its reputation., So I want to join the above mentioned course, but before applying for the course, I need some information regarding:, 1., Nature and scope of ………course, 2., Eligibility, 3., Fee-structure and mode of payment, 4., Syllabus and Examination pattern, 5., Hostel/ conveyance facility, if available, 6., Placement, 7., Last date for submission of application, So you are requested to please furnish all the required information to the earliest so that I may, make my mind to join the course in time., , Yours faithfully, Signature, (Name), , 5. Enquiry regarding type of rooms and charges, Self-Address, Date, The Manager, Name of Hotel, Address, Subject: Enquiry regarding type of rooms and charges, Sir, Through this letter I want to say that we are a group of six friends and during summer vacation, we have decided to spend some days in Shimla. We have heard a lot about your hotel and services, Page 40 of 175


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offered to the visitors. So we want to book some rooms in your hotel, but before booking we, need some information regarding:, 1., Types of rooms available, 2., Room rent per day (inclusive/ exclusive of taxes), 3., Facilities available, 4., Internet connectivity, 5., Parking facility, 6., Vehicle or Guide facility, if available, So you are requested to please furnish all the details required to the earliest so that we can book, rooms in time., , Yours truly, Signature, (Name), …………., 6. Intimation of dispatch/supply/execution of order, Self-address (company’s address), Date, Name &, Address of the customer, Subject: Intimation of dispatch/supply/execution of order, Sir, First of all thanks for your order letter dated ………..for some items of …… You requested us, to supply the order within 20 days. We are pleased to inform you that your order has been, dispatched today through goods train/courier/transport/VPP and the bill along with a copy of, invoice has been sent to SBI, Name of city (customer)., So you are requested to please collect your order after making payment., We assure you of our best services in future also., Yours truly, Signature, (Name & designation), …….., 7. Unable to supply the order in given time, Self-address (company’s address), Date, Page 41 of 175


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Name &, Address of the customer, Subject: Intimation regarding inability to supply the order in given time, Sir, First of all thanks for your order letter dated ………..for some items of …… You requested us, to supply the order within 20 days. But we are sorry to inform you that we shall not be able to, supply the goods in given time due to reason given in question. Moreover there is a great rush of, previous orders still to complete., So if you can wait for 15 days more, please inform us., Sorry once again for the delay, but we assure you of our best services in future., , Yours truly, Signature, (Name & designation), ……., 8. Complaint against delay in supply of Order/ Cancelling the order, Self-address, Date, Name &, Address of the Firm/ company, Subject: Complaint against delay in supply of Order/ cancelling the order, Sir, Through this I want to say that I/we placed you an order dated ………….regarding some items, of …………and I/we requested you to please supply the order within one month, but it is sorry, to say that the given time has passed and the order is still awaited. I/We had never expected of, such kind of dealing from such a reputed company., So if you can supply the items within ten days, please inform us. Otherwise treat the order, cancelled., With thanks, Yours truly, Signature, (Name), , Page 42 of 175


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9. Complaint against the defective electronic item (T.V. etc.), Self-address, Date, Name/ the Dealer &, Address of the Firm/ Showroom, Subject: Complaint against defective electronic item (T.V./ computer etc.), Sir, Through this letter I want to say that I purchased a/an electronic item (T.V./ computer etc.)from, your showroom wide Bill No…………. against one year warranty/ guarantee. It worked well, only for some days. After that it started showing some trouble/ defect within it. Write one or two, lines given in question about the defect. When I got it checked from a local mechanic, he told, me to contact the dealer/ company., So you are requested to please either get it repaired at your own cost or get it replaced with a, new one as it is still under warranty/ guarantee period. Otherwise I shall have to go to the, consumer forum., , Yours truly, Signature, (Name), 10. You are Mr. N. Madan, the Manager of Hotel Akbar International, Jaipur. You, want to place an order for seeds and plants from Dilkhush Nurseries, Jaipur. Write, a letter placing order for the same., , The Manager, Hotel Akbar International, Jaipur, 10th August 2021, The Proprietor, Dilkhus Nurseries, Ahmedabad,, Sir, Ref- Talk with your sales Representative regarding purchase of seeds, plants and cut flowers., Sub :- Placing order for seeds & Plants., Sir, The hotel management is glad at the interest shown by your sales Representative in negotiating, the deal of supplying various flowers and vegetable seeds to our hotel on a regular basis. We, hereby place an order for (1) seeds of seasonal vegetables (2) Seeds of exotic flowers (3) Indoor, Page 43 of 175


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and outdoor plants (4) cut flowers. (The details of each can be had from our office-horticulture, in-charge), We believe that you are a reputed company dealing in many important and exotic plants and your, supply will be timely and of consistently good quality. The payment shall be made on the last, day of every month., , Yours Sincerely, Sd/, (N.Madan), 11. You placed an order with M/s Kanchan Hosiery Words, Railway Road, Ludhiana, for the supply of Sweaters, jerseys and other hosiery goods. The peak season for the, sale of hosiery goods is going to be soon over. But they have delayed the execution, of the order. Write a letter to them cancelling the order., M/s Tirupati Readymade Garments, Sec-6. Central Market, Dwarka, Near Delhi, 1100067, 10th August 2021, M/s Kanchan Hosiery Works, Railway Road, Ludhiana, Sub: Cancellation of the order no KNW/238 dated 5th August 2021, , Sir, We placed an order with you on 5th August 2021for the supply of sweaters, jerseys and other, hosiery goods. We requested for the urgent supply. But we regret to inform you that we have not, yet received consignment till date. All our requests and reminders in this connection have gone, unheeded. You have neither sent the goods nor have you accounted for this under delay. In this, way you have put us to a great inconvenience., As it is peak season for the sale of hosiery goods, our customers are returning away. This has, affected our reputation a let. In these circ*mstances, we have arranged for the goods from some, other company., You are therefore, requested to treat our order as cancelled. However, if you premise to dispatch, the goods in time in future, we may resume placing orders., , Yours faithfully, Sd, (KRISHAN PAL), PROPRIETOR, Page 44 of 175


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Questions for practice, 1.The Principal of Kendriya Vidyalaya No-5 Jaipur asks the Head of the Music Department Mr., Mohammad Salim to place an order for buying musical instrument with Jhankar Music Shop,, Jaipur. Write the letter., 2.Ramona Jayadev of 6, Napean Road, Mumbai is a busy career woman having very little time, for shopping. She orders with the Worlingoons Home Shopping catalogue after seeing their ad, in the paper. Write the letter., 3.You are Taruna. You are holding a small party at your residence. Write a letter placing an order, with Azad Confectioners for the party. You had recently seen their advertisem*nt in the, newspaper for free home delivery. Mention this and other necessary details of the order., 4.You are Meena/Mukesh of Kanpur. You have come across an advertisem*nt of a coaching, centre that prepares students for competitive exams. Write a letter to the Director of the institute, asking for information regarding institute, faculty, fees etc. that you require before you decide to, join it., , SKY-HIGH INSTITUTE, EXCELLENT COACHING CENTRE, 25 HIGH STREET, KANPUR, ARE YOU ASPIRING TO BE A DOCTOR,ENGINEER,LAWYER?, WE ARE HERE TO HELP YOU!, BATCHES STARTING FROM 5th September 2021, REGISTER NOW!, CONTACT: TEL: 23417689, , 5.As Mr. R. Singh, HOD Chemistry, Cambridge High School, Pune, you had placed an order, with Messrs. Scientific Equipments, Dadar, Mumbai for test tubes and jars for the laboratory., When the parcel was received you observed that markings on the test tubes were not clear and, some of the jars were damaged. Write a letter of complaint in 120-150 words seeking immediate, replacement., , 6.You are Ashok/Asha Rai living at 49, S-Block, Model Town, Allahabad- 211001. You came, across the following advertisem*nt:, , Page 45 of 175


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Homeo postal class Eng./Hindi. Practicals arranged. Prospectus, free. Contact Director, Mavelil Homeo Mission, P.B. 1015,, Pattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695004., Write a letter to the Director asking for detailed information on the courses, duration, fees,, assignments, local contact programmes. Request for a prospectus and enclose a self-addressed, envelope., 7.You are Prantik/Prantika, the Secretary of the Historical Society of Nalanda Senior Secondary, School, Bombay. You want to take a group of forty students of your school on a trip from, Bombay to Delhi by a deluxe bus. Write a letter to Global Travels, Bombay, enquiring about, their terms and conditions for package tour. You can ask about the duration of the trip, boarding, and lodging charges, mode of payment, and discount available if any., 8.You are keen to get a call centre job. You are aware that you need to improve your spoken, English and get some training in personality development., You came across the following advertisem*nt., , Write a letter to the Director asking for the course content, duration, fee, timings, and other, details. You are Aniket/Nikita of 15, H.I.G, Colony, Pritampura, Delhi., 9.You are Aman/Aarti of 119, Church Road, Kanpur. You are interested in doing a short term, course in Public Speaking for your personality enrichment during your summer vacation. Write, a letter to the Director, personal centre Sector 22, Chandigarh, inquiring about the duration of, such a course and the terms and conditions for admission., 10.Your cousin Priyanka has just passed X Standard and has sought your advice to opt for science, or commerce group. Write a letter giving guidance to select the group in standard XI., , Page 46 of 175


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OFFICIAL LETTERS : LETTERS OF COMPLAINT, Such letters are written to officials of different Departments and business organisations for, necessary action, These complaints may be related to untimely/short/defective supply or irregular public, services such as buses, electrical or water supply., , POINTS TO REMEMBER, a., b., c., d., , Use appropriate format, Keep your claim. Be polite but firm., Give reference to the date and invoice number, Describe what your complaint is, how long it has been persisting and how it has affected, you or your business, e. State what action do you expect (replacement , cancellation or refund), f. Mention your course of action if your complaint remains unaddressed, g. Use formal and courteous Language, FORMAT, , Page 47 of 175


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PARTS AND STEPS OF WRITING LETTER, Sender’s address, Date, , Receiver’s Address, , •, •, , This informs the reader from where the letter was written, This is the writer’s full postal address, , It is written below the senders address by leaving a line. The date may be, written in any of the following ways:, • 21 April 2021, • 21st April 2021, • April 21, 2021, Note :After writing the date leave a line, •, •, •, , The Editor, Name of the newspaper, Name of the city, , Salutation, , It is a customary address with which the sender opens the letter., • Use either Sir or Madam., • No need to use Respected as the word Sir/ Madam itself shows, respect., , Subject, , It is a concise statement of the topic of the letter to draw the reader’s attention, to the main message., • The main purpose of the letter forms the subject., • It must be written in four to six words., • It must convey the matter for which the letter is written., Note:The usual convention is to place it after the salutation, but it can be, placed before the salutation, , Body of the letter, , It forms the very soul of a letter. It usually makes use of three paragraphs but, may be shorter or longer. The matter of the letter is written here. It is divided, into, 3, paragraphs, as, follows, Paragraph 1: Introduce yourself and the purpose of writing the letter briefly., Paragraph, 2:, Give, detail, of, the, matter., Paragraph 3: Conclude by mentioning what you expect., , Complimentary, closing, , It is a polite way of ending the letter. The expression used must match the, salutation., • Yours faithfully/Yours sincerely is used for business purpose, • Yours truly is usually used for Acquaintances /Strangers/Officials, •, , Sender’s, Name, Here the sender signs his/her name, signature, and This is followed by his/ her designation or position in the next line, designation, , Page 48 of 175


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EXAMPLES, LETTERS OF COMPLAINT, 1 You are Rohan/Rohini , a resident of House No 23,Rohini New Delhi. You recently bought a, mobile phone for your grandmother on her 60th birthday from The Spice Shop , Lajpat Nagar., However, now, within two months of the purchase,the phone is not functioning properly. Write a, letter to the Proprietor complaining about the sub-standard product sold to you., House No 23, Rohini Nagar, New Delhi, 20 March, 20XX, The Proprietor, Spice Shop, Lajpat Nagar, Subject: Complaint about faulty LG mobile phone, Sir, Kindly refer to bill no 4569, dated 12 Jan, 20XX, vide which a mobile hand set- Lumia 5 o, fNokia company was purchased from your shop. However within two months of purchase,the, phone has developed a number of problems., The hand set is not getting charged and is operational only when it is plugged. We even got the, battery checked but there seems to be no problem with the battery. To add to our woes, within, a week, the screen light got diffused too., Since the product is still under guarantee period, I am enclosing the photocopy of the bill and, sending the phone to be replaced or repaired at the earliest., Yours truly, Rohan, , 2 You are Isha/Ishan of 245 , Model Town,Dehradun. Write a letter to Municipal, Commissioner complaining about poor sanitary conditions in your area., , Page 49 of 175


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245, Model Town, Dehradun, May 16, 2018, The Municipal Commissioner, Model Town, Dehradun, Subject: Complaint regarding poor sanitary conditions in Model Town, Sir, I am a resident of Model Town,Dehradun. I am writing this letter to complain about poor sanitary, conditions in the area., The roads here are not cleaned for days. Consequently heaps of garbage can be seen here and there., Also the drains remain choked and overflow. In addition to it the choked drains are a breeding ground, for mosquities. The situation turns worse during rainy reason, as a result residents suffer from various, diseases like malaria, dengue etc., I look forward to a quick resolution of the problem., Yours truly, Isha, , 3 You are Suresh/Sarika Jain of No-20 Jawahar Nagar, Nagpur. Two months ago you, bought a desert cooler from M/s Cool Home Coolers, Nagpur. Now you discover that it is, not working properly. Write a letter to the Manager, Customer Care, complaining about, the malfunctioning of the unit and asking them to repair and if needed to replace it against, warranty., # 20, Jawahar Nagar, , Nagpur, 24 June 2021, M/s Cool Home Cooler, 20 Nehru Marg, Nagpur, Sir, Subject : Complaint about the malfunctioning desert cooler, Reference : Cash Memo No DC-98765 dated 17.4.2011, I wish to bring it to your notice that I purchased a ‘Cooler Home’ desert cooler from you on 17 April,, 2011 (Vide Cash Memo No DC-98765, dated 17.04.2011). The cooler did function well in the, beginning for one and a half months and then it has started giving problems. The problems are - water, leakage, heavy noise while working and high consumption of power., Kindly take immediate step to either repair the cooler or replace it as the cooler is still under warranty, period., Yours faithfully, Suresh, Page 50 of 175


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EXAMPLES: LETTERS OF ENQUIRY, 1 You are Isha/Ishan, the secretary of the Students’ Forum of Sahrudaya Vidyalaya, Indranagar., You have planned an excursion to Jog falls during the summer vacation. Write a letter to the, General Manager, Southern Railway, for reservation of a bogie for 60 students from Bangalore to, Shimoga and back, supplying all necessary information., Secretary, Sahrudaya Vidyalaya, Indranagar., 01 Mar 2021, The General Manager, Southern Railways, Bangalore, Subject: Request for the reservation of a Bogie for 60 students, Sir, A group of 60 students of class XI of this school has planned to visit Jog Falls during the summer, vacation. They will be accompanied by three teachers and two attendants. They plan to leave Bangalore, on 15th May by Jeevan Express and return by the same train from Shimoga on 25th May., Kindly confirm whether a bogie can be reserved for the above-mentioned dates. We would also like to, know the estimated fare so that we can make necessary arrangements at our end., The List of the members of the tour party is enclosed in the prescribed proforma. Kindly provide the, eligible students‟ concession.We request you to send the detail at the earliest @, [emailprotected]/ @2852456 to enable us to plan in advance., Yours faithfully, Isha, Secretary, , 2. You are Harsh Chadda ,residing at Malvia Nagar,New Delhi .Look at the advertisem*nt given below, and draft a letter enquiring about the student exchange programme. Invent the necessary details., · Service available in which countries? France? Spain?· Cost?, · Length of stay?· Knowledge of language necessary?, , E-888, Malvia Nagar, New Delhi, 20 March 2018, The Director, Student Exchange Services, South Extension, New Delhi, Subject: Enquiry regarding the Student Exchange Programmes, Sir/Madam, Page 51 of 175


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This is with reference to the advertisem*nt published in The Times Of India, dated 15th Feb, 20XX regarding the Student Exchange programmes being offered by your institution., I am keen to go on a Student Exchange program. However before registering, I would like to, know a few details regarding the programme:, 1. Countries where your services are available, 2. Duration of the programs, 3. Fees and mode of payment, 4. The procedure for selection of candidates, 5. Certification status of the course, 6. Knowledge of the languages, I request you to send the requisite information at your earliest so that I may register for the above, said program. I enclose herewith a self addressed envelope for your early response., Looking forward to a quick reply, Yours truly/sincerely, Harsh Chaddha, , QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE:, 1 You are Veenet / Veena, a student of class XII of 89, Green Enclave, Chennai , interested in, learning languages. You come across an advertisem*nt in The Times of India issued by The, Institute of Foreign languages, Hyderabad about the certificate course in German offered by, them. You decide to write a letter to the Director of the Institute seeking more information about, the course duration, working hours, fee structure, etc. Write the letter., 2. The photocopier cum fax and scanner of your office which was purchased recently has a, problem with the toner settings. It is still in the guarantee period. As Purchase Manager of Digital, Media, Anand Nagar, Jammu, write to the manufacturer seeking replacement of the defective, part., 3. Write a letter to the librarian of the District Library in your town asking for details, regarding membership. Also ask about the timings and rules and regulations of the library.You, are Mohit a resident of 455,civil Lines ,Ludhiana, , Page 52 of 175


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Speech Writing:, SPEECH- A speech is a formal talk or discourse delivered to an audience to express thought /, opinions over a particular subject matter. The phrases or information used should be, contemporary, with accurate, data, motivational words and phrases., DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS, FORMAT 1 Mark, CONTENT- 2 Marks, EXPRESSION- 2 Marks, FURTHER BIRFURCATION OF EXPRESSION, (i) Grammatical accuracy, appropriate words and spellings- 1 MARK, (II) Coherence and relevance of ideas and style- 1 MARK, FORMAT, (i) Greeting/ Salutation/ Addressing the audience, (ii) Self introduction (Name and Designation) and introduction of the topic, (iii) Content, a. Facts about the topic-cause and effects of the issue, b. Data and examples/ real input, c. Conclusion by giving suggestions, (iv) Thanks giving to the audience – 'Thank you’, POINTS TO REMEMBER, • Part I – Introduction – define the topic, • Part II – Analyse the topic in terms of issue and its causes, consequences and effects etc., • Part III – Conclusion – suggestions, remedial measures and steps for improvement., • Make value points and develop them into paragraphs maintaining a logical order., • Try to make a rough draft first., • Mind the word limit., ●, , Begin with “Good morning to all of you. Today I am here to express my views on the, topic _________.., ● The Present Tense is usually used when you write out a speech., ● Define the topic; give its causes, effects, the present state and remedial measures., ● Clarity, organization and systematic presentation of ideas are very important., ● Should be a coherent piece clearly stating a particular point of view. Divide the speech, into 3 to 4 paragraphs., ● Conclude by giving suggestions for improvement- hope for a better future., ● Time yourself., ● Conclude with Thank you., How to Begin a Speech ?, Begin with greeting/ salutation and by addressing the audience, Style 1, Honourable Principal, teachers and my dear friends,Welcome to all in this healthy and joyous, morning., I, ...(Name)....... of class XI wish to speak on a very important topic of ....................................., Page 53 of 175


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Style 2, Good morning to all,, I ............... (name) ............... present my views on ...............Please listen and try adopting in your, life, Style 3, Dear audience,, Good morning to all., Style 4, Honourable Principal, teachers and all my dear friends., I am .....(Name)..............., It is a great honour for me to deliver a speech on the topic ..............., Style 5, Respected Principal, teachers, and my dear friends., I am .....(Name)..............., It's a matter of great privilege for me to deliver a speech on the topic, ..............., How to End/ Conclude ?, Therefore in the end, I would like to end my speech by strongly, supporting the idea that ..........................................................................., Thanks giving –, Thanks all for being so generous to listen to my views so attentively and, patiently., OR, Thank you., , SAMPLE 1, You are Suresh / Shweta. You are worried about the hike in the prices of essential commodities, like LPG, pulses, vegetables, etc. Write a speech on this in about 125-150 words for morning, assembly, suggesting certain steps to curb inflation., (5 Marks), Value Points, Introduction:, I Para: Good Morning all of you. Todays I Suresh / Shweta, am here to express my thoughts on, .............., 1. Present world is a difficult world for the common man due to rise in prices of essential, commodities., – Impossible to make both ends meet, – The prices of domestic gas, petrol, pulses, vegetables, fruits etc sky rocketing, II Para: Causes, Drastic changes in economy lead to hike in prices of commodities, – Increase in the prices of petrol or diesel tends to effect the entire economic structure., – Motive of traders to earn more profits leads to black marketing / hoarding, – Then there is price rise, – Sometimes less supply, more demand, – Natural calamities, – Less monsoon are also the causes, III Para: Suggestions, – There should be check on price rise by state machinery, Page 54 of 175


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– Ban on hoarding / black marketing, – Such traders be behind the bars, – License should be cancelled, – Cooperative stores be opened, – Fair price shops required, – Strict supervision and monitoring be done by authorities concerned, – Government should boost the market of its own agricultural produce., Writing a speech is very similar to writing an essay, a report, a letter or any type of writing., But the difference is that your words are being HEARD not READ, the audience is a listener, not a reader so you only have one chance to get your message across., , SAMPLE 2, Q.1.Write a speech in 125-150 words on the topic, "Discipline shapes the future of a, student”., It is to be delivered in the morning assembly. You are Karuna/Karan., Respected Principal, teachers, and dear friends,, Today I, Karuna, am here to express my views on, "Discipline shapes the future of a student.", We are all aware of the fact that discipline is the key to success. Discipline should be inculcated, early in life. If we are disciplined in life we inculcate a sense of duty and obedience. Let me give, you an example to prove my point, every day we are assigned homework by our teachers, if we, are disciplined we complete the work within the stipulated time we get the appreciation of our, teachers and also do well in the examinations., Discipline is essential in all walks of life. Right from the working of the Government of the, country to the ordinary farmer who tills his field all follow discipline. It is the bed rock of, character. Absence of it leads to chaos and confusion. Imagine a day on the road when people, do not follow the traffic rules. Can you imagine the utter chaos it will lead to! So discipline is, essential in running the society smoothly., A person can reach the pinnacles of glory by following discipline. It acts as a restraint and at the, same time builds self-confidence. Moreover, it balances the personality of a person and, inculcates good work ethics., Q.2-The sports In-charge of your school has asked you to deliver a speech on The Value of, Games and Sports in life in the morning assembly. Draft a speech in about in (125-150), words., Respected Principal, worthy Teachers, and my dear friends. Today I am going to express, my views on the values of Games and Sports in our life., Sports is a natural instinct in man. It is the most ancient and most natural means of recreation, and fitness for him. Besides being the best means of health and fitness, it is the surest way, to kill boredom and stress in modern day life., Games and sports help people build their physical stamina and mental agility and raise their, level of endurance. Sports persons usually live healthier and longer as compared to, someone who practises no sports or takes little exercise. Since games and sports promote, healthy competition, they instil in one the spirit of excellence, goal setting and target, achievement. In turn it boosts one’s confidence and teaches one to accept victory and, defeat as they come., A lot of pride and patriotism is associated with games and sports in the international sports, competitions which bring people of different nationalities and races closer and thus foster, Page 55 of 175


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greater international tolerance, understanding, interaction and appreciation. Sports persons, live for honour for themselves and their countries and learn to recognize and appreciate talent, in others., Many sports persons have iconic status and earn millions of dollars in sporting fee and, endorsem*nt contracts. They are role models for millions of youth worldwide who treat, their favourite sports persons as their heroes or even demi-gods. People admire sports persons, more than political leaders, scientists or even actors., Now friends, which sports are you going to do from today onwards? Wishing you excellence, in your desired sports., Thank you!, Q.3. Peer pressure is useful for the development of an individual. If there is no peer, pressure at all then there would be no goal or aim to succeed. Write a speech on the topic ‘Is Peer Pressure Beneficial or Not?’ to be delivered on account of the Children’s Day, celebration in your school. (125-150words), Answer:Respected Principal Sir, honourable teachers, and my dear friends, on the occasion of, Children’s Day, I am going to present my views on the topic ‘Is peer pressure beneficial or not?’, Peer pressure is beneficial as long as we know our limits. It is all upto us to be so strong, so firm,, so unshakable, and filled with conviction of not going on the wrong track., Peer pressure is not always bad. Peers may teach you good habits and encourage you to follow, them. Looking at what others do can help you bring a positive change in your way of thinking., The peers, their choices, and ways of life give you a glimpse of the world outside the four walls, of your house. What they think about things in life, how they perceive situations, how they react, in different circ*mstances can actually expose you to the world around them. Being part of a, larger group of peers exposes you to the diversity in human behaviour. This makes you reflect, on your behaviour and know where you stand. Peer pressure can lead you to make the right, choices in life., Peer pressure can, thus, influence the shaping of your personality in a positive way. Moreover,, it’s not pressuring every time, sometimes it’s an inspiration, which makes you change for good., Thank you., ● Several Environment Activists have recently stopped several development projects due, to their impact on the environment. Progress will naturally result in some destruction and, harm. As Geeta/ Girish write a Speech to be delivered in the assembly on how both might, be possible. (125-150 words), SPEECH, Development Projects: Impact on Environment, Suggested value points:, Introduction:, Present status and analysis of the current situation, Progress important, Development essential to cater to human needs, Seems destruction/imbalance will occur, Solution:, Try sustainable methods, Progress should be with social responsibility, Long term development should promote replenishing measures, ● Yoga unites the body, mind and soul. When you are in harmony, the, journey through life is calmer, happier and more fulfilling.. Write a, Page 56 of 175


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speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in the morning assembly on, the topic ' Yoga- a way of life'. You are Karan/ Kajal, Head Boy, /Head Girl of D.A.V. Public School, Delhi, Suggested value points:, • What is yoga?, • Present status, • Celebration of International Yoga Day, • What is the need to practise?, • When and how to practise, • Various yoga postures, • Benefits of Yoga, • Conclusion, PRACTICE QUESTIONS:, Question 1- Narcotics Control Bureau is organizing a declamation contest in your school as, part of observance of International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. Write a, speech in 125-150 words on the topic” Youth and Drug Abuse”., Question 2- On the occasion of Teacher’s Day you have to speak on the role of teachers in, Student’s life in modern times. Draft your speech in about 125-150 words., Question 3- You are Suraj/Sandhya of Gargi Senior Secondary School Delhi. Games and Sports, should be made compulsory in schools. Write a speech for morning assembly on the Importance, of Games and Sports in Personality Development in about 125-150 words., Question 4- Women’s magazine Femina is organizing a declamation contest in your school, on the occasion-of International Women’s Day. Your teacher has selected you to participate, in the competition and asked you to prepare a speech on the topic “Empowerment of Women”., Draft a speech in about 125-150 words., Question 5- In recent times there has been a sudden proliferation of tuitions and coaching, centers. Are they relevant and useful? Are they a blot on our education system? What are, your views? Express your views in form of the speech 125-150 words., , Page 57 of 175


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GRAMMAR (4 MARKS), A) DETERMINERS, INTRODUCTION, Study the sentences given below., 1. She wants to be a doctor., 2. This apple is rotten., 3. He has little sense., 4. Have you read any play of Kalidas?, 5. Every boy was given a prize., In the above sentences “a, this, little, any, every” are known as determiners., DEFINITION, Words that modify in some manner the nouns with which they are used are called determiners., They are also called fixing words., TYPES OF DETERMINERS, 1. Article determiners., 2. Demonstrative determiners., 3. Possessive determiners., 4. Numeral determiners., 5. Quantitative determiners., GENERAL RULES REGARDING USUAGE OF DETERMINERS, 1. Article determiners: A, AN, THE, Rule 1:- A is used with that singular noun which starts with a consonant sound . The, noun used may start either with a vowel alphabet or a consonant one., - A book, A cow, - A European girl, A unique building, - A one – eyed man, a one – rupee note, Rule 2 :- An is used with that singular noun that starts with vowel sound., - An apple, An egg, An inkpot, - An hour, An honest man, - An M.A., An M.P., Rule 3:- The is used with any particular person, place or thing., - The girl who came here is my cousin., - The apples in our garden are very sweet., - Bring me the pen lying on the table., 2. DEMONSTRATIVE DETERMINERS :- This, That, These, Those., Rule 1:- This and That are used with singular noun, These and Those are used with plural, noun., Rule 2:- This and These classify for things that are near. That and Those classify for, things that are far away., - This purse is mine., - That purse is hers., - These books are ours., - Those books are yours., 3. POSSESSIVE DETERMINERS :- My, Our, Your, His, Her, Its, Their, One’s., These are pronouns of possessive case. These are used before singular and plural nouns, and show their relationship with them., My mother, Our school, Your brother, His toys, Their houses, One’s duty, Page 58 of 175


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4. NUMERAL DETERMINERS :- These are numeral adjectives and these are of three, types., a) Definite numerals :One, Two, Three etc., First, Second, Third etc., She has two sons., The second boy in the fifth row is my brother., b) Indifinite Numerals :- These show uncertain quantity ., - Some :- It is used with singular and plural noun., There are some people in the park., - Many :- It is used with common noun plural number., Many boys are absent today., - Many a :- It is used with countable noun singular number., Many a flower fades unseen., - Few, A few, The few., Few means a small number which is less than requirement., I have bought few books., - A few :- A few means according to the requirement., I have bought a few books., - The few :- The few means a particular small quantity talked about., I have read the few books I have., - All :- It is used with plural noun., He gave all the money to the poor., c) Distributive Numerals :- These are distributive adjectives., - Each :- It is used for every one from a certain quantity., Each boy gets a prize., - Every :- It means all., Every man dies., - Either:- It means any one from the two things., Either pen can serve the purpose., - Neither :- It means no one from the two things., Neither news is true., 5. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINERS :- Some, any, no, much, more, little., These are adjectives of quantity., - Some :- It is used with uncountable noun, it means a little, a small quantity., Some books are missing from the library., - Any :- It is used with negative or interrogative sentences., He has hardly any sense., Is not there any person in the house?, - No :- It means nothing., She has no manners., - Much :- It is used with uncountable noun., I have much to gain., - More :- It means of greater quantity., Will you give him more money?, - Less :- It means a smaller degree. It is opposite of much., As he was cautious, he had less problem., - Little :- It means not much, less than requirement., There is little hope of his success., Page 59 of 175


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-, , A little :- It means a small quantity according to the requirement., Will you stay here a little longer?, - The little :- It means not much, but all that is., He has spent the little money he had., - A many :- It is used with countable noun., He has many friends., MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS, 1. She is ________ European girl., a) An, b. A, c. The, d. Some, 2. His uncle is ________ M.P, a) An, b. The, c.A, d. Any, 3. I like ________ apples of Kashmir., a) The, b. A, c. An, d. Some, 4. ________ bags are ours., a) This, b. That, c. These, d. Each, 5. One should do _____________ duty., a) Our, b. Their, c. One’s, d. Her, 6. There are ________ people gathered there., a) All, b. Many, c. Every, d. Much, 7. I have bought ________ books. These are sufficient for my study., a) Few b. A few, c. The few, d. Much, 8. You can write by using ________a pen or a pencil., a) Either b. Neither, c. Each, d. Every, 9. I want ________ tea nor coffee., a) Neither, b. Either, c. Each, d. Every, 10. ________ boy from this group got a prize., a) Each, b. Many, c. Few, d. Much, 11. There is ________ water in the bucket., a) Many, b. Some, c. All, d. The few, 12. Does your cow give ________ milk?, a) Many, b.Much, c. Many a, d. A less, 13. ________ man was absent from the meeting., a. Many, b. Many a, c. Much, d.Few, 14. Lets go for ________ walk., a) Little, b. A little, c. A few, d.The little, 15. He has ________ influence on his daughter., a) Little, b. A little, c. The little d. The few, 16. I have two books. You can take ________., a) Either, b. Several, c. Many, d. Some, 17. I like ________ valleys of Himachal Pradesh., a) The, b. A, c. An, d. Any, 18. These chocolates are mine. _______ chocolates are yours., a) Those, b. This, c. These, d. That, 19. He has not ________ book on Mathematics., a) Some, b. Any, c. Many, d. Much, 20. She has _______ manners., a) No, b.Many, c. Any, d. The little, , Page 60 of 175


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ANSWER KEY, 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., , A, A, A, C, C, , 6. B, 7. B, 8. A, 9. A, 10. A, , 11., 12., 13., 14., 15., , B, B, B, B, A, , EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE, 1. I asked my mother for ________ money to buy a ticket., 2. Do not you have ________ friends in the other section?, 3. Read the letter again to see that there are _______ mistakes., 4. She devotes ________ time to her study., 5. As he is not cautious, he has ________ problems., 6. Bring me ________ cup lying on the table., 7. He gave his friend ________ the toys., 8. He is ________ M.A. in English., 9. It is raining outside please take ________ umbrella., 10. If there is ________ danger call me., 11. ________ blue car belongs to my uncle., 12. Would you like to stay here ________ longer?, 13. He is ________ honest man., 14. ________ apple a day keeps the doctor away., 15. He has________ beautiful paintings., , Page 61 of 175, , 16., 17., 18., 19., 20., , A, A, A, B, A


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B) TENSES, INTRODUCTION: Read the following sentences:, 1., 2., 3., , I cook this dish to please you., I cooked this dish to please you., I shall cook another dish tomorrow., , In sentence 1, the Verb cook refers to present time., In sentence 2, the Verb cooked refers to past time., In sentence 3, the Verb shall cook refers to future time., Thus, a Verb may refer, (1), , to present time, (2) to past time, or (3) to future time., , Definition: Tense is defined as the form of verb that gives the relation between Time and Action., , CLASSIFICATION OF TENSES:, There are three tenses., (i) Present Tense, (ii) Past Tense, (iii) Future Tense, Each tense has four forms. Study the chart given below to understand more about all tenses and, their forms., , PRESENT, Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous, , TENSE, PAST, Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous, , FUTURE, Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous, , PRESENT TENSE, Present Indefinite Tense (Also Called Simple Present Tense):, This tense is used in the following ways., (i) It is mainly used to express habitual action, habit or custom.e.g., (a) I watch television on Sunday., (b) She gets up every morning at 6 o'clock., (c) He walks in the evening., (d) My shop opens at 9 o'clock., (e) I take exercise every morning., , (ii) To talk about a general or universal truth.e.g., (a) Earth revolves around the Sun., (b) The Sun rises in the East., (c) The Sun sets in the West., Page 62 of 175


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(d) Two and two makes four., (e) Honesty is the best policy., (iii) To indicate a future event which is part of a plan or arrangement.e.g., (a) The school reopens next week., (b) The examination commences next month., (iv) To introduce quotations with the verb 'says'. e.g., (a) Newton says, "Every action has an equal and an opposite reaction.", (b) Keats says, "A thing of beauty is a joy forever., (v) Vivid narration, as a substitute for the simple past.e.g., Ravana fights bravely but he is killed in the end., (vi) Exclamatory sentences that begin with here or there.e.g., (a) Here you go!, (b) There he goes!, (vii) Time clauses and conditional clauses in place of simple future.e.g., (a) If you do not earn money, you will not buy the house., (b) If you do not work hard, you will fail., Rules for Affirmative Sentences, • Singular subject + first form of verb + s/es +......., • Plural subject + first form of verb+..........., (a) They play cricket in the ground., (b) She cooks food in the evening., (c) Water boils at 100°C., (d) We study in ABC institution., (e) She advises me not to smoke., Rules for Negative Sentences, • Singular subject + does not + first form of verb +........., • Plural subject + do not + first form of verb +..., (a) Reena does not watch television., (b) We do not smoke., (c) She does not write a letter to her friend., (d) They do not like to swim., , e.g ., , e.g., , Rules for Interrogative Sentences, • Do/does + subject + first form of verb +?, • Question word + do/does + subject + first form of verb+….?, e.g., (a) Do you play cricket?, (b) Does she wash clothes?, (c) Does he not go to school daily?, (d) Why do you weep now?, (e) Whose book do you read?, (f) Whom do you teach?, (g) Which subject does Garima not want to read?, (h) Who teaches you English? (i) Why do you not complete your homework?, Page 63 of 175


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Present Continuous Tense:, , This tense is used in the following ways., (i) To describe an action in progress of the action.e.g., (a) She is playing tennis, (b) We are watering the plants., (c) The passengers are wandering to and fro., (ii) An action that is not happening at the time of speaking but is in progress. e.g., (a) He is working in an MNC, (b) I am teaching in a school., (c) They are studying in DN college., (iii) An action that has been pre-arranged to take place in the near future.e.g., (a) The wedding is going to take place on Sunday, (b) I am going to attend the class tomorrow., (iv) Persistent and undesirable habit, especially with adverbs like always, continually, constantly., e.g., (a) You are always running me down., (b) He is constantly gazing me, Rules for Affirmative Sentences, •, Singular subjects/am first form of verb + ing+……., •, Plural subject are first form of verb+ ing+, •, I am first form of verb+ ing+…, e.g., (a) I am playing a game, (b) She is reading a book, (c) We are going to Shimla., Rules for Negative Sentences, •, Singular subject+is+not+first form of verb+ ing+……, •, Plural subject are not first form of verb+ ing+……, •, I +am +not +first form of verb+ ing+……., (a) Ram is not surfing the internet., (b) They are not watching a movie., (c) I am not swimming in the water, , e.g., , Rules for Interrogative Sentences, • Is/are/am + subject + first form of verb + ing + ...?, • Question word + is/are/am + subject + first form of verb + ing+.......?, (a) Is Reena cooking the food?, (b) Are you not writing a letter?, (c) What is Raveena doing here?, (d) Which newspaper are you buying?, , e.g., , Exceptions for Present Continuous Tense, The following verbs are not normally used in present continuous tense, on account of their, meaning., • Verbs of perception or senses, e.g. see, hear, smell, notice, recognise etc., • Verbs of appearance, e.g. appear, look, seem etc., • Verbs of thinking, e.g. think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, forget, know, imagine, mean etc., • Verbs of emotion, e.g. want, wise, desire, feel, love, prefer etc., • have, own, possess, be (except when used in the passive)., Page 64 of 175


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Present Perfect Tense, This tense is used in the following ways., (i) To express an action that has recently been completed.e.g., (a) She has just taken tea., (b) I have purchased a book., (c) They have won the match., (d) He has come now., (ii) To describe an action whose time is not given. e.g., (a) Have you done M.Sc in Maths?, (b) Have you read Shakespeare., (iii) To describe past events whose effects still exist., e.g. I have finished my work and now I am free., (iv) To describe actions that started in the past and continuing until now and possibly into the, future., e.g. I have already used this brand of soap., (v) To show how a past situation relates to the present., e.g. I've done my homework, so I can help you with yours now., , Rules for Affirmative Sentences, • Singular subject + has + third form of verb +......., • Plural subject + have + third form of verb +…….., e.g., (a) She has gone to the market., (b) I have met her., (c) They have bathed., (d) It has become dark now., Rules for Negative Sentences, •, Singular subject + has + not + third form of verb +……, •, Plural subject + have + not + third form of verb + ……, e.g., (a) I have not called him., (b) The train has not gone., Rules for Interrogative Sentences, •, Has/have + subject + third form of verb +.....?, •, Question word + has/have + subject + third formof verb +......... ?, e.g., (a) Has she gone to Delhi?, (b) Have they not seen the Taj Mahal yet?, (c) What have they eaten today?, (d) Why has the peon not come yet?, , Page 65 of 175


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Present Perfect Continuous Tense, This tense is used in the following ways., (i) To describe an action that began in the past and is still continuing., e.g., (a) They have been staying in the village for a long time., (b) It has been raining since last night., (ii) To express an action already completed, but whose effect is still continuing., e.g. I have been running around for the job all day and am now tired., Rules for Affirmative Sentences, •, Singular subject + has been + first form of verb + ing ++ for/since +......., •, Plural subject + have + been + first form of verb + ing +……+ for/since +........, e.g., (a) Arpit has been sleeping since 3 o'clock, (b) They have been running for three hours., Rules for Negative Sentences, •, Singular subject + has + not + been + first form of verb + ing+ + for/since +.., •, Plural subject + have + not + been + first form of verb+ ing+ + for/since +......, e.g. You have not been suffering from fever for one week., Rules for Interrogative Sentences, •, Have/has + subject + been + first formofverb + ing+……+ since/for +…..?, •, Question word + has/have + subject + been + first form of verb + ing+ since/for+….?, e.g., (a) Have you been sleeping since 8 o'clock?, (b) Has he not been living in this house for a long time?, (c) Why have they been playing football since morning?, , TIP: We use the Simple Present Tense to describe events that happen in succession, like cricket, commentaries, demonstrations of an experiment or asking for and giving instructions. However,, the Present Progressive Tense is used for changing and developing situations e.g. Rates of, packaged foodstuffs are going up., , PAST TENSE, Past Indefinite Tense (also called Simple Past Tense), This tense is used in the following ways, (i) To indicate an action that happened in the past and to report completed actions. It is used often, in recounts and narratives., e.g., (a) We closed the shop at 8 pm., (b) She met me last year., (c) visited the Taj Mahal three months earlier., Page 66 of 175


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(ii) To indicate past habits or repeated events that are now over., e.g., (a) In those days, my mother gave me some pocket money every day., (b) I always rode a bike to school when I was young., (iii) The habitual past can also be expressed by using used to., e.g., (a) She used to drink tea in the morning., (b) My grandfather used to read a few chapters of the Gita every day., (iv) Sometimes this tense is used without an adverb of time. In such cases, the time may be either, implied or indicated by the context., e.g. I learnt Punjabi in Chandigarh., (v) To indicate another action which happened in the middle of a longer action., e.g. The light went out while I was watching my favourite TV serial., Rule for Affirmative Sentences, •, Subject + second form of verb+......, e.g., (a) I played football in the ground., (b) She sung a song in the party., , Rule for Negative Sentences, •, Subject + did not + first form of verb +....., e.g., (a) I did not attend the function., (b) They did not watch television, Rules for Interrogative Sentences, •, Did + subject + first form of verb +....?, •, Question word + did + subject + first form of verb +........?, e.g., (a) Did you play a game?, (b) Why did she abuse her friends?, (c) When did father go to office?, (d) Why did Supriya not speak the truth?, , Past Continuous Tense, This tense is used in the following ways, (i) To indicate an action that was happening at some time in the past. The time of action may or, may not be indicated., e.g. We were watching TV the whole evening., (ii) Used with always, continually etc for persistent habits in the past., e.g. He was always sulking., Page 67 of 175


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(iii) The past continuous is also used for an action that was going on during a given period or at, a period of time in the past., e.g. While Rohan was filling in the hole, his dog was digging another., Rules for Affirmative Sentences, •, Singular subject + was+ first form of verb + ing+....., •, Plural subject + were + first form of verb + ing+......, e.g., (a) They were making a noise., (b) She was driving her car., Rules for Negative Sentences, •, Singular subject+ was+ not+ first form of verb +ing +......., •, Plural subject + were + not + first form of verb +ing +....., e.g., (a) She was not singing a song., (b) They were not eating mangoes, Rules for Interrogative Sentences, •, Was/were + subject + first form of verb + ing+.....?, •, Question word + was/were + subject + first form of verb+ ing+.....?, e.g., (a) Were you eating a mango?, (b) When were the milkmen milking the cow?, (c) Why was the blind boy crying?, , Past Perfect Tense, This tense is used in the following ways., (i) To indicate an action that was completed before a definite time or before another action that, took place in the past., e.g., (a) Manish reached here after you had gone., (b) The patient had died before the doctor reached him., (ii) It indicates desires in the past that have not been fulfilled., e.g. I wish I had not wasted my time., (iii) It expresses those conditions of the past that were impossible to fulfill., e.g. If you had questioned him earlier, things would have improved., Rule for Affirmative Sentences, •, Subject + had + third form of verb +......., e.g. He had cooked the food., , Rule for Negative Sentences, •, Subject + had + not + third form of verb +.., e.g. They had not attended the function., Rule for Interrogative Sentences, Page 68 of 175


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•, Had + subject + third form of verb +.....?, e.g., (a) Had she watched a movie?, (b) Why had you not gone to Delhi?, , Past Perfect Continuous Tense, This tense is used in the following way, (i) It indicates an action which began in the past and continued to a certain point of time in the, past., e.g., (a) When we met in Lucknow, she had been studying city college for 3 years., (b) At that time, he had been working in the company for two months., Rule for Affirmative Sentences, •, Subject + had been + first form of verb +ing +......+ since/for +....., e.g., (a) You had been suffering from fever since Tuesday., (b) I had been studying for three hours., Rule for Negative Sentences, • Subject + had + not + been + first form of verb + ing+.....+since/for+........?, e.g. They had not been going to office since 5th July., Rules for Interrogative Sentences, •, Had + subject + been + first form of verb + ing+......+ since/for +....?, •, Question word + had + subject + been + first form of verb + ing +........since/for+.....?, e.g., (a) Had you not been reading the book since morning?, (b) Where had he been playing since morning?, , FUTURE TENSE, Future Indefinite Tense (also called Simple Future Tense), This tense is used in the following ways, (i) To say what we believe or think will happen in future., e.g., (a) I believe she will join the office, (b) They will go to college., (c) We shall win the match tomorrow., (ii) Things which we cannot control and are factual., e.g. The Sun will rise at 6.00 AM, , (iii) To indicate an instant decision., Page 69 of 175


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e.g. It is our first marriage anniversary, I shall give you a precious gift, Rules for Affirmative Sentences, •, You/He/She/lt/They (Second and Third Person Pronouns) + will+ first form of verb +...., •, I/We (First Person Pronouns) + shall + first form of verb+........, e.g., (a) He will sell his house., (b) I shall purchase a new car, Rules for Negative Sentences, •, You/He/She/it/They (Second and Third Person Pronouns) + will +not+ first form of verb, +......, •, I/We (First Person Pronouns) + shall+ not+ first form of verb......., e.g., (a) We shall not leave the exams., (b) My friend will not host dinner this evening., Rules for Interrogative Sentences, •, Will/shall+ subject + first form of verb +......?, •, Question word + will/shall + subject + first form of verb+.......?, e.g., (a) Will she not come in the party?, (b) Who will help him?, (c) Why will your friend not come here?, , Future Continuous Tense, This tense is used in the following ways, (i) To indicate an action that will occur in the normal course., e.g, (a) She will be cooking the food tomorrow., (b) I will be meeting him tomorrow., (ii) To indicate an action that will be in progress at a given point of time in the future., e.g., (a) At this time tomorrow, we shall be attending the party, (b) We shall be visiting the zoo at this time tomorrow., , Rules for Affirmative Sentences, •, You/He/She/lt/They (Second and Third Person Pronouns) + will + be first form of verb+, ing+....., •, I/We (First Person Pronouns) shall be first form of verb+ ing+ ....., e.g., (a) I shall be teaching my students., (b) Next year my teacher will be going to China., Rules for Negative Sentences, Page 70 of 175


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•, , You/He/She/lt/They [Second and Third Person Pronouns) +will+ not + be+ first form of, verb +ing+....., I/We (First Person Pronouns) + shall +not +be +first form of verb+ ing+...., , •, e.g., (a) They will not be studying in city college., (b) I shall not be bathing this evening., , Rules for Interrogative Sentences, •, Will/shall + subject + be +first form of verb + ing+......?, •, Question word + will/shall subject+ be+ first form of verb + ing+.....?, e.g., (a) Will this boy be wandering in the forest?, (b) How long will they be travelling?., , Future Perfect Tense, This tense is used to describe an action which will be completed at some point of time in the, future. e.g., (a) I shall have finished this work by tomorrow., (b) They will have reached home by now., (c) I shall have reached the school before the bell rings., Rules for Affirmative Sentences, •, You/He/ She/It/They (Second and Third Person Pronouns+ will +have +third form of, verb +...., •, I/We (First Person Pronouns) + shall + have + third form of verb +......, e.g., (a) We shall have cooked the food by the evening., (b) Your examination will have been over by Tuesday., , Rules for Negative Sentences, •, You/He/She/it/They (Second and Third Person Pronouns) + will + not + have + third, form of verb +...., •, I/We (First Person Pronouns) + shall + not + have + third form of verb +....., e.g., (a) I shall not have written the letter by noon., (b) The passengers will not have reached the station before the train starts., (c) Your brother will not have read this novel before next Saturday., Rules for Interrogative Sentences, •, Will/shall+ subject+ have+ third form of verb+......?, •, Question word + will/shall + subject have third form of verb+....?, e.g., (a) Will he not have gone before I reach?, (b) What will he have eaten before he sleep?, , Future Perfect Continuous Tense, This tense is used in the following way, Page 71 of 175


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(i) It describes an action that will be in progress over a period of time that will end in the future., e.g., (a) At noon Anuradha will have been singing songs for an hour., (b) I will have been working round the clock for twenty two years next April., Rules for Affirmative Sentences, •, You/He/She/it/They (Second and Third Person Pronouns)+ will + have + been + first, form of verb + ing+....., •, I/We (First Person Pronouns) + shall + have been + first form of verb + ing+......., eg. By next April we shall have been leaving for the USA., Rules for Negative Sentences, • You/He/She/it/They (Second and Third Person Pronouns) + will + not + have + been +, first form of verb + ing+....., • I/We (First Person Pronouns) + shall + not + have + been+ first form of verb + ing+......, eg., (a) I shall not have been writing for half an hour., (b) Mahima will not have been going to Kanpur for a long time., Rules for Interrogative Sentences, •, Will/shall + subject + have + been + first form of verb + ing+.....?, •, Question word + will/shall + subject + have + been + first form of verb + ing+?, e.g., (a) Will she have been playing for some time?, (b) Why will you not have been going to school since & clock?, TIP: BE CAREFUL! This tense is not commonly used., , MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS, Choose the correct form of tense from the given option., 1. I am attempting the Civil Services exam coming up, so I.......... studying hard these days., a) am, b) is, c) are, d) will, 2. I.......... my MBA bythe time you return from abroad., a) will be passing, b) will have passed, c) is passing, d), was passed, 3.A small boy ............ from the train when it was moving at full speed., a) was felled, b) were falling, c) fell, d), was, falling, 4. Can you speak louder please, I.......... hearyou., a) are not, b) am not, c) cannot, d) will not, 5. My grandfather will ................ at home by now., a) has arrived, b) arrived, c) be arriving, d), have, arrived, 6. Indians........... a long strugglebefore they...... independence., a) had fought, attained, b) fought, attained, c) had fought, had attained d), fought,, had attained, 7. My grandmother.......... a walking stickwhen she goes out for a walk., a) will carried, b) carries, c) carrying, d) carried, 8. Anita .......... her finger while she was cooking., a) burning, b) burn, c) burnt, d) was burning, Page 72 of 175


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9. The train........... from Rajkotby 10 PM., a) will be left, b) will have leave, c) will leave, d) leaving, 10. Shashi isn't at home. She ...........out shopping withour father., a) is, b) are, c) am, d) was, 11. The other employees had already left the office but Kanika ..............there., a) still worked, b) was still working, c) was still worked, d) were still, working, 12. I will .......... this taskat this time tomorrow., a) completes, b) had completed, c) be completing, d) have completed, 13.My widower uncle often.......... to our house for lunch on Sundays., a) coming, b) come, c) will coming, d) comes, 14.We saw a bus fallen into a ditch when we .......... to Mussoorie., a) goes, b) were going, c) was going, d) went, 15. The building contractor........... my new house by next month., a) will finished, b) will have finished, c) will finishing, d) would finished, 16. Since he changed his job, he .......... moretime to relax and enjoy his hobby., a) found, b) has found, c) have found, d) founded, 17. While I .............. for my bus Rachita was running after hers., a) wait, b) waits, c) waited, d) was waiting, 18. I think that tomorrow Ramita........... on her new project., a) starts, b) started, c) is starting, d) will start, 19. My class teacher............ a lot of homework for the coming summer holidays., a) assigned, b) probably assigning, c) will probably assign, d) probably, assigned, 20. The entertainment programme ........... by now., a) will end, b) will have ended, c) would be ended, d) ended, 21. I feel proud of my team as it............ very well., a) performed, b) is performed, performs, 22. The farmer sold the crop after he ............... it., a) harvests, b) has harvested, 23. Look! They...........and........... their time., a) gossip, while away, c) gossiped, whiled away, 24. The train........... before we reached the station., a) departs, b) departed c) had departed, 25.An apple a day...........the doctor away., a) keeps, b) is keeping c) kept, , c) performing, , d), , has, , c) had harvested, , d) harvesting, , b)are gossiping, whiling away, d) had gossiped, whiled away, d) departing, d) was keeping, , ANSWERS OF MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS, 1. a) am, , 2. b) will have passed 3. c) fell, 4. c) cannot, 5. d) have arrived, 6. a) had fought, attained, 7. b) carries, 8. c) burnt, 9. c) will, leave, 10.a) is 11. b) was still working, 12.d) have completed, 13.d) comes, 14. b) were going 15.b) will have finished, 16.b) has found, 17.d) was waiting, 18.d) will start, 19.c) will probably assign, 20.b) will have ended, 21.a), performed, 22.c) had harvested 23.b) are gossiping, whiling, 24.c) had departed, 25.a) keeps, , PRACTICE EXERCISE, Page 73 of 175


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Choose the correct form of tense from the given options., 1. Majid, my best friend,......... in Kanpur for the last five years., a) staying, b) stay, c) stayed, d) had staying, 2. Now Nikhil.......... to move to a bigger city for a better job., a) wanted, b) had wanted, c) will want, d) wanting, 3. Mummy, tell Papa that his phone........... while he........... his bath., a) was ringing, was having, b) were ringing, was having, c) rings, had, d) rang, has, 4. The famous Dr Prahlad......... on my uncle tomorrow to remove his tumour., a) operated, b) operating, c) will operate, d) had operated, 5. Savita.......... to temple every Monday., a) is going, b) had going, c) gone, d) goes, 6. Sarla's mother............. (stay) in a rented house after her divorce gets through., a) stays, b) stayed, c) will stay, d) staying, 7. Kritika............ her left ankle bone while she ........... at the party., a) breaks, is dancing, b) broke, was dancing, c) will break, danced, d) broken, was dancing, 8. Tailor Master, are the clothes I .......... for stitching ready yet?, a) give, b) has given, c) gives, d) gave, 9. Parveen...........a letter to me since last year., a) has not written, b) had not written, c) was not writing, d) will not, write, 10. Teachers,as effective facilitators ,.......... a crucial role in ensuring the holistic development, of students., a) played, b) playing, c) play, d) plays, , C) REORDERING OF SENTENCES, Jumbled words or sentences, If you describe things or ideas as jumbled you mean that they are mixed up and not in order., Solving Jumbled words/sentences just means arranging them in correct grammatical and, meaningful order according to the rules of sentence formation/grammar, Subject + verb + object, Re arrange the Jumbled words/sentences in proper order to make them meaningful., Reordering of sentences, 1.For/years/have/working/three/I/been/in/firm/this, 2.lost/you/me/I/pen/the/have/gave, 3.river/the/the/Ganges/holiest/India/of/is, 4.In/ accident/right/broke/an/his/he/leg., 5. Shimla/winter/went/we/during/to/holidays, 6. was/child/lighted/match/the/a/holding, 7. Thieves/catching/are/policemen/now a days, 8.request you/I might/full-free studentship/me/to grant, 9. neigbhour/is/photographer/a /our/good/very, 10. bad/a /very/had/I/dream/night/last, 11.market/here/from/far/is/vegetable/The/not, 12.the/hands/we shook/with/host, 13.than/better/is/a/Ram/you/player/think/I, Page 74 of 175


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14.Pain/the/have/shoulder/in/I, 15. I have/a/an/hour/half/and/for lunch, 16.You/I/hundred/week/shall/pay/a/a/rupees, 17. no/hard/alternative/is/to/work/there., 18. Morning/for/have/they/waiting/been/since/you., 19. her/regular/she/in/is/studies/very/not., 20. bullet/the/the/him/struck/in/foot/enemy’s., , Answers, 1. I have been working in this firm for three years., 2. I have lost the pen you gave me., 3. The Ganges is the holiest river of the India, 4. He broke his right leg in an accident., 5. We went to shimla during winter holidays., 6. The child was holding a lighted match., 7. Now a days The policemen are catching thieves., 8. I might request you to grant me full-free studentship., 9. Our neighbor is a very good photographer., 10. I had a very bad dream last night., 11. The vegetable market is not far from here., 12. We shook hands with the host., 13. I think Ram is a better player than you., 14. I have pain in the shoulder., 15. I have an hour and a half for lunch., 16. I shall pay you a hundred rupees a week., 17. There is no alternative to hard work., 18. They have been waiting for you since morning., 19. She is not very regular in her studies., 20. The enemy’s bullet struck him in the foot., Exercise for practice, 1.believed in/people of India/the sacredness of/have traditionally/wild life., 2.It /is/life/we/what/make., 3.the/on/forests /the/industry/oil/depends., 4.the/Indian/English/exploited/the/farmers., 5.Pay/the/had to/poor farmers/high taxes/very., 6.compaigned/birds/he/caged/free/to, 7.to/her/first/Sudha/stand/hard/class/is/studying/in, 8.he/stepped out/had/hardly/it began/when/to rain., 9. has taught/teacher/the/this/you/lesson., 10.Bimla/her/husband/that/told/a coward/he/was., 11. On my bicycle/to/go/I used to/my school., 12. boy/each/was punished/of the class/yesterday., 13. The few /rupees/I had/I have/spent already., 14. Exploiting/man/been/the/years/has/earth/for., , Transformation of Sentences (MCQ), 1. When the headmaster entered the class a student ______________ on the blackboard., (a) Was writing, b.is writing, c.wrote, d.writer, 2. He always ________to prove that the earth revolves round the sun., (a) Tries, b.tried, c.is trying, d.was trying, 3. He speaks too fast to be followed., Page 75 of 175


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a.He speaks very fast that everyone can follow, b.He speaks so fast that no one can, follow, c.He speaks so fasting that no one can follow, 4. I always love my country, (a) I do not love my country, b.I never hate my country, (b) I hate my country, c.I never love my country, 5. Everybody was present, (a) Everybody was not present, b.Nobody was absent, c.Nobody is present, d.Everybody was present, 6. Who does not love wealth, (a) Everybody loves wealth, b.Some person love wealth, c.Nobody loves wealth, d.None of these, 7. What a wise man you are !, (a) You are very wise man, b.You are not dull, c.You are very dull man, d.None of these, 8. He is so small that he cannot go alone, (a) He is too small to go alone, b.He is very small to go alone, c.He is not small to go alone, d.He is too small not to go alone, 9. The son is wiser than father, (a) The son is as wise as father, b.His father is as wise as the son, c.His father is so wise as the son, d.His father is not so wise as the son, 10. Running is the best exercise, (a) Running is better exercise than other exercise b.No other exercise is as good as, running, c.Running is not so good as other exercise, d.Running is as good as other, exercise, 11.We hope that father __________soon., (a) will come, (b) come, (c) would come, (d) is, coming, 12. Everest is the highest mountain in the world., (a) Everest is the lowest mountain in the world., (b) Everest is the deepest mountain in the world, (c) Everest is not the lowest mountain in the world, 13. choose the correct sentence, (a) I am going away in the end of the month., (b) I am going away on the end of, the month, (c) I am going away with the end of the month, (d) I am going away at the end of, the month, 14. He is so foolish that he cannot understand you, (a) he is very foolish to understand you., (b) he is too foolish to understand, you., (c) he is much foolish to understand you., (d) he is not foolish to understand, you., 15. The train had left before I __________ the station., (a) reached, (b) reach, (c ) was reaching, (d) reaches, , Transform the following sentences into Passive Voice. (MCQ), 16. We should not encourage indiscipline., (a) Indiscipline should not encouraged by us., by us., (c) Indiscipline should not be encouraged by us., indiscipline, Page 76 of 175, , (b) Indiscipline could not be encouraged, (d) It is us who should not encourage


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17. We will not admit children under ten., (a) Children under ten are not admitted by us., (b) Children under ten are not admitted., (c) Children under ten will are not admitted., (d) Children under ten will not be admitted, by us., 18. We must listen to our teachers., (a) Our teachers must be listened by us., (b) Our teachers must be listened to by us., (c) Teachers must be listened to by us., (d) Teachers must be listened to., 19. Mother looked after the boy., (a) The boy was looked after by mother., (b) The boy was looked after by the, mother., (c) The boy is looked after by mother., (d) The boy is looked after by a mother., 20. He taught me to read Persian., (a) I was taught to read Persian., (b) I am being taught to read Persian by him., (c) I was taught to read Persian by him. (d) I was taught to read Persian by her., Direction: Transform the following sentences in Active voice., 21. She was sent an invitation by them., (a) They sent her invitation., (b) They sent her an invitation., (c) They send her an invitation. (d) They are sending her an invitation., 22. You will be served lunch on the plane by the cabin crew., (a) Lunch will be served to you by the cabin crew., (b) The cabin crew will be serving lunch to you on the plane., (c) The cabin crew will serve lunch to you on plane., (d) The cabin crew will serve lunch to you on the plane., 23. He was fined 1000 by the police for reckless driving., (a) The police fined him 1000 for reckless driving., (b) Police fined him 1000 for reckless driving., (c) The police fined him 1000 for driving recklessly,, (d) The police has fined him 1000 for driving recklessly., 24. You will be told your results next week by the school., (a) Your results will be told to you next week by the school., (b) Your result will be told to you next week by the school., (c) The school will tell you your result next week., (d) School will tell you your result next week, 25.Rashi was scolded by the teacher for not completing her assignment., (a) A teacher scolded Rashi for not completing her assignment., (b) The teacher scolded Rashi for not completing the assignment., (c) The teacher scolded Rashi for not completing the assignment., (d) A teacher will scolded Rashi for her incomplete assignment., ANSWER KEY, 1, a, , 2, , a, , 3, , b, , 4, , b, , 5, , b, , 6, , a, , 7, , a, , 8, , a, , 9, , d, , 10, , b, , 11, , a, , 12, , b, , 13, , d, , 14, , b, , 15, , a, , 16, , c, , 17, , d, , 18, , b, , 19, , b, , 20, , c, , 21, , b, , 22, , c, , 23, , b, , 24, , c, , 25, , b, , Page 77 of 175


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Exercise for Practice:, 1. Mahabaleshwar is cooler than Mysore, A) Mahableshwar is as cool as Mysore, b) Mysore is not as cool as Mahabaleshwar, c)Mysore is cooler than Mahabaleshwar, d) None of these, 2.No other boy in our class is as wise as Raman, a) Raman is the wisest boy in our class, b) All boys are wiser than Raman in our class, c)Some boys are wiser than Raman in our class, d) None of these, 3.I met a girl whose eyes are blue., a)I met a girl in blue eyes, b) I met a girl with blue eyes, c) I met a girl for blue eyes, d) I met a girl having blue eyes, 4.We can prove that our earth is round, a) The earth is round but we can prove it, b) The earth is round and we can prove it, c) The earth is round or we can prove it, d)None of these, 5. That spectacle was very horrible that to be described, a) That spectacle was very horrible that to described, b) That spectacle was much horrible that it cannot be described, c) That spectacle was very horrible that it cannot be described, d) That spectacle was so horrible that it cannot be described, 6.He is too weak to walk, a) He is so weak that he cannot walk, b)He is so weak that he should walk, c) He is so weak that he can walk, d) none of these, 7. Who does not know mahatma Gandhi, a) Everybody knows Mahatma Gandhi, b) Nobody knows Mahatma Gandhi, c) Everybody knows Mahatma Gandhi, d) none of these, 8.What a lovely shot, a) What is lovely shot, b) That shot is very lovely, c) It is a very lovely shot, d), none of these, 9. What a lovely flower, a) What is lovely flower, b) That flower is very lovely, c) It is a very lovely flower, d), none of these, 10.He says, “I don’t want to play any more, a) He says that he does not want to play any more, b) He says that I do not want to play any more, c) He says that I didn’t want to play any more, d)He says that he did not want to play any more, , Page 78 of 175


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SECTION – C, , LITERATURE, (15 MARKS), , Page 79 of 175


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Poem - 1 : “A Photograph” by Shirley Toulson, Introduction, The poem captures three different moods and situations in three stanzas. The first one tells about, a snapshot or an instant cardboard-photo of three girls. They are cousins. The eldest one,12 years, old, became the mother of the poetess after marriage. They are enjoying a sea holiday, putting, on funny dresses. Their uncle clicks the camera and captures the smiling faces of all the three., Some 20-30 years later, the mother looks at the photo and laughs. She tells the poetess how her, cousins Betty and Dolly had all dressed for the holiday. The outing on the beach in a quaint dress, was the mother’s past. But her laughter has become a thing of the past for the poetess. The mother, passed away some twelve years ago. The void created by her death has made life dull and, eventless., , Summary, The poetess looks at the photograph of her late mother, with her two cousins on a sea beach. The, mother was the eldest of the group, 12 years old, with a lovely face. They were escorted by the, uncle, who clicked the camera. The girls stood in shallow water. The sea waves seemed to be, washing their feet which changed fast with the passage of time. Only the sea has shown no, change in its behavior over the years., The mother happened to see her photo after a time gap of some 20-30 years. She was amused, to see the strange dresses of all the three girls. She blushed and laughed. She told the poetess that, they had been dressed for the pleasure trip by her cousins Betty and Dolly., The sea holiday was the mother’s past, but after she had passed away, her laughter became a, thing of the past for the poetess. Both had lost their newness with the passing of time. The, photograph is twisted and faded; the memory of the mother’s laughter has also grown faint., The mother of the poetess died some 12 years ago. There is nothing but a pall of silence spread, all around. She has nothing to say about that period since the mother left., , Text of the Poem, The cardboard shows me how it was, When the two girl cousins went paddling,, Each one holding one of my mother, hands, And she the big girl-some twelve years or so., All three stood still to smile through their hair, At the uncle with the camera. A sweet face., My mother,s,that was before I was born., And the sea, which appears to have changed less,, Washed their terribly transient feet., Some twenty-thirty-years later, She’d laugh at the snapshot.”See Betty, And Dolly. ‘’she’d say.”and look how they, Dressed us for the beach.” The sea holiday, Was her past, mine is her laughter. Both wry, With the laboured ease of loss., , Poetic Devices Used in the poem, 1.Alliteration – My Mother’s hands, - Stood still to smile, - Terribly transient, -Silence silences, 2.Personification – The cardboard shows me how it was, 3.Transfered Epithet – Washed their terribly transient feet, 4.Oxymoron – Laboured ease, Page 80 of 175


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Extracts/Stanzas for Comprehension, Read the stanza carefully and answer the questions that follow :, 1. The cardboard shows me how it was, When the two girl cousins went paddling,, Each one holding one of my mother, hands, And she the big girl-some twelve years or so., Questions, (i) The ‘cardboard ’here refers to:, (a) the note written on a hard thick paper, (c) album, , (b) the note written on a sheet of paper, (d) the photograph pasted on a thick paper, , (ii) Here three girls are:, (a) the poetess and her two cousin, (b) the poetess’ mother and her two cousins, (c) the poetess’ three cousins, (d) none of these, (iii) The three girls went to the…………for paddling., (a) mall, (b) river, (c) beach, (d) school, 2. The cardboard shows me how it was, When the two girl cousins went paddling,, Each one holding one of my mother, hands, And she the big girl-some twelve years or so, Questions, (i) Who among the three girls was the eldest one?, (a) Betty, (b) Dolly, (c) The Poetess, (d) Poetess’, mother, (ii) ------------are beautiful sides of nostalgia., (a) Beach, (b) Sea, (c) Photograph, (d) Camera, (iii) These lines have feelings of:, (a) love, (b) togetherness, (c) innocent pleasure, (d) all of these, 3. All three stood still to smile through their hair, At the uncle with the camera. A sweet face., My mother’s, that was before I was born., And the sea, which appears to have changed less,, Washed their terribly transient feet., Questions, ( i) Whose sweet face is referred to here?, a) Father, (b) Poetess’ mother, (c) Uncle, (ii) The poetic device used in the first line of this stanza is, (a) alliteration (b) metaphor (c) simile (d) allusion, (iii) The endless------------------- has not changed much over time., (a) Time, (b) Sea, (c) Transient Feet, 4. All three stood still to smile through their hair, At the uncle with the camera. A sweet face., My mother’s, that was before I was born., And the sea, which appears to have changed less,, Washed their terribly transient feet., Questions, (i) What does in this stanza symbolize eternity ?, (a) Beach, (b) Sea, (c) Photograph, Page 81 of 175, , (d) Cousins, , (d) Mother’s Face, , (d) Camera


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(ii) The literary device used in the last line of this stanza is :, (a) metaphor, (b) repetition, (c ) personification, (d) transferred epithet, (iii) The girls’feet are called----------., (a) Permanent, (b)Temporary, (c) Transient, (d) Small, 5. “See Betty And Dolly. ‘’she’d say.”and look how they, Dressed us for the beach.” . The sea holiday”, Was her past, mine is her laughter., , Questions, (i) The poetess’s mother laughed at:, (a) the funny dress they wore for the beach (b) the snapshot, (c) her uncle, cousins, (ii) Being grown up the poetess’ mother lost the innocence and pleasure of her--------(a) old age, (b) Childhood, (c) Adult age, infancy, (iii) What was the past of the poetess’ mother enshrined in ?, (a) in book, (b) in Childhood, (c) in school, (d), photograph, , (d) her, , (d), , in, , Answers:, (i) (a) (ii) (b) (iii) (d), 6. Now she’s been dead nearly as many years, As that girl lived. And of this circ*mstance, There is nothing to say at all,, Its silence silences., Questions:, (i) The poetess ‘mother breathed her last:, (a) twenty four years ago, (b) twenty years ago, (c) twelve years ago, (d) a few, days ago, (ii) The poetess failed to give exact expression to her deep., (a) pleasure, (b) happiness, (c) Pain, (d) agitation, (iii) The poetess is speechless because:, (a) she is afraid of her own death, (b) of deep pain due to her mother’s death, (c) both (a) and (b), (d) neither (a) nor (b), , Multiple Choice Questions, 1. Who is the poet/poetess of the poem 'A Photograph'?, A. Shirley Toulson, B. Rudyard Kipling, C. Elizabeth Jennings, Natten, , D. Markus, , 2. What is the poem 'A Photograph' about?, A. About poet's childhood memories, B. tribute to the poet’s mother, C. Poet's photograph, D. Poet's father, 3. What was the age of the poet's mother when the photograph was taken?, A. eleven years old B. thirteen years old C. twelve years old D. fourteen year old, 4. When did her mother die ?, A. two years ago, B. five years ago, C. thirteen years ago, D. twelve years ago, 5. How many people were in the photograph?, A. two girls, .B. three girls, C. two girls and one boy, D. only her, mother, Page 82 of 175


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6. Which material was the frame of the photograph made of?, A. Cardboard, B. Wood, C. Steel, D. Plastic, 7. Who are on both sides of her mother?, A. Cousins, Betty and Dolly, B. Parents, C. Cousins, Dolly and Adam, D., Friends, 8. What are the three of them doing in the photograph?, A. playing, B. standing beside house, C. holding hands, D. holding hands and went for paddling, 9. Who took the photograph of her mother with her cousin?, A. Her grandfather, B. Her uncle, C. Her mother's friend, D. Her, grandmother, 10. What does 'Terribly Transient Feet' mean in the poem?, A. her feet represent the mother, who changed with time while the sea remained the same, B. temporary situation, C. age is temporary, D. None of the above, 11. After how many years did her mother laugh on seeing the photograph?, A. twenty-one, B. twenty-three, C. twelve, D. twenty-five, 12. What was the favourite memory of her mother?, A. beach holidays, B. school memories, C. vacations, D. None of, the above, 13. What was the favourite memory of the poet?, A. her mother's memories, B. her mother's laughter, C. her own vacation memories, D. her childhood memories, 14. What would the mother show to her daughter while showing her the photograph?, A. how her parents dressed her for the beach, B. her cousins, C. her own childhood photograph, D. the background, 15. What is the meaning of the word 'wry'?, A. ironic, B. cry, C. sad, D. None of the above, 16. What Oxymoron literary device was used in the poem?, A. Terribly transient, B. Through their, C. Both wry, D. Laboured, ease, 17. What Epithet literary device was used in the poem?, A. Terribly transient, B. Through their, C. Both wry, D. Laboured, ease, 18. How many phases were depicted in the poem by the poet?, A. one, B. two, C. three, D. four, 19. What was the last phase in the poem?, A. after her mother died, B. after she grown up, C. after her mother grown up, D. None of the above, 20. What does she feel in the last phase?, A. pain and grief, B. happy and nostalgic, C. sad and nostalgic, D. pain and, nostalgic, , Answers, Extract-1Extract-2Extract-3Extract-4-, , Extract-5Extract-6-, , (i) (d), (i) ( d), (i) (b), (i) (b), (i) (a), (i) (c), , (ii) (b), (ii) ( c ), (ii) (a), (ii) (d), (ii) (b), (ii)(c), Page 83 of 175, , (iii) (c ), (iii) ( d ), (iii) (b), (iii) (c), (iii) (d), (iii) (b)


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POEM – 2 : The Laburnum Top, Introduction: The poem ‘The Laburnum Top’ is written by Ted Hughes. It is about a repaying, relationship between the Laburnum tree and the Goldfinch bird. The tree is yellow, silent and, death-like and is made alive by the bird and her young ones. The yellow bird has her shelter on, the tree where she feeds her young ones. But as soon as the bird leaves to fly in the sky, the tree, becomes silent and death-like again., , Summary:The poem starts with a description of the Laburnum tree whose top was still and, silent. Its leaves had turned yellow and seeds had fallen down. It was a daytime in the month of, September when the tree was standing still and death-like., The life-less tree becomes alive by the arrival of the Goldfinch bird. She came to feed her, younger ones who are on the thickness of the branch. The tree is her shelter. She arrives at the, end of the branch with the chirping sound. She further moves to the other side of the branch with, rapid and precautionary movement like a lizard. As soon as she arrives, her younger ones start, chirping like a machine and vibrating and flapping their wings. The death-like tree becomes alive, and it trembles and shakes., After feeding them, she flies to the other side of the branch. Her dark coloured face with the, yellow body was barely visible as she vanished behind the yellow leaves. She flew away in the, sky, leaving the tree death-like again., THEME: • The poem presents the mutual reciprocating relationship between the laburnum tree, and the goldfinch bird. The laburnum tree gives shelter to the bird and its young ones and the, bird, in turn, takes away its dead silence. Thus, the poet wants to tell the readers the importance, of interdependence and having cordial relationships in life., • Rejuvenation of nature and the celebration of energy is another theme of the poem. The, laburnum tree is silent until the goldfinch comes and enlivens the tree with its activities. There, are all sorts of sounds and movements on the tree. Soon she shoots away into the sky plunging, the tree into surging silence., • The poet also wants to convey to the readers that life is a process of change and transformation., TEXT OF THE POEM, The Laburnum Top is silent, quite still, in the afternoon yellow September sunlight,, A few leaves yellowing, all its seeds fallen, Till the goldfinch comes, with a twitching chirrup, A suddenness , a startlement, at a branch end, Then sleek as a lizard, and alert and abrupt,, She enters the thickness, and a machine starts up, Of chitterings, and of tremor of wings, and trillings The whole tree trembles and thrills, It is the engine of her family., She stokes it full, then flirts out to a branch-end, Showing her barred face identity mask, Then with eerie delicate whistle-chirrup whisperings, She launches away, towards the infinite, And the laburnum subsides to empty, -Ted Hughes, Page 84 of 175


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VOCABULARY, *Laburnum : The Golden Chain tree - A commonly found tree with golden flowers that, hang in bunches, , *Laburnum Top :The top of the laburnum tree - its highest branches, *Goldfinch :Wild canary - A small, yellow bird - The male of the species has black, markings across the face, on the wings and tail., *Twitch :Small, often involuntary movement of a body part, *Chirrup :An onomatopoeic word capturing the sound made by a bird, *Startlement : Amazement - a sudden unexpected action which causes surprise, *Sleek :Smooth - In the context of the poem, it could imply a quick movement without, much disruption., *Abrupt : Sudden or unexpected, *Chittering :An onomatopoeic word capturing bird sounds, *Tremor :Shiver - shake, *Trillings :Singing repeatedly - In the context of the poem, an onomatopoeic word,, capturing bird sounds, *Stokes :Adds fuel - In the context of the poem, the goldfinch feeds its family, providing, the fuel (nutrition) that the machine (the bird's family) needs to be energetic, *Flirts : In the context of the poem, move abruptly or jerkily with light steps, *Eerie : Strange in a frightening or mysterious way, *Infinite :In the context of the poem, the sky, *Launches :In the context of the poem, flies, *Subsides :Returns, reduces in intensity, , EXPLANATION:, , 1.The Laburnum top is silent, quite still, In the afternoon yellow September sunlight,, A few leaves yellowing, all its seeds fallen., - In the above lines, the poet says that he saw a Laburnum tree whose leaves were yellow. The, tree’s top is still and silent in the day time of September month. It is autumn season and all the, seeds of the tree had fallen., The poet has used the word ‘yellow’ for leaves and sunlight. Yellow symbolizes silence, death,, and beauty. He describes the whole scene of the tree with this colour., 2.Till the goldfinch comes, with a twitching chirrup, A suddenness, a startlement, at a branch end., Then sleek as a lizard, and alert, and abrupt,, She enters the thickness, and a machine starts up, Of chitterlings, and a tremor of wings, and trillings —, The whole tree trembles and thrills., -A Goldfinch bird comes to end the death-like scene of the tree and makes a sudden chirrup, sound. The bird while being rapid, alert and precautiouns like a lizard, sits on the branches of, the tree. As she moved towards the thickness of the branch, her younger ones started chirruping, Page 85 of 175


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and doing vibrations with wings, making a sound like a machine. Because of the movement of, the bird and her young ones, the tree starts to shake and thrill., The poet has given two opposite scenarios of the tree. The tree first being death-like and still, and then giving life and shelter to bird and her young ones., 3. It is the engine of her family., She stokes it full, then flirts out to a branch-end, Showing her barred face identity mask, -The Laburnum tree and the goldfinch bird is the engine of her family. She provides food to, her young ones and moves to the other branch end. Her dark coloured striped face is visible as, her body is yellow coloured and hides behind the yellow leaves of the tree., 4. Then with eerie delicate whistle-chirrup whisperings, She launches away, towards the infinite, And the laburnum subsides to empty., After reaching the end of the branch, the bird makes a sweet chirping sound just like, whispering and flies away towards the infinite sky. It again makes the Laburnum tree silent and, death-like., , The Laburnum Top- Literary Devices, 1. Alliteration –repetition of a consonant sound at the beginning of two or more consecutive, words. The instances of alliteration in the poem are as followsSeptember sunlight, tree trembles, , 2. Simile– comparison between two things using like or as., Sleek as a lizard, , 3. Metaphor– an indirect comparison between two things. Generally, a quality is compared., “She enters the thickness, and a machine starts up” – the noise created by the movement of the, birds is compared to the machine’s noise, “It is the engine of her family.”, “Showing her barred face identity mask”, , 4. Personification– the attribution of personal nature characteristics to something nonhuman, The whole tree trembles and thrills., , 5. Transferred Epithet– the figure of speech where the adverb is transferred to another, noun, her barred face identity mask, , KEY NOTES, • The poem begins with the description of the laburnum top which is still and silent on a, September afternoon., • Due to the autumn season, the leaves have started turning yellow and the seeds have fallen, on the ground., Page 86 of 175


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• The seemingly lifeless tree becomes alive on the arrival of the goldfinch., • The goldfinch perches on the end of the branch with a chirping sound, thereby breaking the, silence of the tree., • She enters the thickness of the tree and makes her way to the nest with a swift, abrupt and, alert movement of a lizard., • A machine of chitterings starts up., • The young ones start chirping and flapping their wings and the tree is filled up with a series, of short, high pitched, twittering sounds., • Thus, the quiet and still tree becomes alive and begins to tremble and shake as if it is excited, and thrilled., • After feeding her young ones, the goldfinch flies to the end of the branch., • Her striped face with yellow body helps her to camouflage and she is only partly visible., • She comes out of the branch end and flies away to the sky., • The laburnum tree becomes calm and quiet again., , COMPREHENSION –Read the extract given below and answer the questions that, follow by choosing the correct options, 1.The Laburnum top is silent, quite still in the afternoon yellow September sunlight, A, few leaves yellowing, all its seeds fallen., Q1. What does ‘Laburnum top’ mean here?, (a) It means the top part of any tree (b) It means the top part of the Laburnum tree, (c) It means the top part of a fictional tree (d) It does not mean anything, Q2. What has happened to the tree?, (a) The tree is being worshipped, (b) The tree has been cut down, (c) The leaves of the tree have turned purple and are falling down, (d) The leaves of the tree have turned yellow and its seeds falling down, Q3. Find a word from the extract which is the antonym of ‘noisy’., (a) Quiet, (b) Quite, (c) Hush, , (d) Silent, , II. Then sleek as a lizard, and alert, and abrupt,, She enters the thickness, and a machine starts up, Of chitterings and a tremor of wings, and trilling, The whole tree trembles and thrills., Q1. Who is ‘she’ in the second line ? Where does she enter?, (a) She is the baby goldfinch who enters the thickness of the Laburnum tree, (b) ‘She’ is a squirrel who enters the thickness of the Laburnum tree, (c) ‘She’ is a lizard who enters the thickness of the Laburnum tree, (d) ‘She’ is the mother goldfinch who enters the thickenss of the Laburnum tree, Q2. What does ‘machine’ refer to in the extract?, (a) If refers to the machine used to drill a hole in the tree, (b) It refers to the machine used to cut the tree, (c) It refers to the nest of the goldfinch where its young ones are staying, (d) It refers to the nest of the squirrel, Q3. Find a word from the extract which is the synonym of ‘entire’., Page 87 of 175


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(a) Abrupt, II., , (b) Hole, , (c) Whole, , (d) Tremor, , Then with eerie delicate whistle-chirrup whisperings, She launches away, towards the infinite, And the Laburnum subsides to empty., , Q1. What does ‘launches’ mean in the extract?, (a) It means sleeping, (b) It means flying, fluttering., , (c) It means diving, , (d) It means, , Q2. What effect does the last line create?, (a) It creates the contrast between the liveliness of the tree and its silence, (b) It creates the contrast between the change of seasons, (c) It creates an opportunity to plant more Laburnum trees, (d) It creates the scene for the arrival of new bird species on the tree, Q3. ……….from the extract means the same as ‘strange’ and ‘mysterious’., (a) Delicate, (b) Odd, (c) Infinite, (d) Eerie, , MCQs, Read the following questions and answer by choosing the correct options –, Q.1. How did the poet describe the top of the Laburnum tree in the poem ‘The Laburnum, Top’?, a. Moving and Angry like, b. Still and Silent c. Silent and fast d. None of the above, Q.2. How was the tree standing in the month of September?, a alive, b. still and death-like, c. green and happy, d. still and green, Q.3. Where are the young ones of the Goldfinch bird?, a. On the thickness of the branch, b. On the top of the tree, c. on other tree, d. they were never there, Q.4. What role does the tree play for the Goldfinch bird?, a. As a shelter b. as a supporter, c. as a means to feed her family, d. as a resting place, Q.5. How did the bird move to the other side of the branch?, a. smoothly, b. slowly, c. like a lizard, d. by flying, Q.6. Why was Goldfinch’s body barely visible?, a. .because she was brown in colour, b. because she was small, c. because of the height of the tree, d due to her dark coloured yellow body, Q.7 What happened to the bird in the end of the poem?, a. she flew away, b. she stayed at the tree, c. she went to other tree, d. she went to bring some food for her younger ones, Q.8 What does the phrase “her barred face identity mask” mean?, a. it has no identity, b. due to her dark coloured yellow body, c. bird’s face became her identity and symbol of recognition, d. None of the above, Q.9 What is described as ‘machine’ in the poem?, a. Lizard, b. family of goldfinch, c. Laburnum Tree, d. None of the above, Q.10 While entering the thickness, the bird was –, a slow, b abrupt, c happy, d sad, Q.11 Why is laburnum called empty even when there are young ones of goldfinch in the, tree –, a because they are sleeping, b. because they are very young, c because they are inactive and not making any motion d.because they are busy with their food, Page 88 of 175


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Q.12 What is the theme of the poem –, a. love for family, b importance of silence in life, c importance of activities in life, d interdependence and mutual love, , Answer Key[Multiple Choice Questions], A Photograph, Q. No., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, , Answer, A, B, C, D, B, A, A, D, B, A, , Q. No., 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, , Answer, B, A, B, A, A, D, A, C, A, A, , The Laburnum Top, ANSWER KEY, EXTRACTS, I. EXTRACT, II. EXTRACT, III.EXTRACT, MCQS, 1. b 2 .b, 3 .a, , 1.b, 1.d, 1.b, 4 .a, , 5. C, , 2.d, 2.c, 2.a, 6. d, , 7. A, , 3.d, 3.c, 3.d, 8. C, , Page 89 of 175, , 9. B, , 10 b., , 11 c, , 12 d


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TEXTBOOKS: HORNBILL, CHAPTER 1: THE PORTRAIT OF A LADY, KEY POINTS OF THE CHAPTERIntroduction, • Khushwant Singh was one of the prominent Indian writers., • In the story the author draws a pen portrait of his grandmother., • He has beautifully written an account of his relationship with his grandmother., Pen portrait of grandmother, • Khushwant Singh draws a pen portrait of his grandmother., • Old woman, • Hard to believe that once she had been young and pretty, Appearance of grandmother, • Old, short, fat, slightly bent, • Wrinkled face, • She looks the same for last twenty years, • She couldn’t walk straight, • She wears white clothes and roams in the house., • She keeps her one hand on her waist to balance herself., • She held a rosary in the other hand., • Her silver locks scattered over her pale face., • Her lips constantly moved., • She always prayed to herself., Close friends, • Narrator and his grandmother were good friends., • His parents had left him with her in the village., • She used to wake him up in morning., • She got him ready for school, • She used to wash his wooden slate and plaster it with yellow chalk., • She takes an earthen inkpot and red pen and tie them in a bundle and hand it to him., • Prepared his breakfast (thick stale chapatti) little butter and sugar spread on it., • She also carry some chapattis for village dogs, Went to school with the narrator., • Grandmother always went to school with him., • Because school was attached to the temple., • There a priest taught the children alphabet and Morning Prayer., • Grandmother sat inside temple, • Spent her time reading holy books, • She would walk back home with him, Turning point in relationship, • Turning point came in their relationship when his parents call both to the city, • Narrator and his grandmother shared the same room., • Now grandmother couldn’t accompany him to school, and she was not able to help him, with his lessons., • Nor did she like science and music being taught at the new school., • There was no teaching of God, • There were no dogs in streets, • Grandmother took to feeding the sparrows., • Now they saw less of each other., Page 90 of 175


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Bond of relationship broken, • Their common link broken when the narrator went to the university., • Grandmother accepted her loneliness quietly., • She used to sit at her spinning wheel and recite prayers., • In afternoon she used to feed the sparrows, • She broke the bread into little bits and threw them to the sparrows., • Hundreds of sparrows collected around her., Narrator went abroad, • Narrator went abroad for higher studies., • Grandmother came to drop him at railway station. (kissed forehead), • Narrator thought it was his last meeting with her., • Narrator returned home after five years., • She collected the neighbourhood women and celebrated his homecoming., The grandmother’s death, • Next morning, she fell ill., • She declared that her end was near., • She continued praying and telling her beads, then her lips stopped moving, the rosary fell, down and she was dead., • Evening time, sun was setting, • Thousands of sparrows sat near her dead body., • They did not chirrup., • Narrator’s mother brought some bread and broke it into little pieces, but birds took no, notice., • When they carried her dead body outside, the sparrows flew away quietly………, VOCABULARY, 1 Criss- cross, 2 Hobbled, 3 spotless white, 4 Stoop, 5 Rosary, 6 Locks, 7 Scattered, 8 Untidily, 9 Puckered, 10 Inaudible, 11 Serenity, 12 Contentment, 13 Wrinkled, 14 Portrait, 15 Mantelpiece, 16 Revolting, 17 Absurd, 18 Undignified, 19 Fables, 20 Prophets, 21 Monotonous, 22 Bothered, 23 Fetch, 24 Slate, 25 Plastered, , a pattern of intersecting straight lines, walked in an awkward way, she wore clean, white coloured dresses, bend one’s body forward, a string of beads for religious prayer, hair, disorganized, not neat, a face contract into wrinkles, unable to be heard, the state of being peaceful and calm, a state of happiness and satisfaction, having lines or folds, painting or picture, A structure above and around a fireplace., unpleasant, Illogical, disrespectful, fictitious stories with a moral teaching, Saints, dull and boring, to be concerned, to go for and bring back something, a flat plate of slate used for writing, covered with a layer of plaster, Page 91 of 175


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26 Earthen, made of baked or fired clay, 27 Stale, no longer fresh and pleasant to eat, 28 Scriptures, the sacred writings of a religion, 29 Growling, making a low guttural sound in the throat, 30 Courtyard, a roofless area, 31 Years rolled by, time passed, 32 Distressed, suffer from extremely sorrow, 33 Lewd Associations, Indecent or Obscene, 34 Harlots, Prostitutes, 35 Gentlefolk, People of noble birth, 36 Snapped, break suddenly and completely, 37Seclusion, the state of being away from the people, 38 Spinning-wheel, a household machine with a wheel attached to it for spinning yarn, 39 Veritable, use to describe something interesting, 40 Bedlam, confusion, 41 Chirruping, the noise of a small bird, 42 Perched, alight or rest on something, MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS, 1. Who is the author of ‘The Portrait of a Lady’?, A. Ruskin Bond, B. Kushwant Singh, C. Naipaul, D. Vikram Bhatt, 2. Who is the main character of the chapter ‘The Portrait of a Lady’?, A. Mother, B. Sister, C. Grandmother, D. Daughter, 3. How did the grandfather in the portrait hang on the wall look like?, A. Old, long white beard, worn big turban B. Old, skinny, wrinkly, C. Young, Handsome, Well-Built, D. Old, Well-Built, 4. How did the grandmother look?, A. Old, Fat, Long, C. Old, Short, Slightly Bent, Fat, , B. Long, Fat, Slightly Bent, D. Slightly Bent, Fat, , 5. When did the author’s parents leave him with his grandmother?, A. When he was a kid, B. When he was an infant, C. When he became a teenager, D. When he failed and became a teenager, 6. Which animal did the grandmother used to feed in the village?, A .Dogs, B. Cows, C. Sparrows, D. Cats, 7. What did the author eat for breakfast?, A. Thick and stale chapatis with a little butter and sugar spread in it, B. thick bread with butter, C. Upma, D. rice and curd, 8. Why would grandmother accompany the author to his school?, A. to keep an eye on him, B. to wait for him to take him back to, home, C. because of the temple attached to school, D. she wanted to meet villagers, Page 92 of 175


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9. Where were the parents of the author?, A. Abroad, B. City, C. Other Village, D. Other state, 10. What would the grandmother do in the temple on a daily basis?, A. Meditation, B. Read Scriptures, C. Sing religious prayers, D. teach other kids religious prayers, 11. What was the turning point of the friendship between grandmother and author?, A. When he became an adult, B. When his parents called both of them to the city, C. When he left her to live in the city with his parents, D. When they stopped talking, 12. Where did the author go to study in the city?, A. English School in motor bus, school, C. Hindi School, , B. by walking down to nearby, D. No where, , 13. What made the grandmother unhappy about the author’s new English School?, A. the fact that she could no longer help him with the lessons, B. Because they were in city, C. Because she didn’t understand English, D. Because she didn’t understand English and could no longer help him with the lessons, 14. Why didn’t the grandmother like music?, A. It was the monopoly of harlots and beggars and not meant for gentlefolk, B. She liked only religious prayers, C. She liked the traditional folk music, D. She thought it would distract him from studies, 15. How did the grandmother spend her time in the city?, A. feedings dogs, B. reading scriptures, C. spinning the wheel, neighbours, , D. talking to, , 16. How did the grandmother spend her afternoon every day?, A. by feeding hundreds of sparrows, B. by taking a nap, C. by talking to author’s mother, D. by going to temple, 17. What happened when the author moved abroad to study for five years?, A. grandmother bid goodbye by silently kissing his forehead, B. No one came to see him, C. Grandmother moved back to village, D. Parents moved with him, 18. What change came in the grandmother’s evening schedule?, A. She collected the women of the neighbourhood, B. She would go for a walk, C. She would sleep early, D. She would talk to his parents, 19. What happened when the grandmother didn’t pray for the first time?, A. She fell ill the next day, B. She made this her routine, C. She took a break and went to the village D. None of the above, 20. How did the grandmother react to her illness?, A. She said her end was near B. She ignored her health, C. She took care of her, D. She was admitted to the hospital, Page 93 of 175


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21. What did the grandmother do in her final hours?, A. Talked to everyone in the house, B. worried about everyone, C. Silently praying and telling her beads, D. Went to temple, 22. How did the grandmother die?, A. during telling beads lying on the bed, C. While sleeping, , B. In the hospital, D. None of the above, , 23. How did the sparrows express their sorrow at the death of their grandmother?, A. They didn’t come that day, B. they came and sat silently in the verandah, C. They ate the bread crumbs, D. they chirruped a lot, 24. What happened when they took the grandmother’s corpse away?, A. Neighbours visited them to pay condolences, B. they mourned her death in her room, C. birds flew away quietly, D. Nothing happened, 25. How do you feel about the character of the grandmother in the chapter?, A. Emotional, B. Strong, C. Selfless, D. Loving, 26. Where was the author’s grandfather’s portrait placed?, A. on a shelf, B. hung above the mantelpiece, C. put on the mantelpiece, D. on a table, 27. Did the author bother to learn the morning prayers that his grandmother recited?, A. yes, B. he listened but did not bother to learn, C. he could not learn, D. no, 28. When was their common link of friendship snapped?, A. when he went to college, B. When he went to the university, they were given, separate rooms, C. when he started working, D. When he went abroad, 29. What was grandmother’s reaction when the author was going abroad?, A. Happy, B. sad, C. not even sentimental, D. Sentimental, 30. What was her reaction when he came back after 5 years?, A. Overwhelmed, B. clasped the author in her arms and said prayers, C. happy, D. sentimental, Answer key, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, , B, C, A, C, A, A, A, C, B, B, , 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, , B, A, D, A, C, A, A, A, A, A, , Page 94 of 175, , 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, , C, A, B, C, B, B, B, B, C, B


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Short Answer Type Questions- (TO BE ANSWERED IN 40-50 WORDS), Question 1. Give a description of Khushwant Singh’s grandmother according to his earliest, memory of her., Answer: Khushwant Singh felt that his grandmother could never have been any different from, what he had seen her to be. She must always have been old. She was short, fat and bent. Her, face was covered with wrinkles. She walked with a stoop and always dressed in white., Question 2. Khushwant Singh said about his grandmother: ‘She could never have been pretty,, but she was always beautiful.’ Explain., Answer: Khushwant Singh’s grandmother was not pretty in the conventional sense of having, physical beauty, but she had great inner beauty. She had a calm and serene personality., Question 3. Why was it hard for the author to believe that his grandmother was once young and, pretty?, Answer: The author had seen his grandmother always as an old person. His earliest memory, was that of an old lady. Therefore, as a child, he found it difficult to believe that she had been, any different ever. He could not believe that once she was young and pretty., Question 4. Khushwant Singh’s grandmother was not pretty but was always beautiful. Explain, the meaning of this statement., Answer: Khushwant Singh’s grandmother was not attractive and good-looking, but she had an, extremely gracious personality. Her serenity and calmness gave her an inner beauty., Question 5. What was Khushwant Singh’s and his grandmother’s routine in the village?, Answer: The grandmother used to wake Khushwant Singh up in the morning, bathe him, dress, him, and accompany him to school. While he studied, she sat in the temple and read scriptures., On return, she fed stale ‘chapattis’ to the village dogs. She used to prepare his wooden slate by, plastering it lightly with yellow chalk., Question 6. Describe the changing relationship between the author and his grandmother., Answer: The relationship changed from total dependency during their village stay to a hint of, withdrawal during the city stay as the grandmother could not comprehend the efficacy of a, curriculum based on science, sans religious instructions. Later, this changed to an overall, affection for the author., Question 7. What proofs of the friendship between the grandmother and the grandson do you, find in this story?, Answer: As a very young child, the author shared a very intimate relationship with his, grandmother. She went to school with him and helped him with his lessons. In the city, this, friendship weakened, but love for each other remained., Question 8. The grandmother was a kind-hearted woman. Give examples in support of your, answer., Answer: The grandmother was a kind-hearted person. In the village, she used to feed chapattis, to the street dogs. In the city, she started feeding sparrows., Question 9. What caused a turning point in the friendship of Khushwant Singh with his, grandmother?, Answer: A turning point came about with the author’s shift to the city and admission in an, English school. Though they shared the same room, the grandmother did not accompany him to, Page 95 of 175


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school and was disapproving of its academic and recreational curriculum, leading to further, distancing., Question 10. Draw a comparison between village school education and city school education., Answer: In the village school, the author learnt the alphabet and the Morning Prayer. He wrote, on wooden board slates. The city school gave him modern education in English and science., There was no religious instruction. He was taught music, of which his grandmother, disapproved., Question 11. Why was the author’s grandmother unhappy with city education?, Answer: The city school education made the grandmother’s help at lessons redundant as the, instructions were in English. She disapproved of science education, balked at his learning, music and was critical of the lack of religious instructions at the school., Question 12. What was the happiest moment of the day for the grandmother?, Answer: The happiest moment of the day for the grandmother was when she fed bread crumbs, to the sparrows. In the afternoons, she used to feed the birds. They became so free with her that, they perched on her shoulders and made great noises., Question 13. What was the happiest moment of the day for the Grandmother? Why?, Answer: When the grandmother fed the sparrows and they hopped around her. She remained, secluded from the family, but enjoyed the chirping and hopping of the sparrows., Question 14. Which activity did the grandmother find most relaxing when she lived in the city?, Answer: In the city, the grandmother started feeding sparrows in the afternoon. She broke, bread into small crumbs and scattered around her for the sparrows. They came and ate and sat, on her head and shoulders. She loved this., Question 15. What did the author think was the last physical contact with his grandmother?, Was it really so?, Answer: The author received a moist kiss on his forehead from his grandmother when he was, going abroad. He thought this was his last physical contact with her because she was so old that, she might not be alive when he would come back. But she hugged him when he came back, from abroad., Long Answer Type Questions and Answers-(TO BE ANSWERED IN 120-150 WORDS), Question 1. “Religion was the dominant feature of her life.” Comment on this statement in, regard to Khushwant Singh’s grandmother as projected in ‘The Portrait of a Lady’., Answer: The first introduction of the grandmother made by the author depicts her telling the, beads of her rosary with her lips muttering an inaudible prayer., As the custodian of her grandchild in the village, she said her morning prayers while engaged, in the task of bathing and dressing her grandson. While her grandson studied, the grandmother, studied the scriptures., She also disapproved of the education at the English school because of the absence of religious, instructions., In her last moments, she detached herself from her immediate family and preferred making, peace with God. Besides prayers, she was given to animal care, by feeding stray dogs at the, temple door and sparrows in the city home. Thus, her religion stepped beyond ritual to one of, showing kindness to the tiniest creatures of God. Indeed, the grandmother was religious in, body and spirit., Page 96 of 175


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Question 2. Draw a character sketch of Khushwant Singh’s grandmother as portrayed by him in, the lesson ‘The Portrait of a Lady’., Answer: The grandmother had a strong character. She was a deeply religious woman. Prayer, was of paramount importance to her. She spent most of her time in prayer. She was kind to, animals too. In the village, she fed street dogs and in city, shifted to feeding sparrows. She, remained calm through the various changes in her life. She did not protest, even though she, disapproved of Khushwant Singh’s education. She accepted her seclusion quietly when he was, given a separate room., When her grandson left for studies abroad, she did not show her emotions and kept remarkable, self-control. In her last moments, she withdrew herself from the family and devoted herself to, prayer. Khushwant Singh had a long and loving relationship with his grandmother. She was, very affectionate to him. She took excellent care of him while he was a child., Question 3. Write a character sketch of the author’s grandmother by using the following words:, affectionate, caring, kind and benevolent, religious, a strong woman., Answer: The author had a long and loving relationship with his grandmother. She was very, affectionate to him. She took excellent care of him while he lived with her as a child in the, village. The grandmother was a deeply religious woman. Prayer was of paramount importance, to her. She spent most of her time in prayer. She was kind to animals too. In the village, she fed, street dogs and in city, shifted to sparrows., The grandmother was a woman of great strength of character. She did not show her disapproval, of her grandson’s education. She accepted her seclusion quietly. When her grandson left for, studies abroad, she did not show her emotion and kept remarkable self-control. In her last, moments, she withdrew herself from the family and devoted herself to prayer., Question 4. The grandmother herself was not formally educated but was serious about the, author’s, education., How, does, the, text, support, this?, Answer: The grandmother took her grandson’s education very seriously. When he was in her, custody in the village, she prepared his wooden slate, accompanied him to school and helped, him with his lessons. In the city when he started learning English, science and music, which she, did not approve of. She did not voice her disapproval or insist on village-like education but, trusted that his father was doing the best for him. Nor did she protest when he was given an, independent room or was sent abroad for further study., Question 5. Gradually, the author and the grandmother saw less of each other and their friendship, was broken. Was the distance in the relationship deliberate or due to the demands of the situation?, Answer: The relationship between the grandmother and the author traced the graph of gradual, change from a parental role to that of a grandmother, due to changing circ*mstances. Moving to, the city and the change in the educational curriculum with the author’s admission into an Englishmedium school led to her first orientation to her changed circ*mstances. The grandmother, realized that her affection could no longer be a wholly possessive one., As the author graduated to the university level, his lifestyle underwent changes and the, grandmother realized that her role as an educator had ceased altogether. She, therefore, adopted, the role of a loveable elder overseeing her grandson’s progress and basking in it. When he, returned from England, the grandmother, was no longer concerned with his day-to-day, achievements, but showed her elation by organizing a musical soiree, even overstraining herself, in her excitement, leading to dire circ*mstances., , Page 97 of 175


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Question 6. Talk with your family members about elderly people who you have been intimately, connected with and who are not there with you now. Write a short description of someone you, liked a lot., Answer:My Grandfather I was extremely fond of my grandfather. I sometimes felt that he was, fonder of my younger brother than of me. This did not stop me from spending as much time, with him as I could. Much later, I came to know that he had been a freedom fighter. He had, taken part in the freedom movement along with Gandhiji, Nehruji and others. He never spoke, about the hardships of those days, but only of the songs they sang and the help they gave to one, another. To my eight-year-old imagination, his accounts opened up pictures of a fascinating, life. It was my grandmother who told me of his imprisonment and the ‘lathi blows’ he received., I rubbed his shoulders and arms hoping the chronic pain would ease. He died when I was, twelve. Ever since, I have felt that a strong support from my life has gone., Question 7. Khushwant Singh’s grandmother wrote a letter to her sister describing her life with, her grandson in the village. Write this letter on her behalf., Answer: Dear Parminder, May the Guru’s blessings be with you and your family. I am very happy these days as my, grandson, Khushwant, has come to live with me. His parents have gone to the city. The boy will, remain with me till they settle down. Khushwant is a serious and an adorable child. He listens, intently as I recite my prayers while getting him ready for school. I hope he learns them. I have, become busy and my lonely life has acquired meaning. I prepare his wooden slate and take him, to school. While he studies, I remain in the temple and read the scriptures, talk to the priest. After, school as we return, I feed chapattis to the dogs. Khushwant is delighted when the dogs follow, us. I pray that you and your family remain well., With regards to your husband and love to your children., Your sister, Satinder, Question 8. As Khushwant Singh’s grandmother, express your views on the education the boy, was receiving in the city school. Compare the situation with education in the village., Answer: Khushwant now goes to an English medium school in this city. I am not at all happy, with the education he gets. In the city, there is no concern for God and spiritual matters. His, education does not tell him anything about our scriptures or other religious matters. He is, taught English. I cannot help him with his lessons; unfortunately, he has to manage by himself., The scientific names and principles are totally new to me., The most objectionable are the lessons in music. Music is for the lowly; beggars and harlots to, earn their livelihood. It is not for decent folk. However, I do not interfere. In the village school,, he learned about religion and prayer. I think that was better., Question 9. Khushwant Singh’s mother observed closely the behaviour of his grandmother, when he returned home after studying abroad, her way of celebrating the occasion, her illness, and death. Write an account of this on her behalf., Answer: This morning my son, Khushwant, returned from England after five years of studies., All of us were excited including Beeji, his grandmother. Unlike others, she kept her excitement, under check. She insisted on going to the station to receive him. When he arrived, she hugged, him silently, all the time saying her prayers., In the evening, she took out an old drum and called the women of the neighbourhood. Together, they sang for hours, celebrating the return of her grandson. I was anxious for Beeji and, implored her to stop and not tire herself unduly. This was the only time she was not praying., Page 98 of 175


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The next day she was down with fever and exhaustion. We were anxious, because in spite of, the doctor’s reassurance, Beeji was sure her end had come., She stopped talking to us and lay quietly on the bed telling the beads of her rosary. Her end, came peacefully. We came to know only when her fingers stopped moving., , Page 99 of 175


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CHAPTER 2 :, , WE’RE NOT AFRAID TO DIE……. IF WE CAN ALL BE TOGETHER, By: GORDAN COOK AND ALAN EAST, ❖ THEME, The story has a string of themes woven into it. First is the human nature of knowing and, exploring the unknown and taking on challenges. Second is human instinct for survival. The, captain and his crew courageously fight the raging storm with intensity and ferocity and, victoriously emerge from the jaws of death. Third, human bravery, grit, courage and, determination exhibited not only by the elders but the children Sue and Jonathan too. Fourth,, being optimistic and having a sharp presence of mind, the qualities which are instrumental in, the Wave walker and its crew’s survival., ❖ CHARACTERS, • The narrator: a 37-year-old businessman. He wants to duplicate the round-the-world journey, made by Captain James Cook 200 years earlier. He spends a long time improving his seafaring, skills and finally begins his journey with his wife Mary, six-year-old son Jonathan and sevenyear-old daughter Suzanne., • Mary: the narrator’s wife- a woman with courage. She supports her husband ‘s dream and, improves her sea skills. She joins her husband on their planned three-year voyage., • Larry Vigil: An American who joins the narrator and Mary at Cape Town to help them tackle, one of the worlds ‘s roughest seas., • Herb Siegler: A Swiss who also joins them at Cape Town to help them cross the southern, Indian Ocean., • Suzanne: The narrator’s seven-year-old daughter with patience and perseverance who displays, immense courage throughout their voyage. She dares to endure pain and chooses to remain, silent, not to bother her father. She understands the severity of the situation and behaves way, ahead of her age, • Jonathan: He is the narrator’s six-year-old son who shows immense strength and optimism, even in difficult times. A little boy with great wisdom and understands the importance of family, and wishes to be together even if they all die, ❖ KEY POINTS, * The Voyage Begins, •, •, •, •, •, , In July 1976, the narrator, a 37-year-old businessman, his wife Mary, 6-year-old son, Jonathan and 7-year-old daughter Suzanne started their sea voyage from Plymouth,, England., They wished to go round-the-world on a long sea journey just as Captain James Cook, had done 200 years earlier., The narrator and his wife had spent 16 years preparing for the round-the-world voyage and, improving their marine skills., Their boat Wave walker was a 23 metre, 30-ton boat that was professionally built and they had, tested it in the roughest weather they could find., The first part of their planned three-year, 105000-kilometre journey passed pleasantly as they, sailed down the West Coast of Africa to Cape Town., , Page 100 of 175


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•, , Then they took two crewmen—the American Larry Vigil and the Swiss Herb Siegler before, heading east from Cape Town, to help them tackle one of the world’s roughest seas, the southern, Indian Ocean, * Problems Begin during the Voyage, , •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, , On the second day out of Cape Town, they encountered strong winds and high waves., The windstorms continued for the next few weeks., The size of the waves was up to 15 metres. On December 25, they were 3500, kilometres east of Cape Town, but the weather was very bad., Despite the bad weather, they celebrated Christmas Day wonderfully. New Year’s, Day saw no improvement in the weather and it worsened with the passing of time., On 2nd January, the waves were gigantic. They were sailing with a small storm jib,, but still they were going very fast., The boat moved to the top of each wave but the gigantic waves and dangerous wind, continued to terrorise them., To minimise the damage, they dropped the storm jib and lashed a heavy rope in a loop across, the stern., Then they fastened everything, went through their life-raft drill, attached lifelines and put on, oilskins and life jackets and prepared themselves for the worst case scenario., * Disaster Strikes, , •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, , The first indication of impending disaster came at about 6 pm, with an ominous, silence., The wind stopped and the sky immediately grew dark., Then a loud roaring sound was heard. The narrator thought that he saw a cloud, coming towards them. With horror, he realised it was not a cloud but the biggest wave that he, had ever seen. It appeared vertical and double the height of all other waves., The wave hit the boat and a tremendous explosion shook the deck. Water poured into the boat., The narrator’s head smashed against the steering wheel of the boat and, he was, thrown into the sea., He thought that he was going to die but suddenly his head popped out of the water. He saw that, the boat had almost capsized., Suddenly, a wave hurled it upright and the narrator was tossed onto the boat., His left ribs were cracked; his mouth was filled with blood and some teeth were, broken. Somehow, he managed to find the wheel, lined up the stern for the next wave and hung, on., * Frantic Survival Attempts, , •, •, •, •, •, , The boat was flooding with water, but the narrator dared not abandon the wheel to, investigate., Suddenly, Mary came and informed him that the boat was sinking as water was, pouring in. He handed the wheel to her and crawled towards the hatch. Larry and, Herb pumped the water out like madmen., The wooden beams had broken. The whole starboard side had bulged inwards., Clothes, crockery, charts, tins and toys moved around noisily in water. The boat hadbeen, damaged., He somehow managed to reach the children. Sue had a big bump on her head to, Page 101 of 175


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•, , which he did not pay much attention. He found a hammer, screws and canvas., Somehow, he managed to stretch the canvas and secure waterproof hatch covers across the, gaping holes. Some water continued to come in but most of it could be prevented from entering, the boat. But this was not the end of their troubles., * Damaged and Lost Equipment, , •, •, •, •, •, , The hand pumps started jamming with the trash floating around the cabins. Soon their electric, pump got short-circuited and the water rose threateningly., He found that their two spare handpumps had been pulled away by currents along, with the forestay sail, the jib, the lifeboats and the main anchor., He managed to find another electric pump to drain out the water., The night was an endless, bitterly cold routine of pumping, steering and working the, radio. However, there was no response to their Mayday calls as they were in a remote corner of, the world., Sue’s head had swollen alarmingly. She had two black eyes and a deep cut on her, arm. She didn’t tell the narrator more of her injuries as she didn’t want to worry him, when he was trying to save them all., * Pinpricks in the Vast Ocean, , •, •, •, •, •, •, , On the morning of January 3, the pumps had reduced the amount of water on board., Each of them took rest for two hours by turns., They had survived for 15 hours since the wave hit the Wavewalker, but the boat was, not strong enough to take them to Australia., The narrator knew that the boat wouldn’t hold together long enough., He checked his charts and calculated that the only one hope for them was if they, could reach lie Amsterdam, a French scientific base, one of the two pinpricks in the, vast ocean., Mary found some corned beef and cracker biscuits and they ate their first meal inalmost two, days., * we’re not afraid to die……. If we can all be together, , •, •, •, •, •, •, •, , The narrator went to comfort the children. And assure them that they were going to, make it., Jon said that they were not afraid of dying if they can all be together. This gave the, narrator hope and a reason to fight the sea., He tried his best to protect the weakened starboard side of the boat. However, later in the, evening, as more water came into the boat, they felt defeated again., On 6th January, the weather improved. The narrator again tried to calculate their, position., While he was at work, Sue came to him and gave him a card. She had drawn, caricatures of Mary and the narrator., The card said that she loved them both and hoped for the best., The narrator was filled with optimism. Somehow, they had to make it., * The Most Beautiful Island in the World!, , •, , The narrator made several calculations using a spare compass, made some, Page 102 of 175


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•, •, •, •, •, , adjustments and asked Larry to steer a course of 185 degrees. He said that, if they, were lucky, they would see the island at about 5 pm., Dejected, he went down to his bunk and fell asleep. It was about 6 pm when he woke up., He thought that they must have missed the island. Just then, Jon and Sue came to him and gave, him a hug because he was the ―best daddy in the world‖., The narrator was confused. Sue announced that the island was just in front of them., He rushed out to the deck and saw the most beautiful island in the world! It was lie, Amsterdam, a piece of volcanic rock with little vegetation., When his feet touched land the next day, he thought of the cheerfulness and optimism of all the, people on the boat which made them pass through the worst stress., , VOCABULARY, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, , Voyage – a long journey by sea or space, Leisure – free time, Honing – sharpen, improving, Seafaring – regularly traveling by sea, Honing our seafaring skills – improving the skills required to travel by sea, Wooden-hulled – a watertight body of a ship, Gales – A very strong wind, Mast – a tall upright structure on a boat or ship, Atrocious – bad; of a very poor quality, Gigantic – huge; of a big size, Jib – a triangular staysail set forward the mast in a ship, Knots – a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, used especially of ships,, aircraft, or winds, Mooring – the ropes, chains, or anchors by or to which a boat, ship, or buoy is moored, Loop – a shape produced that bends round and crosses; bent, Stern – the back part of a ship or a boat, Donned – put on, wore, Oilskins – heavy cotton cloth waterproofed with oil, Impending – about to happen, Ominous silence – unpleasant or threatening silence, Capsizing – be overturned in the water, Hurled – throw with a great force, Taut – stretched or pulled tightly, Boom – pole that controls the angle and shape of the sail, Scrambled – climb; claw one’s way, Hatch – door, Timbers – wood board used in building of a ship, Debris – rubbish, Wrenched – pull suddenly, removed, Forestay – a rope to support ship’s foremast, Dinghies – a small boat for recreation with mast or sail, Mayday calls –words used to signal ships stuck in a disastrous situation through radio, Smashed – badly broken, Keel – steel structure along the base of the ship, Pinpricks – a prick caused by a pin, Page 103 of 175


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•, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, •, , Pinpricks in the vast ocean – the two small islands in the vast ocean were very tiny like, the prick caused by a pin, Abated – something unpleasant to become less intense, Auxiliary engine – small secondary engine used to board ships to operate a windlass in, the ship, Rigging – the ropes and wires supporting the structure of the ship, Sextant – an instrument with graduated arc of 60 degrees for taking altitudes and, navigation, Caricatures – picture of a person; cartoon, Bunk – bed, Dozed off – went off to sleep, Bleak – an area of land lacking vegetation, Stark – sharply defined, Anchored – moor a ship to the sea bottom, Offshore – situated at the sea some distance from the shore, Ashore – on the shore of the land, Optimistic – hopeful and confident, , --------------------------***********************------------------------------, , MCQ, 1. From where did the ship sail for the voyage?, A. America, B. Mexico, C. Germany, D. Plymouth, England, 2. Why did the author decide to go for a round-the-world voyage?, A.to duplicate the voyage made 200 years ago by Captain James Cook, B. to see the world, C. to settle down in different country, D. to show his children the world through ship, 3. What was the occupation of the author?, A. Businessman, B. Sailor, C. Teacher, D. None of the above, 4. What was the name of the ship of the author?, A. Amazon, B. Wave walker, C. Wave ship, D. Sailor ship, 5. What part of the journey was pleasant for them?, A. First leg – from England to Cape town, B. Last part of the journey, C. First few months, D. Never, 6. What were the names of the two crewmen whom the author hired?, A. Shelly and Cabil, B. Larry Vigil and Herb Siegler, C. Herb Siegler and Shelly Cooper D. Larry Vigil and Adam Moore, 7. Why did the author hire the two crewmen?, A. to take rest from long the voyage, B. to help tackle one of the world’s roughest seas, the southern Indian Ocean, C. because he could no longer sail the ship, D. he wanted to spend some time with his family, 8. When did the waves start getting gigantic?, A. December 25, B. January 2, C. November 30, D. December 31, 9. What did they do to slow down the boat in the storm?, A. Stopped sailing, B. dropped the storm jib and lashed a heavy mooring rope, C. just dropped the storm jib, D. did nothing and waited for storm to calm down, 10. What was the first indication of disaster?, A. around 6 pm when winds dropped and sky grew darker, B. next morning when the ship started creaking, C. when it started raining, D. when winds were strong, Page 104 of 175


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11. What happened after the first indication of the disaster?, A. a wave appeared vertical and almost twice the height of other waves, B. it broke the ship from inside, C. the ship turned upside down, D. it didn’t affect the ship, 12. How did the explosion affect the ship?, A. A torrent of green and white water broke over the ship, B. the ship started sinking, C. the ship turned upside down, D. None of the above, 13. Why did the author accept his approaching death?, A Pirates had attacked the ship, B because he was injured by the explosion, C he was thrown in the sea, D he was stabbed, 14. What did the author see when his head popped out of the water?, A. the ship was sinking, B. the ship was nowhere to be seen, C. the ship was near capsizing, her masts almost horizontal, D. it was still standing, 15. What happened to the author’s body when he managed to reach the deck?, A. his head smashed again B. his left ribs cracked; mouth filled with blood and broken teeth, C. he broke his leg, D. his broke his left hand, 16. Who said, “We’re sinking!” ?, A. His crewmen, B. Mary, C. His daughter, D. His son, 17. What was the condition of the ship?, A. Broken timbers, starboard side bulged inwards; clothes, crockery, charts, tins and toys, sloshed, B. There personal belongings were missing, C. water filled in every room and their clothes were missing, D. Can’t say, 18. What had happened to Sue when the author entered their room to check on them?, A. her head hurt as there was a bump, B. She was unconscious, C. her legs hurt, D. she was fine, 19. What was the age of Suzanne and Jonathan?, A. 8 & 9 years old, B. 7 & 6 years old C. 10 & 7 years old D. 4 years & 6 years, 20. How did the author manage to stretch the canvas?, A. by repairing the holes, B. by asking crewmen for help, C. it happened on its own, D. the problem got over as the storm had passed, 21. What happened after the hand pumps started to block up with the debris floating, around the cabins?, A. the author connected an electric-pump to an out-pipe, B. by taking out water with the help of bucket, C. by repairing hand pump, D. the author found another hand pump, 22. Where did they decide to reach to save themselves and the ship?, A. Australia, B. Ile Amsterdam, C. Mumbai, India, D. Japan, 23. What was their first meal in two days?, A. Meat loaves, B. bread and milk, C. noodles, D. corned beef and, cracker biscuits, 24. Who said, “we aren’t afraid of dying if we can all be together — you and Mummy,, Sue and I.”?, A. Jon, B. Crewmen to each other, C. Sue, D. Mom, 25. When did they reach lle Amsterdam?, A. around 6 pm in the evening, B. never reached there, C. at 11 in the next morning, D. they decided to take different route, 26. What was the status of the ship on January 3?, A. "pumps had the water level sufficiently under control " B. condition was getting worse, Page 105 of 175


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C. they were still struggling to control the pumps, D. everything was just right, 27. How long did they take for the ship’s testing and fitting?, A. months, B. few days, C. 2 years, D. few weeks, 28. Where had they reached on the 25th of December?, A. 3500 east of Cape Town, B. they were suffering the waves away from CapeTown, C. 2500 km from Cape Town, D. reached Cape Town, 29. What happened when the author’s head smashed into the wheel?, A. he was hurt but steady, B. he flew overboard sinking below the waves, C. he was not hurt, D. he gained control immediately, 30. What does ‘Mayday call’ mean?, A Call made in the month of May, B Distress call for help, C Both A and B, D None of these, Answer key, Q. No., , Answer, , Q. No., , Answer, , Q. No., , Answer, , 1, , D, , 11, , A, , 21, , A, , 2, , A, , 12, , A, , 22, , B, , 3, , A, , 13, , A, , 23, , D, , 4, , B, , 14, , C, , 24, , A, , 5, , A, , 15, , B, , 25, , A, , 6, , B, , 16, , B, , 26, , A, , 7, , B, , 17, , A, , 27, , A, , 8, , B, , 18, , A, , 28, , A, , 9, , B, , 19, , B, , 29, , B, , 10, , A, , 20, , A, , 30, , B, , QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS :SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, Question 1.Who was the narrator? What adventurous task did he take on?, OR, Why did the author and his wife go for a sea voyage and how did they prepare for it?, Answer: Author and his wife wanted to duplicate the round the world voyage made 200 years, earlier by Captain James Cook. They got a large boat especially designed and professionally built, Page 106 of 175


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for this purpose. They had been making formidable preparations for the last 16 years in the rough, British waters. OR, The narrator was a thirty-seven-year-old businessman, who along with his family, set from, Plymouth, England, on a round-the-world voyage like Captain James Cook had done 200 years, earlier in a 30-ton wooden-hulled boat., Question 2. How did they prepare for this onerous task?, Answer: For sixteen years, they spent all their leisure time improving their seafaring skills in, British waters. They bought a boat, Wavewalker, a 23-metre, 30-ton wooden-hulled vessel that, had been professionally built. They spent months fitting it out and testing it in the roughest, weather that they could find., Question 3. How many people were there in the boat? Who were Larry and Herb? What role did, they play?, Answer: Four; the narrator, his wife Mary, son Jonathan, and daughter Suzanne sailed for, 105,000 kilometres to the west coast of Africa to Cape Town. They took on two crewmen with, them an American, Larry Vigil, and a Swiss, Herb Siegler, before settling sail on the southern, Indian Ocean., They were to help them to tackle one of the world’s roughest seas, the Southern Indian Ocean., They did their job quite well., Question 4. What was the first indicator of rough weather?, Answer: On their second day out of Cape Town, they encountered strong winds. For the next, few weeks, the gales blew continuously. The gales did not worry the narrator but the sizes of the, waves were disturbing., Question 5. What ordeal awaited them on 2 January?, Answer: After they celebrated Christmas, the weather changed for the worse. On the early, morning of 2 January, the waves became huge. As the ship rose to the top of each wave, they, could see the vast sea rolling towards them. The wind seemed to be howling., Question 6. What measures did they take to counter this ordeal?, Answer: They dropped the storm jib and lashed a heavy mooring rope in a loop across the stem, to slow the boat, and then double-lashed everything, went through their life-raft drill, attached, lifelines, put on oilskins and life jackets., Huge waves came rolling towards the boat. The howling of gales and spray was painful to the, ears. First of all, they decided to slow down the boat. The storm jib was dropped. Heavy mooring, ropes were looped across the stern. They went through their life-raft drill and attached lifelines., Oilskins and life-jackets were donned. Larry and Herb were continuously pumping out water, like madmen., Question 7. What happened on the evening of 2 January?, Answer: On the evening of 2 January there was a lull before the storm. As the sky grew dark,, they heard a growing roar, and saw a massive cloud rising at the rear of the ship. To their dismay,, it was a huge wave, almost twice the height of other waves, with a fearsome breaking top., Question 8. What happened when they tried to ride over the wave?, Answer: When they tried to ride over the wave, there was a loud blast that shook the deck. Water, gushed over the ship, the narrator’s head hit the wheel and he was thrown overboard into the, water. He accepted his impending death, and while he was losing consciousness, he felt peaceful., Page 107 of 175


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Question 9. How did the narrator get back to the ship after having been thrown into the sea?, Answer: After the narrator felt he was losing consciousness, his head suddenly popped out of the, water. A few metres away, he saw Wavewalker, nearly overturned. Then, a wave threw it upright., He grabbed the guardrails and sailed through the air into Wavewalker’s main boom. The waves, tossed him onto the deck like a rag doll., Question 10. How did they manage to throw out water from the ship?, Answer: With the narrator’s wife, Mary, at the wheel, the narrator half-swam, half-crawled into, the children’s cabin, where he found a hammer, screws and canvas, and struggled back on deck., He secured waterproof hatch covers across the wide-open holes. With Herb and Larry’s, assistance, he managed to throw out the water., Question 11. What were the difficulties that they faced that night?, Answer: The night was bitterly cold, and they were pumping water out of the ship, steering the, ship and working the radio. Moreover, they were getting no replies to their calls for help, as they, were in a remote comer of the world., Question 12. What injuries did Sue sustain? What does it reveal about her?, Answer: Sue had bumped her head and there was a big bump above her eyes. She had two black, eyes, and a deep cut on her arm. She showed remarkable maturity for a seven-year-old when she, said that she didn’t want to worry them when her father was trying to save all of them., Question 13. After the water level receded, what was their next concern? What did they decide, to do?, Answer: Having survived fifteen hours since the wave hit, the narrator checked the charts and, calculated that there were two small islands a few hundred kilometres to the east. One of them, was lie Amsterdam. Knowing Wavewalker would not hold for much longer, they aimed to reach, the island., Question 14. “But our respite was short-lived.” Why does the narrator say so?, Answer: By 4 January, they ate their first meal in almost two days after pumping out most of the, water. But their breather was short-lived. Soon after, black clouds gathered and the wind rose to, 40 knots; the sea kept getting higher. The weather deteriorated and by dawn on 5 January, the, situation turned hopeless, again., Question 15. What did Jon say that left the narrator speechless?, Answer: When the narrator tried to comfort and reassure the children, Jon said that they were, not afraid of dying if all four of them could be together. The narrator could find no words to, respond, but he left the children’s cabin determined to fight the sea with everything he had., Question 16. What action did the narrator take, after having decided to fight the sea?, Answer: To protect the weakened starboard side, he decided to heave to with the undamaged, port hull facing the oncoming waves, using an improvised sea anchor of heavy nylon rope and, two 22-litre plastic barrels of paraffin., Question 17. How did the narrator make his calculations to find out their position on 6 January?, Answer: The Wavewalker rode out the storm and by the morning of 6 January, the narrator, worked on wind speeds, changes of course, drift and current in an effort to calculate their, position., Question 18. What instruction did the narrator give Larry? What did he expect?, Page 108 of 175


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Answer: At about 2 p.m., the narrator asked Larry to steer a course of 185 degrees and said that, if they were lucky, they would see the island at about 5 p.m. He was not optimistic himself so he, went below, climbed on his bunk and slept off., Question 19. Why did the narrator feel that he was not the best captain? What was the surprise, in store for him?, Answer: When Jon called him the best daddy in the whole world and the best captain, the narrator, was dejected for not being able to locate the island, so he refuted the statement. The truth was, that the island was just in front of them., Question 20. Why did the narrator feel that it was the most beautiful island?, Answer: The narrator saw lie Amsterdam. It was an unwelcoming piece of volcanic rock, with, little vegetation, but to them it was the most beautiful island in the world because it held for them, the hope of their survival., , QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS, LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, Question 1. The narrator and his wife had longed to sail. What did they do to accomplish their, dream?, Answer: The narrator and his wife had always dreamt of sailing. They wanted to do a round-theworld voyage like Captain James Cook had done 200 years earlier. For sixteen years they spent, all their leisure time improving their seafaring skills in the British waters. They took a boat,, Wavewalker, that was 23 metres, and weighed 30 ton. It had been professionally built and they, spent months fitting it out and testing it in the roughest weather that they could find. Finally, in, July 1976, the family set out to sail from Plymouth, England., Question 2. What were the troubles that they faced on the morning of 2 January? How did they, counter nature’s wrath?, Answer: When they reached the southern Indian Ocean, one of the world’s roughest seas, they, began to encounter strong winds. Apart from the gales, the size of the waves was alarming. It, was as high as the main mast. Things became worse on 2 January when the waves became huge., The ship rose to the top of each wave and they could see endless waves approaching them, and, the screaming of the wind seemed horrifying to them. To slow the boat down, they dropped the, storm jib and lashed a heavy mooring rope in a loop across the stem. Then they double-lashed, everything, went through their life-raft drill, attached lifelines, donned oilskins and life jackets., Question 3. “The first indication of impending disaster came at about 6 p.m.” What was the, warning? What was the disaster that followed?, Answer: The first warning of the approaching disaster was the threatening stillness. The wind, dropped, and the sky grew dark. Then with a roar, an enormous cloud seemed to come after the, ship. It turned out to be a vertical wave, almost twice the height of the other waves, and had, fearsome breaking crests. When they tried to move over it, a monstrous explosion shook the, deck. Water broke over the ship, and the narrator’s head hit against the wheel and he was thrown, into the sea. The narrator accepted his impending death, and felt he was losing consciousness., But soon, he was tossed back into the ship like a ‘rag doll’., Question 4. How did they deal with the water that had gushed into the ship?, Answer: As Mary took control of the wheel, the narrator made his way towards the hatch. Larry, and Herb were pumping out water frantically. He saw broken timbers hanging, the starboard side, bulged inwards; clothes, crockery, charts, tin and toys sloshed about in deep water. So, he, struggled into the children’s cabin, found a hammer, screws and canvas, and laboured back on, Page 109 of 175


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deck. He managed to stretch the canvas and secure waterproof hatch covers across the gaping, holes., Some water continued to stream below, but most of it was now being deflected over the side., The problems cropped up when the hand pumps started to block up with the fragments floating, around the cabins and the electric pump short-circuited. The water level rose ominously. On the, deck he missed the two spare hand pumps, forestay sail, jib, dinghies and the main anchor, which, were pitched overboard. He found another electric pump and connected it to an out-pipe, and, this worked., Question 5. The children braved the situation more maturely than their years. Discuss., Answer: The children, certainly braved the situation more maturely than their years. Sue had her, head hit and swollen, worryingly. She had two huge black eyes, and a deep cut on her arm. She, did not make much of her injuries because she did not want to worry her father when he was, trying to save them. Jon, the narrator’s six-year- old son, assured him that they were not afraid, of dying if the family could all be together., When Sue’s head injury worsened with her blackened eyes narrowed to slits, she held on to her, spirit and gave the narrator a card with drawn caricatures of Mary and him with the words: ‘Here, are some funny people. Did they make you laugh? I laughed a lot as well.’ The underlying, message of love and positive hope overwhelmed the narrator. He was touched with the, thoughtfulness of a seven-year-old girl, who did not want her parents to worry about a head, injury, and that of the boy who was not afraid to die., Question 6. What difference did you notice between the reaction of the adults and the children, when faced with danger?, Answer: There is a lot of difference between the way in which the adults and the children reacted, when faced with danger. The adults felt the stress of the circ*mstances but prepared themselves, to face the dangers. They took sufficient precautions to protect the ship when the rough weather, began. They equipped everyone with lifelines, water proof clothes, and life jackets. Larry and, Herb worked cheerfully and optimistically for three days continuously to pump out water from, the ship. Mary replaced the narrator at the wheel when the deck was smashed, and steered the, ship. She also served them meal after two days of struggle against odds. The narrator performed, his role as captain with courage, determination, resourcefulness and full responsibility. He, undertook repair work and provided apparatus and directions needed to protect the ship. He also, helped in steering the ship towards the island. The children suffered silently and patiently. Sue, did not want to bother her father with her troubles. Jon acted courageously. He was not afraid to, die if all of them perished together., Question 7. Why do you think people undertake such adventurous expeditions in spite of the, risks involved?, Answer: Man is adventurous by nature. The greater the risk, the more the thrill. The thrill of, exploring unknown lands, discovering wealth and beauty lying hidden in far off lands inspires, brave hearts to stake their life of rest and repose. Perhaps they value one crowded hour of glory, more than a long uneventful life of sloth and inactivity. It is true that sometimes adventures are, quite risky and prove fatal. The failures of some persons do not daunt (discourage) the real lovers, of adventure. They draw lessons from the shortcomings and errors of others and make fresh, attempts with greater zeal. Part of the charm of an adventurous expedition lies in adapting oneself, to the circ*mstances and overcoming the odds. The success of an adventurous expedition brings, name, fame and wealth. History books are replete with accounts of famous explorers like, Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Captain Cook and Captain Scott., Question 8. Write the character sketch of narrator., Page 110 of 175


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Answer: The narrator was a married man with two children who had set sail from Plymouth,, England to duplicate the round-the-world voyage made 200 years earlier by Captain James Cook., He was a 37-year-old businessman who with his wife Mary had dreamt of sailing in the wake of, the famous explorer and for the past 16 years had spent all their leisure time honing their, seafaring skills in British waters until their boat Wave walker was ready. The captain of the ship, who is the narrator of the story was a courageous man who defines what a man can do with, perseverance and dedication when push comes to shove. The narrator had hurt himself when a, tremendous explosion shook the deck of his ship and he smashed his head into the wheel when, a huge wave broke over the ship. He was flung overboard and found himself sinking below the, waves. He thought death was approaching him and he lost consciousness. The narrator felt that, his death was imminent and he saw that his boat was going to capsize with her masts horizontal, and it was flooded with water. The impact of the waves on the narrator had nearly led him to, believe that he was dying and to accept that fact with composure. However, the thought of his, family's survival pulled him back and he fought really hard until he had brought them all to, safety. He loved his family, especially his two children who were already exhibiting signs of, possessing their father's indomitable courage and resilience., Question 9. Character sketch of Suzzanne and Jonathan., Answer: Suzanne: Suzanne was narrator’s seven-year-old daughter. She was very brave. She, was critically injured at the time the huge wave struck the boat. Her eyes were terribly swollen, because of the head injury. There was a cut on her arm also; however, she did not cry. She, repeatedly told her father she was alright; the truth was she was not. She had to undergo six, minor operations to remove the blood clotting from her brain., Jonathan: Jonathan was Gordon Cook’s 6-year-old son who had accompanied him on the roundthe-world-journey. After the Wavewalker was terribly broken by the colossal wave, he also, behaved very courageously. He gave a new strength to his father when he said he was not afraid, to die if he could be together with the family. These words filled the author with new, determination and courage. He resolved to fight till the end to save his family from being, drowned in the stormy sea., Question 10: Theme of We are not Afraid to die…, Answer: The story We’re Not Afraid to Die speaks about the adventures of a family which is out, on a voyage. This story is an encounter described by the author which he experienced while, taking the voyage. You will witness a stream of unfortunate events that lead to a disaster for this, family living its dream of sailing. The story brings many emotions which helps you to understand, the importance of bonding in a family and you will see how each member of the family, perseveres to survive this deadly situation., The story also shows the struggle of a father determined to save his family and leaves no stone, unturned to bring the situation under control. It also brings the combined efforts of each character, to fight this situation. The little boy Jonathan exhibits a great deal of courage and is also ready, to die if all his family members are together. All that matters is that they are together. The young, girl Suzanne is seriously injured but chooses not to bother her father who is struggling to save, everyone., This entire story revolves around the family and their positive attitude which saved everyone., The whole family stands together and fights this situation with an indomitable spirit. The story, shows how unity might help you to overcome the toughest of situations. The family members, trust the author and how their faith in him boost his confidence to fight. In this chapter, you will, learn how your attitude can affect your performance in any situation., , Page 111 of 175


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Chapter -3, DISCOVERING TUT: THE SAGA CONTINUES, INTRODUCTION, The chapter deals with the mysteries and various theories regarding the life and death of the, youngest teenaged Pharoah of ancient Egypt- Tutankhamun. Some speculated that he was, murdered. King Tut’s tomb was discovered in 1922 by the famous archaeologist Howard Carter., After Carter’s investigation, Tut’s mummy was also subjected to an X-ray and a CT scan. These, investigations have answered a lot of questions and offered new clues on details of Tut’s life and, the mystery surrounding his death., THEME, The chapter ‘Discovering Tut: the Saga Continues’ is a description of the exploration conducted, by a team of researchers. It gives an account of the struggles the team faced to unravel the, mystery of the death of a teenaged ruler, KingTut., The story highlights changes in the methods of archaeology from a few decades back to the, present era of modern technology. It gives us an idea about the kind of exploration conducted in, 1922 by Carter when there was no modern method to extract theremains., It also helps us understand the revolution in the field of archaeology which is due to modern, equipments and sophisticated methods like computed tomography or CT scan which are being, used to give more accurateresults., CHARACTERS, Howard Carter: The British archaeologist who discovered King Tut’s tomb in 1922. His, discovery was sensational as it was successful after years of futile searching. Carter’s, investigation caused great damage to the king’s mummy as the hardened material had to be, chiseled away from the body to raise the king’s remains., Zahi Hawass:The Secretary General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities. One of the, members of the team of researchers, Hawass scanned King Tut’s mummy for an accurate, forensic reconstruction. He was extremely focused and committed towards his work as he, could not sleep even for a second the night before Tut’s body was taken for scanning. He was, extremely worried thinking of the seriousness of the work of extraction and reconstruction, undertaken by him and felt relaxed only when the task was accomplished and he was sure that, everything was in proper place., Amenhotep III: King Tut’s father or grandfather, was a powerful ruler who ruled for almost, four decades at the peak of the eighteenth dynasty’s golden age. He was succeeded by, AmenhotepIV., Amenhotep IV: Successor of Amenhotep III, he promoted the worship of Aten, the sun disk, and changed his name to Akhenaten or ‘servant of the Aten’. He shifted the religious capital, from the old city of Thebes to the new city of Akhenaten, now known as Amarna. He further, outraged, the, country, by, attackingAmun,amajorGod,bysmashinghisimagesandclosinghistemples.Hewascalledoddand, wacky by Ray Johnson., Tutankhaten: Widely known as King Tut, he was the last heir of a powerful family that had ruled, Egypt and its empire for centuries. He was just a teenager when he became a ruler. He also, changed his name to Tutankhamun, reigned for about nine years and died unexpectedly. His, mummy was the first to be examined by using a CT scan., , Page 112 of 175


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GIST OF THE LESSON, Death of King Tut, ➢, ➢, ➢, ➢, ➢, , King Tut just a teenager at time ofdeath, last heir of powerful family that ruled Egypt and its empire forcenturies, buried and forgotten over years, discovery of his tomb in 1922 made world wonder about cause of untimely death., brought out of tomb, CT scan done to ascertain reason of death., , CT Scan of King Tut’s mummy, ➢ King Tut’s mummy taken out from burial tomb on 5 January, 2005 at 6p.m., ➢ scan done to unearth medical mysteries surrounding untimely death, ➢ rock- cut tomb lay 26 feet underground in Egyptian cemetery ‘Valley of theKings’, ➢ angry winds stirred, dark clouds covered the stars when mummy put into scanner for, CTscan, ➢ overcast weather entire day, night sky covered by dark-belliedclouds, ➢ tourists from around the world visited tomb to payrespect, ➢ murals on walls of burial chamber and King Tut’s gilded face on lid of outercoffin, ➢ visitors curious, thoughtful; feared pharaoh’s curse would befall those who disturbedhim, ➢ Zahi Hawass-blamed Howard Carter- bad condition of mummy, Howard Carter and his findings, ➢ Tut’s tomb discovered by British archaeologist Howard Carterin1922, ➢ tomb laden with gold; contents- richest royal collection ever found, ➢ dazzling works of art in gold caused sensation then and even today, ➢ Tut buried with everyday things- board games, bronze razor, linen undergarments, cases, of food, wine etc. needed in life after death, ➢ three nested coffins investigated by Carter, ➢ contents of first coffin- shroud decorated with garlands of willow and olive leaves,, wild celery, lotus petals, cornflowers- burial took place in March or April, ➢ ritual resins hardened, cementing mummy to bottom of solid gold coffin, King Tut’s mummy chiseled out by Howard Carter, ➢ Carter faced difficulty extracting mummy out ofcoffin, ➢ ritual resins hardened, mummy cemented to bottom of coffin, ➢ Carter tried to loosen resins-put mummy outside in sun for hours – mummy heated to149, degrees, ➢ Fahrenheit- nothinghappened, ➢ cut hardened material from under limbs and trunk to free Tut’sremains, ➢ all this done to protect treasure- precious collars, inlaid necklaces, bracelets, rings,, amulets, ceremonial apron, sandals, sheaths for fingers and toe, inner coffin and maskall of pure gold, fromthieves, ➢ removed mummy’s head and cut off nearly every major joint to separate king from, ornaments., ➢ reassembled remains of body on layer of sand in wooden box with padding to conceal, damage., King Tut’s mummy x-rayed, ➢ archaeology undergone changes -focuses more on details of life and death than treasures;, uses more sophisticatedtools, ➢ anatomy professor x-rayed mummy in 1968, more than 40 years after Howard Carter’s, discovery; revealed astonishingfact, Page 113 of 175


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➢ Tut’s breast bone and front ribs found missing beneath resins that caked Tut’schest, ➢ mystery of Tut’s death stillunsolved, King Tut and his ancestors, ➢ King Tut’s father or grandfather, Amenhotep III- powerful King, ruled for almost, fourdecades., ➢ son Amenhotep IV succeeded; very strangeKing, ➢ Amenhotep IV promoted worship of Aten, the sun disk; changed his name to Akhenaten, (servant ofAten), ➢ moved religious capital from Thebes to Akhetaten, now known asAmarna, ➢ shocked country- attacked major god ‘Amun’, broke images, closed downtemples, ➢ Ray Johnson, Director of the University of Chicago’s research centre in Luxor, called, ithorrific time., ➢ after Akhenaten’s death mysterious ruler Smenkhkare- ruled for brief period, departed, withhardly any sign, ➢ young King Tutankhaten took over throne; soon changed name to Tutankhamun, known, as King Tut, ➢ Tut oversaw revival of old ways, ruled for nine years, then died unexpectedly, CT Scanning of King Tut’s mummy, ➢ King Tut’s mummy-one among many in Egypt, ➢ The Egyptian Mummy Project- recorded almost six hundred mummies, stillcounting, ➢ King Tut’s mummy- first to be CT scanned to ascertain secret ofdeath, ➢ scanned by portable scanner donated by National Geographic Society and Siemens, its, manufacturer, ➢ team of specialists in radiology, forensics and anatomy worked uponTut, ➢ on night of scan, workmen carried mummy its box, from tomb, rose it on hydraulic lift, into a trailer that heldscanner, ➢ initially scanner could not function properly due to sand in cooler fan- plastic fans, brought as substitute, ➢ king returned to coffin to rest in peace afterscan, ➢ CT scan showed image of Tut’s entire body clearly- grey head, neck vertebrae, a hand,, several images of rib cage and a section of skull, ➢ Zahi Hawass relieved- nothing had seriously gone wrong- nothinglost, ➢ after observations, team left, wind stopped, completesilence, ➢ technicians saw Orion constellation, known to ancient Egyptians as soul of Osiris, the, God of afterlife, above entrance totomb, ➢ felt as if God was watching over the boyking, VOCABULARY, 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6., 7., 8., 9., , Heir –, Laden –, SpeculatedTombForensic Reconstruction –, PharaohStirred –, Ghostly –, Resting place-, , Inheritor, successor, loaded, form a theory without evidence, an enclosure to bury the dead, the process of recreating the face of an individual, a ruler in ancient, move or cause to move slightly, eerie and unnatural; unreal, here, the grave, Page 114 of 175


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10. Cemetery11. Dark-bellied –, 12. Scudded across –, 13. Veiling –, 14. Casket15. Casket grey –, casket which, , a large burial ground, dark in colour, moving quickly; it refers to the movement of the, dark- bellied clouds, to cover something, a small ornamental box or chest for holding jewels,, letters, or other valued objects., It means that the grey clouds were like a grey coloured, contained the stars. The stars are like jewels which are kept, , in a casket., 16. Glided –, 17. Probe –, 18. Lingering –, 19. Descended –, 20. Cramped –, 21. Rock-cut 22. Gazed –, , quite, continuous motion, to investigate, find out, long-lasting, moved or gathered, very small to fit into, made in a rock by cutting it, to look in surprise or in admiration, , 23. Murals –, , a painting or other art work executed directly on the wall, , 24. 23.Gilded –, , covered with a thin sheet or coating of gold, , 25. Striking26. Whisper27. Pondering –, , prominent, to speak in a low voice, think about something carefully, , 28. 26. Futile –, , pointless; incapable of producing the result of, something., , 29. Ransacked –, , raid; go through a place to steal or damage something, , 30. Antiquity –, age, oldness, 31. Resurrection –, restoration to life, 32. Afterlifelife after death, based on the belief that the essential, to the next life after the death of the physical body., 33. Funerary Treasures –, the valuable things with which the king was buried, 34. Shroud –, a length of cloth in which a dead person is wrapped, 35. Adorned –, decorated, 36. Garlands of willow –, a wreath of flowers and leaves, 37. Resins –, a sticky flammable substance that is insoluble in water, 38. Legitimate reasonable, 39. Blazing –, very hot, 40. Budged –, moved or shifted; a slight movement, 41. Chiselled away –, to cut something with a chisel, 42. Circumvented –, find a way around; thieves would have found a way, to tackle the guards and remove the gold from the tomb, 43. 43 Inlaid a decorative pattern on a surface, 44. Amulet an ornament or small piece of jewellery thought to, give protection against evil, danger, or disease, Page 115 of 175


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45. Sheaths –, 46. Adornments –, 47. Concealed48. Intervening –, 49. Intriguing –, 50. Startling –, 51. Computed Tomography –, 52. Wacky –, 53. Eerie detail –, 54. Forensics –, 55. Anatomy –, 56. Burial –, 57. Pallbearers –, 58. Swirling –, 59. Hydraulic lift –, 60. Sprinted –, 61. stood Orion —, 62. Astonishing –, 63. Pixels 64. Spun –, 65. Vertebrae – –, , a close-fitting cover, ornaments, hid, occur in the time between events, to arouse one’s curiosity, unexpected or surprising, Also called a CT scan, it is a three-dimensional scan of, a body with the help of hundreds of X-Rays in, cross-section together, amusing in a slightly odd way, strange image of Tut’s head as visible with the help of, CT scan, the application of the scientific method to investigate a crime, the branch of science which deals with the bodily structure, of humans, animals or other living beings, burying the dead, a person who helps to escort a coffin at a funeral, to spin or twist, a lift that uses a machine to lift or move heavy objects with a, Pressure, ran at a high speed, the constellation that the ancient Egyptians knew as the soul, of Osiris, the god of the afterlife — watching over the boy, king., amazing, a pixel is a single point in a graphic image, to turn around, series of small bones which form a backbone, , MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS:, 1. Who is Osiris?, (a) god of nature, b.god of afterlife, c.god of seasons, d. god of, universe, 2.What was Tut lavished with?, a) gold, silver, flowers, (b) lots of jewels, (c) “glittering goods: precious collars, inlaid necklaces and bracelets, rings, amulets, a, ceremonial apron,sandals, sheaths for his fingers and toes all of pure gold”, (d) expensive clothing, 3. “Tut was laid to rest, laden with ……….”, (a) platinum, (b) aluminium, (c) gold, 1(d) silver, 4. How did Tut die?, (a) It is a mystery, (b) Due to heart attack, (c) Due to Cancer, (d) During a war, 5. When did Tut die?, a.When he was a teenager, b.When he was old, c. When he was in middle age, d.When he was a child., 6. Who discovered Tut’s tomb and when?, a.Adam Cooper in 1901, b.Howard Carter in 1922, c.Howard Carter in 1930, d.Sam show in 1890, 7.For almost show many years did Amenhotep III rule Egypt?, a. 5 years, b.20 years, c.10 years, d.40 years, Page 116 of 175


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8. When was Tut’s body taken back in his tomb after CT scan?, (a) After a day (b) After 3 hours, (c) After 12 hours, (d) After 5 hours, 9. How did the workmen lift the body for the scan?, (a) through the stairs, (b) on a hydraulic trailer, (c) through sliding, (d) through, lift, 10. When was Tut’s body taken for CT Scan in the 21st century?, (a) January 05 2005 (b) January 10, 2007 (c) June 09, 2001, (d) February 12, 2009, 11. When was the mummy examined in X-Ray by the anatomy professor?, (a) In 1945, (b) In 1986, (c) In 1968, (d) Never, 12. How did Carter cut the body of Tut?, (a) First head and then every limb, (b) first leg and then head, (c) first legs, head and then limbs, (d) limb, hand only, 13. Why did the third coffin put Carter in trouble?, (a) It was empty, (b) The resins used to cement Tut to the bottom of the solid gold coffin which was hardened, enough, (c) The material found inside was already looted (d) None of the above, 14. How would you describe Tut’s tomb?, (a) gold-plated, (b) rock-cut, (c) wall paintings with gold-plate, (d) rock-cut, 26 feet underground, which had wall, paintings, 15. For how many years did Tutankhamun rule Egypt?, (a) Nine, (b) Eleven, (c) Two, (d) Five, 16. What is the Cemetery of Tut called?, a) Valley of kings, b.Tut’s resting place, c.Resting peace, d.Valley of, Flowers, 17. What does CT scan stand for?, a) Computed Telegraphy, b.Computed Tomography Scan, c.Car Topology, d.Computer Technology, 18. What were the facts revealed when the mummy was X-Rayed in 1968?, a) His several possessions were missing, b.His hip bone was missing, c.His breast bone and front bones were missing d.His feet bone was missing., 19. Who said,” “the mummy is in a very bad condition because of what carter did in 1920’s?, a) Carter, b.Zahi Hawass, c.An anatomy Professor, d.An Egyptian, Historian, 20. How did Howard remove the resins?, a) with the help of chisel and hammer, b.with the help of chemicals, c.with the help of machinery, d.with the help of man power, 21. What did Carter and his men do after cutting down his body?, (a) they sent it for X-Ray, (b) they examined them carefully, (c) they placed it on the layer of sand in a wooden box, (d) they clicked photographs, 22. What was in the first coffin?, a) garlands of olives, lotus petals, and cornflowers, b.flowers and coins, c.gold wealth, bronze razor, games, clothes, cases of food and wine, d.it was empty, 23. Why did the third coffin put carter in trouble?, a) It was empty, b.The resins used had hardened, c.The Material found inside was already looted, d.None of the above, 24. What name did Amenhotep IV change to?, a) Amarna, b.Atul, c.Akhenaten, d.Amenhotep III, Page 117 of 175


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25. Why did the procedure stop in between?, , (a)As spare fan stopped working, (c) As the lift broken, , (b) as the light went off, (d) none of the above, , 26. Who promoted the worship of Aten (the sun disk)?, A. Tutankhamun, B. Amenhotep III, C. Amenhotep IV, , D. None of the above, , Answers, Q. No, , Answer, , Q. No, , Answer, , 1, , A, , 14, , D, , 2, , C, , 15, , A, , 3, , C, , 16, , A, , 4, , A, , 17, , B, , 5, , B, , 18, , C, , 6, , C, , 19, , B, , 7, , D, , 20, , A, , 8, , B, , 21, , C, , 9, , B, , 22, , A, , 10, , A, , 23, , B, , 11, , C, , 24, , C, , 12, , A, , 25, , A, , 13, , B, , 26, , C, , Page 118 of 175


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QUESTIONS / ANSWERS, Short Answer Type Questions, Q1. Who was Howard Carter? What was his discovery?, Ans. Howard Carter was a British archaeologist. After years of searching he discovered King, Tut’s tomb in 1922 over 3300 years after his death. Tut died in his teens but his death was a, mystery for all. He was the last heir of the powerful family of pharaohs that ruled Egypt for, centuries. People believed that the king died under mysterious circ*mstances and his death, might involve every possibility of murder., Q2. Why did King Tut’s mummy have to undergo CT scan?, Ans. The mummy of King Tut had earned worldwide fame for the riches it was buried with., Further there arose a great controversy about the manner of his death and his age at the time, of death. Keeping in view this controversy, King Tut’s body was ordered to be scanned to, examine the delayed medical mysteries about his life and death., Q3. What did the tourists in the burial chamber of King Tut do?, Ans. The tourists from around the world queued up as usual all afternoon into the narrowed, rock-cut tomb. They lined up to pay their homage to King Tut. They looked keenly at the, murals on the walls of the burial chamber. Some also peered at Tut’s gilded face. Some visitors, read from guidebook, whereas others stood silently thinking about the Pharoah’s curse which, stated that death or misfortune would befall those who disturbedhim., Q4. Why did the artifacts in Tut’s tomb cause a sensation at the time of discovery?, Ans. The stunning artifacts of gold discovered in Tut’s tomb surprised all present there. They, were all made of pure gold. Their shine was brilliant and never fading. The funerary treasure, included precious collars, necklaces, bracelets, rings, amulets, a ceremonial apron, sandals,, sheaths, etc. All these things, including the coffin, were made of pure gold. It was believed, that the king would take these possessions with him in his journey beyond death. This eternal, brilliance of the artifacts was meant to guarantee the king’s revival from grave., Q5. Why did Carter have to detach Tut’s mummy from the coffin? How did he do it?, Ans: When Carter and his men were working at the tomb of King Tut, they found that the, ritual resins had hardened and had cemented the mummy of King Tut to the bottom of his solid, gold coffin. The mummy could not be taken out. The solidified material could only be chiseled, away. They removed the mummy’s head and severed nearly every major joint. This they did, in order to separate the body from the adornments. Then they reassembled the remains on a, layer on sand in a wooden box with padding., Q6. How did Carter defend his action of cutting the mummy free?, Ans. Carter, in his defense, wrote later that if he hadn’t cut the mummy free, thieves would, have escaped the guards and ripped it apart to remove all the gold. The mummy had been, kept with a lot of wealth in the form of gold ornaments and other riches, all of gold. The, funerary treasures would have surely attracted thieves had he not severed the mummy to, make it free from the adornments., Q7. Why was King Tut’s coffin put in hot sun?, Answer: The resins used in the funeral rites of King Tut had dried and hardened and the body, was stuck to the coffin’s base. Carter ordered the coffin to be put in the sun hoping to melt, and loosen the resins. Even with 149 degrees Fahrenheit, the resins did not soften., Page 119 of 175


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Q8. What problem did Carter face when he reached the mummy of King Tut? How did, he find a way out?, Ans. King Tut’s mummy was stuck to the bottom of the coffin because the resins had melted, and hardened Carter decided to chisel the hardened resin from beneath the mummy., Q9. How was Tut’s body carried to the C.T scanner?, Ans. On the night of the scan, workmen carried Tut from the tomb in his box. Like pallbearers, they climbed a ramp and a flight of stairs into the swirling sand outside. Then they rose it on, a hydraulic lift into the trailer that held the scanner., Q10. How was King Tut’s mummy scanned by the CT scanner?, Ans. In order to remove the mystery over the death of King Tut, a portable CT scanner was, taken in a trailer to the sandy area near Tut’s tomb. Tut’s body was carried there from his tomb, in a box for scanning. However, a technical snag occurred when the sand entered the milliondollar portable scanner. A pair of white plastic fans served as replacement or substitute fans to, help in the scanning. The CT machine scanned the mummy from head to toe, creating 1700, digital X-ray images in cross-section. His entire body was scanned in 0.62 milimetre slices for, intricate details., Q11. What did the CT scan of Tut’s mummy reveal?, Ans. CT scanning gave surprising as well as fascinating images of Tut’s body. The image of, a grey head appeared on the computer screen. Neck bones appeared quite clearly. Other images, of Tut’s body appeared on the screen. They included a hand and several views of rib-cage and, the skull., Q12. Carter had to take a drastic decision regarding the mummy. What was it? How did, he justify it?, Ans. The hard decision that carter had to take was to chisel away the hardened resins from under, Tut’s body. This could damage the skeleton. The workers had to remove Tut’s head and sever, nearly all the joints. Carter’s justification was that if he hadn’t cut the mummy free, thieves, would have ripped it apart to get the gold., Q13. “King Tut’s body had been subjected to repeated scrutiny”. Why?, Ans: King Tut’s body and burial chamber were found intact. The archaeologists hoped to, discover many truths about King Tut and Egypt of his time. Therefore, they investigated them, repeatedly., Q14.Why was Tut’s body buried with gilded treasures and precious things?, Ans:Tut’s body buried with gilded treasures and precious things because the Egyptians believed, King Tut would need those things in his life after death., Q15. List some adornments on Tut’s body. Why had the adornments been buried along, with the body?, Ans: Stunning gold objects of great beauty like precious collars, inlaid necklaces, bracelets,, rings, amulet, all things needed by the King in his afterlife, board games, linen, undergarments, cases of food and drink. Egyptians believed that the king would need these, articles in his life after death., Q16.What were the contents of ‘the richest royal collection ever found’?, Ans. Stunning gold objects of great beauty like precious collars, inlaid necklaces, bracelets,, rings, amulets, all things needed by the King in his afterlife, board games, linen, Page 120 of 175


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undergarments, cases of food and drink., ., Q 17. Why did the boy king change his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun?, Ans. Tutankhamun means the living image of Amun. Tut took this name because he wanted, to restore the old ways which had been changed by his father., Long Answer Type Questions, 1. “He was the last of his family line.” What do you learn about Tut’s dynasty from the extract, ‘Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues’?, Ans. Tut’s grandfather, Amenhotep III was a powerful Pharaoh who ruled for almost four, decades at the height of the dynasty’s golden age. His son Amenhotep IV promoted the worship, of the Aten, the sun disk. He changed his name to Akhenaten or ‘servant of the Aten` He moved, his religious capital fromthe old city Thebes to the new city of Akhenaten. He further shocked, the country by attacking Amun, a major God, breaking his images and closing his temples., Thus, the ‘wacky’ king started one of the strongest periods in the history of ancient Egypt. After, Akhenaten’s death a mysterious ruler named Smenkhkare appeared briefly and departed, without leaving any sign. Then a very young Tutankhaten took over the throne. He is widely, known today as King Tut. The boy king soon changed his name to Tutankhamun, meaning, ‘living image of Amun’. He supervised the restoration of the old ways. Tutankhamun ruled for, about nine years and then died unexpectedly. The details of his passing away are not known., The modern world has speculated about what happened to him; how he died and how old he, was at the time of his death are two unanswered questions which remain unanswered even, today., Q2. AR Williams says, “King Tut is …. in death as in life regally ahead of his countrymen.”, How far do you agree with the assertion and why?, Ans. Perhaps no other Pharaoh of Egypt has fascinated the public mind so greatly as the boyish, King Tutankhamun. Although King Tut died in his teens and ruled for about nine years only,, he introduced certain changes during his brief rule. These were significant as they marked, restoration of the old ways of the worship of Amun. The unanswered questions about the causes, and mode of his death as well as his age at the time of his death kept public curiosity alive., After his death, his body has been a centre of scientific examination. Howard Carter, the British, archaeologist discovered Tut’s tomb in 1922. In 1968, an anatomy Professor X-rayed the, mummy. The Egyptian Mummy project began an inventory in late 2003. It has so far recorded, 600 and is still counting. The next phase of CT scanning with a portable CT machine began on, January 5, 2005. King Tut’s mummy was the first one to undergo CT scan. Hence, the assertion, iscorrect., Q3. How has Tut’s mummy fascinated the scientists and commoners alike over the previous, decades?, Ans. King Tutankhamun was the last Pharoah left of his line. His funeral marked the end of a, dynasty. He was laid to rest laden with gold as the royals in Tut’s time were extremely wealthy, and thought they could take their riches with them. His tomb was discovered by Howard Carter,, an English archaeologist in 1922, more than 3000 years after his death. The rich royal collection, of jewellery and golden artifacts fascinated Carter. Visitors thronged the boy King’s tomb. The, particulars of King Tut’s death and its aftermath are not clear. He revealed a startling fact. The, breastbone and front ribs of Tut were missing. On 5th January, 2005 a CT scan was done to, obtain precise data for an accurate forensic reconstruction of King Tut. It was hoped that it, Page 121 of 175


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would offer new clues about his life and death. Thus, Tut’s mummy has been the centre of, fascination throughout the previous decades., Q4. Who was King Tut? What happened when his mummy was being CT scanned? What did, the tourists do?, Ans. King Tut was just a teenager when he died. He was the last heir of a powerful family that, ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries. He was laid to rest laden with gold and forgotten. In, 1922, Howard Carter discovered his mummy and startling facts about him came to light. When, his mummy was CT scanned on January 5, 2005, an angry wind began to blow. Dark clouds, appeared in the sky. The tourists gazed at the murals on the walls in his burial chamber. They, peered at the gilded face. Some tourists stood silently. They wondered if the Pharaoh’s cursedeath or misfortune falling upon those who disturbed him–was really true. But except a change, in the weather nothing happened., Q5. What problems did Howard Carter face in regard to King Tut’s mummy? What did he do, to solve them?, Ans. At last, Howard Carter, the British archaeologist, discovered King Tut’s burial chamber, and his gold coffin in 1922. When he opened the last coffin, he found that the ritual resins had, hardened. It had cemented Tut to the bottom of his solid gold coffin. He tried to loosen it by, putting the mummy in the scorching sunshine. But it did not happen. Then he said the material, had to be chiseled away from beneath the limbs and trunk. It was to be done before it was, possible to raise the King’s remains. Carter defended it saying that the thieves would rip the, mummy apart to remove the gold. So, his men removed the mummy’s head and severed nearly, major joint. Then they reassembled the remains on a layer of sand. They put the mummy in a, wooden box., Q6. What light does the chapter throw on King Tut’s father or grandfather?, Ans. King Tut’s father or grandfather was a powerful Pharaoh. They ruled Egypt for 40 years at, the height of the 18th dynasty’s golden age. His son Amenhotep IV succeeded him. He started, certain changes. He promoted the worship of the Aten, the sun disk. He changed his name to, Akhenaten, or ‘Servant of the Aten’ He also moved the capital from Thebes to Akhenaten. It is, now known as Amarna. He shocked the country by breaking the images of Amun, a major God, images and closing his temples. After Akhenaten’s death, Smenkhare ruled Egypt briefly. Then, a very young Tutankhaten sat on the throne. He was the King Tut as known today. The boy King, changed his name to Tutankhamun, ‘living image of Amun’ He restored old ways. He ruled for, nine years and then died unexpectedly., , Page 122 of 175


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Chapter-4: LANDSCAPE OF THE SOUL:, SUMMARY, •, •, •, , •, , Nathalie Trouveroy, , The story “Landscape of the Soul” by author Nathalie Trouveroy is about art., The first narrative is about a famous medieval Chinese artist named Wu Daoji, who, lived in the 8th century under the Tang Emperor Xuan zong rule. He was asked by the, Empror to decorate the walls of his palace., Wu Daoji painted a beautiful midline of mountains, waterfalls, river, clouds and blue, skies, wildlife, and people living harmoniously in a radiant environment. He painted a, cave in the foothills of the mountains that was dwelled by a spirit. While painting Wu, clapped his hands near the cave, and the passage of the cave magically opened. Wu gets, inside the cave and vanishes., The story became a Chinese legend and part of rich folklore from writers and, philosophers such as Confucius and Zhuangzi., , •, , Another story is about another painter who believed in the spiritual magic of art. He, painted a magnanimous dragon. However, he did not paint the eyes of the dragon, because he was afraid that the dragon would come to life. The belief he had in his art, was such that he was frightened by the probability of bringing his art to life and falling, victim to a fiery dragon., , •, , In the third and final story, the writer cites a story representative of Europe during the, fifteenth century in Antwerp, Belgium. There was a blacksmith named Quentin, who, fell in love with a painter’s daughter. The difference between their profession led the, father not to accept their relationship. To earn his beloved hand for marriage, the, blacksmith sneaked into the painter’s studio and painted a fly on his latest panel. It had, such moderate realism that it resembled a real one and tried to fly it as a living, insect.Quentin’s skill, determination and simplicity convinced him and got his daughter, married to him. Finding his true love, Quentin became one of the greatest painters of his, age., The Chinese and the European arts are in direct contrast to each other and represent two, contrarian views of art. Western figurative paintings depict scenes exactly as they are,, whereas Chinese painters depict inner space—spiritual and conceptual. The European, painter wants the viewer to understand his art exactly as he sees it, whereas Chinese, painter wants the viewer to use his prudence, enjoy the art and come out with his, inference., Shanshui means mountain and water. The mountain is symbolic of the male and the, water is symbolic of’ the female element in creation. This is the fundamental notion of, ‘Daoism’. In between, there is the Middle Void where their interaction takes place and, is also the space for man. Thus, the Chinese painter’s landscape has a spiritual, character., The writer has compared the concept of ‘Shanshui’ with the yogic practice of, ‘Pranayama’ breathe in, hold, breath out—the time of the suspension of breath is the, void when meditation occurs. This middle void is crucial-as nothing can happen, without it., The concept of ‘art brut’ is about the art of the ones who have ‘no right’ to be artists. It is, because they lack any formal training yet somehow possess artistic talent and insight. The, writer cites the example of Nek Chand’s work at Rock Garden in Chandigarh is a form of, art brut., , •, , •, , •, , •, , Page 123 of 175


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VOCABULARY, Dwells – live; stay, Splendid – very impressive; superb, Astonished – greatly surprised or impressed, Disciple – a follower or a pupil of a leader, teacher, Anecdote – a short interesting story of a real person, Flanders – a medieval country in Western Europe, Antwerp – a city of northern Belgium, Delicate Realism – the quality of art that makes it seem real, Swat – hit or crush something, Apprentice – trainee; learner, Illusionistic Likeness – an illusion created which resembles something, Figurative painting – metaphoric representation of an art, Leisurely – unhurried or relaxed, Conceptual Space – relation with an abstract representation, Void – empty; vacant, Conduit – channel; tube, Oppressed – burdened; worried, Lofty – tall or high, , MCQ’S BASED ON THE CHAPTER, 1., , What two forms of art did the author contrast in this chapter?, A. Indian Ancient Art and Chinese Art B. Chinese art and European art, C. American Art ad European Art, D. European Art and Greek Art, , 2., , Whom did the Tang emperor Xuan zong commission to decorate a wall in the, palace?, A. Axi Xiami, B. Viu Quizi, C. Wu Daozi, D. Wu Shawmi, Who was the Chinese Emperor during the Eighth Century?, A. Tang Emperor Xuanzong, B. Yongle Emperor Zhu Di, C. Jianwen Emperor Zhu Yunwen, D. Tiacheng Emperor Zhu Changluo, Where did the painter draw the attention in the painting?, A. Sun, B. Palace, C. Birds, D. a cave at the foot of the mountain, What happened when the painter entered the cave?, A. the entrance closed behind him, B. the painting vanished, C. Nothing happened, D. It was only a dream, Why didn’t the painter want to draw an eye of a dragon?, A. he feared that the painting would not look good, B. he feared that the dragon would fly out of the painting, C. he feared that dragon will seem real, D. because he didn’t wanted to work, What do the books of Confucius and Zhuangzi teach?, A. to guide his disciple in the right direction, B. to not fear the superiors, C. to not to suppress your thoughts, D. None of the above, What was the name of the blacksmith in the fifteenth century Antwerp?, A. Adam Mulch B. Sadern Metsys, C. Lori Adam, D. Quinten Metsys, Why didn’t the father approve of the love of his daughter and the blacksmith?, A. due to his profession, B. due to his caste, C. due to his appearance, D. None of the above, What did the two forms of art depict?, A. a perfect, illusionistic likeness in Europe, the essence of inner life and spirit in Asia, , 3., , 4., 5., , 6., , 7., , 8., 9., , 10., , Page 124 of 175


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11., , 12., , 13., , 14., , 15., , 16., , 17., , 18., , 19., , 20., , 21., 22., 23., , 24., , B. a perfect, illusionistic likeness in Asia, the essence of inner life and spirit in Euorpe, C. perfect art form in Asia and realness in Europe, D. It depicted nothing, What does the word ‘Dao’ mean?, A. perfection, B. both the path or the method, and the mysterious works of the Universe, C. mystery, D. royal, What does the Chinese Landscape depict?, A. They are not real and one can enter from any viewpoint, B. they produce an actual viewpoint, C. they are not imaginery, D. None of the above, What does ‘Leisurely movement’ mean?, A. relaxed movement, B. hurried action, C. pleasure action, D. None of the above, . What did the Chinese Painter want the viewer to do?, A. he wants the viewer to enter his mind, B. he wants the viewers to admire his painting, C. he wants them to imagine the scene, D. he wants them to feel like they are inside of the scene, What does the concept of ‘Shanshui’ represent?, A. Imaginery place, B. worship, C. ‘mountainwater’ which when used together represents the word ‘landscape’, D. None of the above, What does Yin mean?, A. water; horizontal and resting on the earth, fluid, moist and cool, B. Mountain; vertically towards Heaven, stable, warm, and dry in the sun, C. Neutral action, D. None of the above, What does Yang mean?, A. Mountain; vertically towards Heaven, stable, warm, and dry in the sun, B. water; horizontal and resting on the earth, fluid, moist and cool, C. Neutral action, D. receptive, feminine aspect of universal energy, What is the role of man in between Heaven and Earth?, A. He is in a path, B. He is a sinner, C. He is meeant to do actions, D. he becomes the conduit of communication, What was Francois Cheng’s expression?, A. the center of the landscape, B. the eye of the landscape, C. the center of the universe, D. the left side of the yang, What does the European Figurative painting mean to the viewer?, A. Illusion, B. Imagination, C. exactly as he sees it from a specific angle, D. view of the painter, What is the essential third element ?, A. Left Void, B. Middle Void, C. Yang, D. Yin, What is the third element compared with?, A. prayer, B. travel, C. yogic practice of pranayama, D. nirvana, "Antwerp, a master blacksmith called Quinten Metsys fell in love with a, …………… daughter", A. emperor’s, B. painter’s, C. minister’s, D. master’s, What according to the painter dwells in the cave?, A. a spirit, B. magic, C. mystery, D. dragon, Page 125 of 175


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Chinese art requires ………… participation of the viewer, A. passive, B. emotional, C. active, D. methodological, 26. What is true about Yang and Yin?, A. It is the balance of Good and Evil B.Yang is the darker element, Ying is the lighter element, C.If balanced, you can achieve Nirvana D.The two are opposites forces of nature, 27. Which of these is NOT a quality of yin and yang?, A. Light and dark, B.male and female, C. aggressive and submissive, D.sun and moon, 25., , 28. What is the most surprising thing about the garden?, A The rocks, B The waterfalls, C The sculptures, D The plants, 29. Which of the following is NOT true about the garden now?, A. There is a road for VIPs through the garden., B. People are still making new sculptures there., C The local government doesn’t manage the garden., D You can volunteer to work there, 30.Francois Cheng was, A. Chinese-born French academician and writer B.French writer, C.British cartographer, D.American poet, , MARKING SCHEME MCQ BASED QUESTIONS, QUES NO., , ANSWER, , QUES NO., , ANSWER, , 1, , B, , 16, , A, , 2, , C, , 17, , A, , 3, , A, , 18, , D, , 4, , D, , 19, , B, , 5, , A, , 20, , C, , 6, , B, , 21, , B, , 7, , A, , 22, , C, , 8, , D, , 23, , B, , 9, , A, , 24, , A, , 10, , A, , 25, , C, , 11, , B, , 26, , D, , 12, , A, , 27, , A, , 13, , A, , 28, , C, , 14, , A, , 29, , A, , 15, , C, , 30, , A, , Page 126 of 175


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SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, 1. Briefly narrate the story of the Emperor and the Chinese artist., 2. How did stories such as the one about Wu Daozi play an important role in China’s, classical education?, 3. Why did the artist agree to get his daughter married to the blacksmith?, 4. What is the difference between the Chinese and European art?, 5. How does shanshui express the Daoist view of the universe?, 6. What is lacking in Shanshui?, 7. How is the pranayama compared to the Middle void?, 8. Describe the concept of ‘art brut’., , LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, 1. Narrate the tale of the Chinese Emperor and the artist. What message does the story, convey?, 2. Narrate the anecdote that brings out that Europeans endeavoured to achieve ‘a perfect,, illusionistic likeness’., 3. Explain the difference between Chinese and Western view of art., 4. What was the revolutionary idea in art that was put forward by Jean Dubuffet? How did, an Indian artist support his theory?, 5. Nek Chand’s work is acclaimed as the work of a genius and is appreciated world over., Justify., 6. Describe the Daoist view of the universe., , MARKING SCHEME: SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTONS, 1. A painter Wu Daozi, who lived in the eighth century was asked to paint a, landscape by the Tang Emperor Xuanzong, to decorate a palace wall. The artist, concealed his work behind a screen, so that only the Emperor would see it. For a, long time, the Emperor admired the wonderful scene.One day the painter, showed him a cave at the foot of the mountain, and said that a spirit dwelt there., The painter clapped his hands, and the entrance to the cave opened. He then, entered the cave and the entrance closed behind him. Since then nothing is, known of the artist or the painting as the painting vanished off the wall., 2. Such stories played a significant part in China’s classical education. They, helped the master to guide his pupil in the right direction. They were not merely, tales, but were deeply illuminating of the essence of art. The books of Confucius, and Zhuangzi are full of such stories. They reveal that art was considered the, essence of inner life and spirit in Asia., 3. Initially the artist was against the blacksmith, Quinten Metsys, marrying his, daughter. However, one day Quinten slyly sneaked into the painter’s studio and, painted a fly on his latest panel, that was so realistic that the master tried to swat, it away. The artist was so impressed that he admitted Quinten as an apprentice, into his studio and let him marry his beloved., 4. The Chinese and European art are different as the European art is trying to, achieve a perfect, illusionistic likeness in Europe, and the Chinese the essence, of inner life and spirit in Asia. While the European wants you to look at the, landscape through his eyes, the Chinese painter wants you to enter it from any, point, then travel in it. He creates a path for your eyes to travel up and down,, then back again, in a leisurely movement., Page 127 of 175


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5. Shanshui means ‘mountainwater.’ It expresses the Daoist view. The mountain is, Yang and it stretches vertically towards Heaven. It is stable, warm, and dry in, the sun, while the water is Yin. It is horizontal and resting on the earth, fluid,, moist and cool. The interaction of Yin, the receiver, feminine aspect of universal, energy, and Yang, active and masculine, is the fundamental belief of Daoism., 6. The third element, the Middle Void where their interaction takes place, is, lacking in Shanshui. The Middle Void is indispensable. Hence nothing can, happen without it. This is the reason why the white, unpainted space in Chinese, landscape is important. This is also where Man finds a fundamental role, in that, space between Heaven and Earth, he becomes the medium of communication, between both poles of the universe., 7. The Middle Void is vital as nothing can happen without it. This is the reason, why the white, unpainted space in Chinese landscape is imperative. This is also, where Man finds a fundamental role, in the yogic practice of pranayama we, breathe in, retain and breathe out. The suspension of breath is the Void where, meditation occurs., 8. The notion of 'art brut' or 'raw art" was of works that were in their raw state as, regards cultural and artistic influence. Anything and everything from a tin to a, sink to a broken car could be material for a work of artist Nek Chand has, taken the notion of raw art to dizzying heights., , MARKING SCHEME: LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, 1. Tang Emperor Xuanzong asked the painter Wu Daozi, to make a landscape to decorate, a palace wall. The artist had hidden his work behind a screen, so only the Emperor, would see it. The Emperor, for a long time, admired the wonderful scene, discovering, forests, high mountains, waterfalls, clouds floating in an immense sky, men on hilly, paths, birds in flight. One day the painter showed him a cave, at the foot of the, mountain., He said that a spirit lived there. Just then, the painter clapped his hands, and the, entrance to the cave opened. The artist said that it was infinitely beautiful inside and he, entered the cave. The entrance closed behind him. Since then nothing has been known, of Wu Daozi., The story underlines the message that the Emperor was only interested appreciating the, outer appearance of the painting but the artist makes known to him the true meaning of, his work. The Emperor admires the territory while the artist is filled with the ‘spirit’, within., 2. In fifteenth century lived a blacksmith named Quinten Metsys who fell in love with a, painter’s daughter. The father, being an artist, would not accept a son-in-law who was a, blacksmith. So Quinten crept into the painter’s studio and painted a fly on his latest, board. It seemed so real that even the artist thought it was real and tried to swat it away., It was then he realised what had happened. He immediately took Quinten as a trainee, into his studio. Quinten then married his beloved and went on to become one of the, most famous painters of his age.This story exemplifies what European form of art was, trying to achieve. They wanted a perfect, illusionistic likeness., 3. Chinese art is meant to be metaphorical. An artist in China would not like the onlooker, to look at a particular landscape from a specific angle. The Chinese painter does not, choose a specific viewpoint. One can enter his landscape from any point, and then, travel in it. The artist creates a course for your eyes to journey up and down, then back, again, at an unhurried pace., Page 128 of 175


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This is even truer of the horizontal scroll. The action of slowly opening one section of, the painting, then rolling it up to move on to the other, adds a dimension of time which, is unknown in any other form of painting. It necessitates the active contribution of the, viewer. It is the viewer who decides at what speed he will travel through the painting., The interaction is physical as well as mental. The Chinese painter wants you to enter his, mind. The landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and abstract., 4. Before the French painter Jean Dubuffet, challenged the concept of ‘art brut’ in the, 1940s, people were not interested in the art of the untutored creative thinkers. It was he, who defied this concept. As a consequence this ‘outsider art’ has steadily become the, fastest growing area of interest in modem art worldwide. He felt that there are artists, who have received no formal training, yet show talent and artistic insight. Their works, are a motivating contrast to a lot of conventional ones., 5. At the time Dubuffet was advocating his theory, in India ‘an untutored genius was, creating paradise’. Nek Chand made one of the biggest contributions by clearing a little, patch of jungle to make himself a garden sculpted with stone and recycled material., This garden is known to the world today as the Rock Garden at Chandigarh. Nek, Chand’s work is acknowledged as India’s biggest contribution to outsider art. The, fiftieth issue of Raw Vision, a UK-based magazine that initiated the outsider art, publications, featured Nek Chand, and his Rock Garden sculpture ‘Women by the, Waterfall’ on its anniversary issue’s cover. It reported how Nek Chand had used every, thing from a tin to a sink to a broken down car to create a work of art that took him to, the pinnacles of glory. The Swiss Commission for UNESCO applauded his art as ‘an, outstanding testimony of the difference a single man can make when he lives his, dream’, and decided to honour him. They decided to put up an exhibition of his works., The five-month interactive show, ‘Realm of Nek Chand’, is to begin in October. It is to, be held at leading museums in Switzerland, Belgium, France and Italy. However, the, greatest honour for him is seeing people enjoy the creation., 6. This concept is expressed as shanshui, literally ‘mountainwater’ which used together, represent the word ‘landscape’. More than two elements of an image, these represent, two complementary poles, reflecting the Daoist view of the universe. The mountain is, Yang — reaching vertically towards Heaven, stable, warm, and dry in the sun, while, the water is Yin — horizontal and resting on the earth, fluid, moist and cool. The, interaction of Yin, the receptive, feminine aspect of universal energy, and its, counterpart Yang, active and masculine, is of course a fundamental notion of Daoism., What is often overlooked is an essential third element, the Middle Void where their, interaction takes place. This can be compared with the yogic practice of pranayama;, breathe in, retain, breathe out — the suspension of breath is the Void where meditation, occurs. The Middle Void is essential — nothing can happen without it; hence the, importance of the white, unpainted space in Chinese landscape., , Page 129 of 175


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TEXTBOOK: SNAPSHOTS, CHAPTER - 1, THE SUMMER OF THE BEAUTIFUL WHITE HORSE, SUMMARY, Once there lived in Armenia a very poor family. Like other families of Garoghlanian tribe, this, family was very famous for trust and honesty. Honesty was the hallmark of their family. Aram,, who is the narrator of the story,was a nine year old boy.He was very fond of horses. His cousin, Mourad was 13 years old. Mourad was somewhat crazy but very confident and adventurous. He, was ready to take risks and even break rules if they did not cause any harm. He had a way with, animals,birds,farmers,etc., One day in the early morning hours Mourad came to Aram’s house on a white horse. Aram was, wonder - struck on seeing Mourad on a horse. When questioned by Aram, Mourad told him that, he had stolen the horse for a pleasure ride. He had no intention of selling it. He wanted to give the, horse back to the owner after enjoying the ride of horse. He invited Aram for a ride. Aram tried, but the horse went out of control and he fell down. Mourad used the horse for sometime and then, hid it in a deserted vineyard., Every family has a crazy streak in it somewhere. Mourad was considered to have inherited the, crazy streak from his uncle Khosrove who was a heavily built man with big moustache and black, hair. His usual refrain was “It is no harm, pay no attention to it”., The owner of the stolen horse, John Byro, was an Assyrian. He came to Khosrove and told him, about his life without the horse. But Khosrove snubbed him about his worries and anxieties about, the horse. After the visit of John Byro,Aram went to Mourad and told him about the visit of John, Byro. He told Mourad that he should keep the horse until he (Aram) too learned to ride the horse., One day Mourad and Aram came across John Byro. He studied the horse and felt that it was his, own horse. But he knew the honesty of the family to which the boys belonged. He concluded that, the horse must be the twin of his stolen horse. Saying this he left, somewhat puzzled., Next day early in the morning they took the horse to John Byro’s vineyard and tied it in the barn., When John Byro found the horse, he was overjoyed. He came to share the good news with, Garoghlanian family. Happily, he told them that his horse had been found and it was stronger and, better than before., , KEY POINTS, 1. Aram and Mourad were cousins. They were two poor Armenian boys., 2. They belonged to the Garoghlanian tribe., 3. Their tribe was poverty-stricken but famous for its honesty and integrity., 4. One morning Mourad came to Aram’s house to invite him to take ride of the horse., 5. Aram who is the narrator of the story could not believe that the horse belonged to Mourad., 6. He thought that Mourad had stolen the horse but no member of the Garoghlanian family, could be a thief., 7. Aram was very fond of riding a horse so he justified stealing the horse saying that stealing, for a ride was not the same thing as stealing it for money., 8. The horse was hidden in the barn of a deserted vineyard., 9. Mourad had a good understanding with a horse while the narrator had none., 10. One day a farmer named John Byro, an Assyrian, came to uncle Khosrove’s house., 11. Uncle Khosrove was a crazy man. He was impatient and got irritated very soon. His usual, refrain was-It is no harm, pay no attention to it., 12. John Byro told that his white horse had been stolen., Page 130 of 175


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13. One morning Aram and Mourad met John Byro quite accidently., 14. He studied the horse very carefully and declared that it was his horse., 15. John Byro believed that no member of the Garoghlanian could be a thief., 16. He thought that their horse was the twin of his horse., 17.This made the boys realize their mistake., 17. Early the following morning, Mourad and Aram took the horse to John Byro’s house. They, tied it back in the barn., 18. John Byro was very happy after getting back his stolen horse. He informed the narrator’s, mother that he had found the horse and it was stronger and better than before., , VOCABULARY, 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6., 7., 8., 9., 10., 11., 12., 13., 14., 15., , Magnificence, Crazy, Longing, Garoghlanian, Pious, Orchard, Descendant, Furious, Capricious, Hind legs, Deserted, Parlour, Have a way with, Swear, Whispered, , Very attractive and impressive, Mad, whimsical, Strong desire, An Armenian tribe, Holy, sacred, Small garden, One who inherits, Violent, Changing suddenly and quickly, Back legs, A lonely place where no one lives, Sitting room, know the way to deal with, Take an oath, Spoke slowly in the ear, , MCQ WITH MARKING SCHEME, Q1. Who is the author of “The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse”?, A. AJ Cronin, B. William Wordsworth, C. William Shakespeare, D., William Saroyan, Q2. What were the hallmarks of the Garoghlanian tribe?, A. Trust, B. Honesty, C. Both (A) and (B), D. None of the, above, Q3. “The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse” is a story of two _________ boys., A. Armenian, B. Arabian, C. Assyrian, D. African, Q4. Mourad enjoyed being _______ more than anybody else., A. crazy, B. alive, C. funny, D. None of the above, Q5. What according to Aram, was his first longing?, A. To own a horse, B. To become rich, C. To ride a horse, D. To visit a vineyard, Q6. Why couldn’t Aram believe when he saw Mourad with the horse?, A. Because Mourad was crazy, B. Because they were poor to afford a horse, C. Because he was sleepy, D. Because he was dreaming, , Page 131 of 175


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Q7. Where did Aram live?, A. In the centre of the town, B. In the country, C. Olive Avenue, D. At the edge of town on Walnut Avenue, Q8. How does Aram describe the horse?, A. Magnificent & lovely, B. Beautiful white horse, C. Both (A) and (B), D. None of the above, Q9. No member of the Garoghlanian family could be _______., A. poor, B. rich, C. a thief, D. crazy, Q10. Mourad was considered the natural descendant of his _________., A. father, B. uncle, C. grandfather, D. great-grandfather, Q11. How would you describe uncle Khosrove?, A. Hot tempered, B. Irritable, C. Impatient, D. All of the above, Q12. What did uncle Khosrove do to stop anyone from talking?, A. By beating them B. By walking away C. By shouting at them, D. By, ignoring them, Q13. What was uncle Khosrove’s customary line?, A. Ignore it; pay no attention., B. Forget it., C. It is harmless; ignore it, D. It is no harm; pay no attention to it., Q14. When Aram rode the horse alone, it ran down the road to the _________., A. vineyard B. irrigation ditch, C. field, D. countryside, Q15. Mourad had been hiding the horse _________., A. in a stable B. in a barn of a vineyard, C. at a secret place of his house, D., None of the above, Q16. What was the behaviour of the horse initially?, A. It wanted to be trained, B. It wanted to rest, C. It wanted to run wild, D. All of the above, Q17. What sort of an understanding did Mourad mention with the horse?, A. Mature, B. Simple and honest, C. Complicated, D. Difficult, Q18. John Byro learned to speak Armenian out of ________., A. necessity, B. fun, C. eagerness, D. loneliness, Q19. Who was the true owner of the horse?, A. John Byro, B. Fetvajian, C. Dikran Halabian, D. Zorab, Q20. For how long did Mourad have the horse before Aram got to know about it?, A. One day, B. One year, C. One month, A. One week, Q21. At what time did Aram and Mourad ride the horse?, A. Late night, B. Early morning, C. Evening, D. Afternoon hours, Q22. “I have a way with farmers.” Who says it to whom?, A. Aram to Mourad B. Mourad to John Byro, C. Aram to John Byro D. Mourad to, Aram, Q23. John Byro said, “A suspicious man would believe his eyes instead of his heart.”, What does it tell about him?, A. He believed in the honesty of Garoghlanian family, B. He was, impractical, C. He was foolish, D. None of the above, Q24. Why did the boys return the white horse to its owner?, A. Because they were conscience stricken, B. Because they were afraid, C. Because they found it difficult to hide the horse, D. Because they were accused of, theft, Q25. After the horse was stolen and returned, it became ______., A. Rougher, B. sick & ill C. stronger & better-tempered, D. Both (A) and (C), Page 132 of 175


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MARKING SCHEME - MCQ, Q., Answer Q., Answer, No., No., 1, D, 6, B, 2, C, 7, D, 3, A, 8, C, 4, B, 9, C, 5, C, 10, B, , Q., No., 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, , Answer Q., No., D, 16, C, 17, D, 18, A, 19, B, 20, , Answer Q., No., C, 21, B, 22, D, 23, A, 24, C, 25, , Answer, B, D, A, B, D, , SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, ANSWER THE FOLLOWING IN 30-40 WORDS, Q.1. To which tribe did Mourad and Aram belong? Which traits of the tribe are highlighted in, the story ‘TheSummer of the Beautiful White Horse’?, Q.2. What were the unique traits of the Garoghlanian tribe?, Q.3. Why did Aram find it hard to believe that Mourad had stolen the horse?, Q.4. Why was Aram delighted and frightened at the same time when he saw his cousin Mourad, on a beautiful white horse?, Q.5. What were the peculiarities in Uncle Khosrove’s behaviour?, Q.6. How did uncle Khosrove react to John Byro’s complaint about the steal of his horse ?, Q.7 What did John Byro say to the boys when he found them walking with the horse one, morning?, Q.8 What do you think, induced the boys to return the horse to its owner?, , MARKING SCHEME – SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, Ans.1. Mourad and Aram belonged to the Garoghlanian tribe. The Garoghlanians were, extremely poor but they were known for honesty for centuries. They were proud first, honest, next and believed in doing the right deeds. No one of their tribe would ever steal. Everyone, trusted them., Ans.2 .The unique traits of the Garoghlanian tribe were that they were extremely poor but still, they were 1 famous for their honesty for centuries. They were proud as well as honest; they, believed in doing the right deeds. No one o^ their tribe would ever steal. They were, trustworthy., Ans.3. Though Mourad was too poor to buy a horse, Aram found it difficult to believe that he, had stolen it. This was because Mourad came from a family that firmly upheld honesty as their, special trait and were proud of it., Ans.4. Aram was delighted because of the beautiful white horse. He wanted to ride. He was, delighted and frightened by ‘the pious stillness and humour’ in Mourad and the horse. This, means that he was frightened because Mourad was on a horse which he could never have, bought., Ans.5. Uncle Khosrove, who had a furious temper was known to be crazy. He was so impatient, and irritable that he stopped anyone from talking by roaring, ‘It is no harm; pay no attention to, it.’ His son came to him to tell him that their house was on fire. He silenced him saying, ‘enough’. ‘It is no harm, I say’. He was irritated and snubbed when John Byro told him about, his horse having been stolen., Ans.6. John Byro was sad that his white horse had been stolen last month and it was missing, even then. Instead of showing any sympathy, uncle Khosrov became very irritated and shouted:, “It’s no harm. What is the loss of a horse? What is this crying over a horse”?, , Page 133 of 175


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Ans.7. John Byro met the boys walking with his horse which had been stolen. He studied the, horse, asked its name and examined its teeth. He said if he did not know their parents’ honesty, he would swear that it was his horse. He only called it the ‘twin’ of his horse., Ans.8. The boys belonged to the Garoghlanian tribe which was well known for its honesty., When John Byro met the boys walking with his horse which had been stolen, he studied the, horse, asked its name and examined its teeth. He said if he did not know their family’s honesty,, he would swear that it was his horse. The boys became conscience-stricken. They realized that, what they did was wrong and this could bring disgrace to their family. This made them return, the horse., , LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, ANSWER THE FOLLOWING IN 120-150 WORDS., Q.1. What impression do you form of the narrator (Aram) after reading the story?, Q.2. The narrator mentioned ‘a crazy streak’ running in his family. Which two characters showed this, streak in their behaviour and words? Write briefly about them showing how they could be called crazy., , MARKING SCHEME – LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, Ans.1. Aram is a nine year old Armenian boy who narrates the story. He is longing for a, joyride on a horse. He is the only character in the story who not only narrates incidents and, actions but also gives useful information about other characters and their traits as well. He also, provides the description of the Garoghlanian, tribe, their traits, etc.He finds it hard to believe, that Mourad has stolen a horse because he comes from a family that firmly upholds honesty as, their special trait and are proud of it. In his opinion, stealing a horse for a ride is not the, something as stealing something else, such as money. He convinces himself by saying this that, it would become stealing when they offer to sell it. Aram enjoys riding the horse.The, temptation to ride a beautiful horse cannot be resisted by him. Aram loves adventure that’s why, he decides not to talk about the stolen horse., Ans.2. Mourad and Uncle Khosrove were the two characters who showed a crazy streak in, their behaviour. Mourad was a thirteen-year old Armenian boy. He belonged to Garoghlanian, tribe. He was fond of riding to the point of craziness. He sang out of joy when riding a stolen, horse. He said confidently that he had a way with horses.He was crazy like his uncle Khosrove, and was considered the natural descendent of his crazy uncle. Uncle Khosrove had a furious, temper1 and was known to be crazy. He was so impatient and irritable that he stopped anyone, from talking by roaring, ‘It is no harm; pay no attention to it’. He said this even when his son, came running to tell him that their house was on fire. He got irritated and snubbed John Byro, when he told him about his horse having been stolen., , Page 134 of 175


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CHAPTER-2, THE ADDRESS, SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER, After the war had ended, the narrator felt confident and safe enough to visit her old place. She, started living in a small rented room. Remembering the old times, she decided to visit the address, – House Number 46, Marconi Street. This was the address of her mother’s old acquaintance Mrs, Dorling whom the narrator had only seen once and that was before the war. She had taken her, mother’s precious possessions like cutlery, utensils, silverware, etc. under the pretext of saving, them in case their family had to flee their house protecting themselves against the Nazi, repression. When the narrator reached the address, a broad-backed old lady opened the door, incompletely as if to hide some secret. She was wearing her mother’s green cardigan. The girl, recognized the woman but the woman claimed to know nothing about her. The girl reminded her, of Mrs S, her mother and their house. The woman realized who she was and enquired how she, survived when the rest of her family died in the war and repression. The girl said that she had, returned to the place after the war and wanted to see her mother’s things. The woman rebuffed, her advances and said that she did not have time to get into old stuff at that moment and that the, girl should return some other time. The woman’s daughter asked about the visitor from inside, the house but the woman claimed that it was nobody familiar. The betrayal of her mother’s old, friend shocked and hurt the narrator. She decided to return with a heavy heart and dashed hopes., On her way back the narrator remembers the day she came back to her mother at the beginning, of the war. She may have returned from a hostel or a trip. She looked at the house and the rooms, and found that several pieces of furniture, crockery, silverware etc were not there. She became, worried and enquired about the missing stuff from her mother. Her mother downplayed the issue, and instead appreciated her keen observation. One morning when the girl was striding down the, stairs she saw a woman leaving her house and her mother escorting her out. This woman was, carrying their crockery and precious things. She asked her mother about the woman and why she, took their stuff. Her mother told her that she was Mrs. Dorling, an old friend of hers who had, reconnected with her in recent times. She was taking their things to keep them safe in case they, had to flee in an emergency. They would collect their things after peace was established and they, were safe in their place. The girl did not feel comfortable and found the woman mysterious and, sinister. Her mother asked her to refrain from suspecting her friend as she was helping them at, the risk of her own life. She told the narrator about the woman’s address at Marconi Street. It, was house number 46. Unfortunately, the family was driven to the concentration camps and none, survived but the narrator. Growing frustrated at her last visit, the narrator decided to go back to, the same address and reclaim her mother’s belongings. She was determined and approached the, door. But this time a new face opened the door. It was Mrs. Dorling’s daughter. She asked the, narrator to come inside and escorted her to the drawing-room. The room was filled with the, narrator’s old things that belonged to her mother. The burnt mark on the table cloth to the silver, spoons, everything reminded her of the past. The things looked the same but they were in a, different place, lifeless and strange. They lacked the life they had before; they lacked the touch, of her mother and the smell of their house. They were a reminder of what the narrator had actually, lost and that it could never be recovered. The girl obviously did not know that her mother was a, conniving and wicked woman. The narrator asked her if she knew where her mother had got, those things from. The narrator was soon overwhelmed by the flushing memories and decided to, leave the house and the possessions. Without giving any explanation to her host, she scampered, from the house which became hauntingly difficult for her to stay in. She made a commitment, never to return to the place and those forgotten things. In the end, she decided to forget the, address and all the history associated with it. For her, it was a burden she was relieved to get off, her mind and heart., , Page 135 of 175


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VOCABULARY, , 1. Poignant – pathetic, 2. Evoke- arouse, 3. Chink- narrow opening, 4. Fleetingly- for a short time, 5. Musty –smelling damp, 6. Jamb-side post of the door or window, 7. Lugging-dragging heavy load, 8. Crick- muscle problem, 9. Reprovingly- in a scolding manner, 10. Doing an errand – gone out on purpose, 11. Cumbersome – heavy, 12. Oppressed – troubled, 13. Tasteless way – disorderly, 14. Muggy – damp, 15. Scarcely – hardly, 16. Fancied – liked, 17. Pewter – zinc, an alloy made of tin and lead, 18. Intently – keenly, 19. Jingling – metallic sound, 20. Severed – separated, 21. Beckoned- signalled, , MCQs (1 mark each), Q.1 What was the very first out of her mother’s possessions that the protagonist could, recognize?, (a) Hanukkah candle-holder, (b) Woollen table-cloth, (c) White tea pot, (d) Green knitted cardigan, Q.2 What was the ‘silver’ that the author was once asked to clean by her mother?, (a) Jewellery, (b) Cutlery, (c) Sculptures, (d) Stones, Q.3 “Her face gave absolutely no sign of recognition.” Who is her?, A. Mrs. S, B. Mrs. Dorling’s daughter C. Mrs. Dorling, D. Mrs. S’s daughter, Q.4 What was the address that the author’s mother asked her to remember?, A. Number 50, Marconi Street, B. Number 46, Baker Street, C. Number 54, Marconi Street, D. Number 46, Marconi Street, Q.5. In total, how many times did the author visit the given address?, A. Twice, B. Once, C. Thrice, D. Never, Q6. Why did the objects lose their value for the author?, A. Because their prices fell down, B. Because they were difficult to take along, C. Because she had new objects, D. Because she saw them in different surroundings, Q 7.Mrs.Dorling’s harsh behaviour shows that she is, A. Unfriendly, B.Ungrateful, C.Cruel, Page 136 of 175, , D.Quarrelsome


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Q.8 What was the outcome of the interview between Mrs Dorling and the narrator, A. Mrs Dorling refused to see her and talk to her, B.Mrs Dorling was very sweet, C. Narrator was welcomed, D.Her belonging were returned, Q 9 What did the narrator learn about Mrs Dorling from her mother, A. Mrs Dorling was an old acquaintance of the narrator’s mother., B.Mrs. Dorling was her neighbour., C.Mrs.Dorling was her aunt, D.Mrs. Dorling was a spy, Q.10 How does Mrs Dorling react when the narrator said, “I am Mrs S daughter”?, A. She recognised her, B. She was very happy, C She kept staring at the narrator without uttering a word D She fought with her, Q.11Who was Mrs. Dorling?, A. An old acquaintance, C. A relative, , B. A German Officer, D. Best friend, , Q12 What is the moral of the story ‘The Address’?, A.The redemption of the past and moving on, B. The post war effects, C.Never forget the old belongings and memories, D.Never trust anyone, Q13 Narrator was a, A.Jew, B.German, , C.Christian, , Q 14 What did narrator found on the table-cloth?, A. A burn mark, B. A hole, C. Embroidery, , D.Non-Jew, , D. Her name, , Q.15 What was the age of Mrs Dorling’s daughter?, A. About 15, B. About 16, C. About 17, , D. About 18, , Q.16 In which country does the story take place?, A. Holland, B. France, C. England, , D. India, , Q.17 How does the author describe the living room?, A. A. Muggy smell, B. Strange atmosphere, C. Sophisticated, D. Both (A) and (B), Q.18What was the ‘silver’ that the author was once asked to clean by her mother?, A. Jewellery, B. Cutlery, C. Sculptures, D. Stones, Q.19 Who is the author of “The Address”?, A. Manon Uphoff, B. Marga Minco, C. Marente de Moor, Q.20 In what condition did the author find the living room?, A. Haphazard, B. Well-arranged, C. Empty, , Page 137 of 175, , D. None of the above, , D. Old fashioned


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A, , 6, , D, , 11, , A, , 16, , A, , B, , 7, , A, , 12, , A, , 17, , D, , C, , 8, , A, , 13, , A, , 18, , B, , D, , 9, , A, , 14, , A, , 19, , A, , A, , 10, , C, , 15, , A, , 20, , A, , 1, , 2, , 3, , 4, , 5, , SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, All questions carry 2 marks. Word limit is 30-40 words, Q.1 Why did the narrator want to meet Mrs. Dorling?, Ans. She wanted to get her possessions back which were in the custody of Mrs Dorling. She, had insisted on keeping their things safely till the war was over., Q.2 How was narrator’s first interaction with Mrs Dorling?, Ans. One day coming downstairs, the narrator saw her mother about to see someone out. It was, a woman, dressed in a brown coat and a shapeless hat, with a broad back; she nodded and, picked up the suitcase., Q.3 What was the reaction of Mrs Dorling when the narrator said she is the daughter of, Mrs S?, Ans. She reacted weirdly on seeing her. She held her door against the door not wanting to open, it any further. She looked at her without uttering a word., Q.4 What did the narrator’s mother tell her about Mrs Dorling?, Ans. She was an old acquaintance. She suddenly turned up to renew her contact with the, narrator’s mother. During every single visit she took something or the other valuable article, with her., Q.5 Why did the author first hesitate to claim her belongings from Mrs. Dorling?, Ans. She began to suspect that the presence of her family articles would remind her of her dear, ones who were no more with her. Besides, she lived in a poor room that looked the oddest, place to accommodate her expensive possessions., Q.6 Why did the narrator finally decide to forget the address?, Ans. She realised that the objects which are associated with the past had lost their value as, being cut off from them. The easiest way was to forget. So she decided to forget the address., , Page 138 of 175


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LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS, All questions carry 5 marks. Word limit is 120-150 words., Q.1 Describe the narrator’s first visit to Mrs. Dorling’s house in Marconi Street, Ans Narrator went to Mrs. Dorling’s house in Marconi Street. She rang the bell. A woman, opened the door and looked at her searchingly. The narrator came closer and introduced herself, that she was Mrs. S’s daughter. The woman kept staring at her in silence. There was no sign of, recognition on her face. The narrator thought perhaps she had come to the wrong house. But, she saw the woman was wearing her mother’s green knitted cardigan. She knew at once that, she had made no mistake. She asked the woman whether she knew her mother. The woman, could not deny this. The woman regretted that she could not do anything for her. She asked the, narrator to come some other time and cautiously closed the door. The narrator realized that her, visit was in vain. She stood on the step for a while and then left the place., Q.2. Describe the narrator’s second visit to Mrs. Dorling., Ans During her second visit, Mrs Dorling’s daughter opened the door.The narrator said that she, would wait for her. Following her along the passage she saw their old fashioned candle holder, hanging beside the mirror. She saw woollen table cloth, cups, spoons , white tea-pot ,the, pewter plate everything which was a family belonging. But they all looked strange in the, strange surroundings.She no longer had desire to possess them. She got up, walked to the door,, and came out of the house., Q.3 Write the character- sketch of Mrs. Dorling., Ans. Mrs. Dorling is an acquaintance of Mrs. S, the narrator’s mother. In the story Mrs., Dorling exploits Mrs. S’s fears and insecurity during the war. She insists Mrs. S and took away, all her valuable things after giving assurance that she would keep them safe until the war was, over. In fact, Mrs. Dorling had no intentions of returning the valuables as she was sure that, Mrs. S and her family would not survive the war. So when the narrator, Mrs. S’s daughter,, went to Mrs. Dorling’s house to claim those articles to which her mother’s precious memories, were associated, she even pretended not to recognize her. Instead of returning those articles to, the narrator, she shamelessly used them which actually belonged to the narrator’s mother and, also behaved rudely to the narrator., Q.4 Do you think the title of the story ‘The Address’ is appropriate?, Ans. The story 'The Address' is about an address that the author had been given by her, deceased mother to go to and reclaim her belongings. The address Mrs Dorling, 46, Marconi, Street is the nucleus of the story around which the entire plot develops. The author goes there;, but she is not entertained encouragingly; she goes back; and again comes back to the same, address. Later the author decides not to take back her belongings as it lost its value due to the, tasteless arrangements. According to the author the things also contained the memories of her, mother so she decided not to take it back. The narrator in the end resolves to forget 46,, Marconi Street forever. Hence, the title The Address is quite appropriate and bears a definite, meaning for the story., , Page 139 of 175


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Chapter-3, Ranga’s Marriage, SUMMARY, It all begins when Ranga, the accountant’s son comes back to his village Hosahalli after, six months. He had gone to Bangalore to pursue his studies, which to mention, not many in the, village get this opportunity. The whole village gets excited to see Ranga and thus, they gather, around his home only to see how he would have changed., The narrator has beautifully elaborated about their village Hosahalli and how every, authority responsible forgot to mention it in the maps. Moving on, he admires Ranga and wants, to get him married but to his dismay, Ranga has very different views about marriage at that, point. The Narrator stages the entire union of Ranga and Ratna, Rama Rao’s eleven-year-old, niece., The girl has a very sweet voice and can play Veena and harmonium. At first, the, narrator tells him that she is married to see how it affects Ranga. As expected, Ranga was, disappointed. The narrator then manipulated the village Shastri to say things in his favor., He then took Ranga to visit him where he predicted that Ranga has a girl on his mind, and her name resembles something found in the ocean. Shyama, the narrator guesses her name, to be Ratna but again, she is married. On their way back, they confirmed that Ratna is not, married only to find Ranga happy and full of hope., On the other hand, the Shastri disagreed on having staged anything predetermined. He, claims to have said whatever his predictions showed. However, at the end, Ranga and Ratna, are happily married with a three- year old son named after the narrator. Ratna is also pregnant, with another child. To conclude, the narrator makes sure that he didn’t bore his readers., VOCABULARY, Sahib- a polite title or form of address for a man, Like a flock of sheep- a group of people behaving in the same way or following what others, are doing, Cartographer- a person who draws or produces maps, Karigadabu- a South Indian fried sweet filled with coconut and sugar, Annayya- (in Kannada) a respectful term for an elder, Flea-pestered dog- A flea- pestered dog does not stick to one place but keeps, roamingeverywhere.Flea-pestered means being infested by fleas and ticks, which can cause uncontrollable itching in animals, Behold- see or observe (someone or something, especially of remarkable or impressive nature), Rambling- (of writing or speech) lengthy and confused or inconsequential, Janewara- (in Kannada) the sacred thread worn by Brahmins, Considerate- thoughtful, concerned, Troupe- a group of dancers, actors or other entertainers who tour to different venues, Threshold- a strip of wood or stone forming the bottom of a doorway and crossed in entering a, house or a room, Betray- portray (here), Shrivelled- shrunken and wrinkled; especially as a result of loss of moisture, Tutored- taught, Paraphernalia- miscellaneous items, especially the set of equipment required for a particular, activity., Cowries- a marine mollusc which has a glossy, brightly patterned domed shell with a long,, narrow opening Palmyra- palm tree, Marvellous- causing great wonder; extraordinary, Page 140 of 175


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Multiple Choice Questions:, Q1. What is the writing style of the author?, (a) Persuasive, b.Rambling c.Technical, , d.None of the above, , Q2. The story “Ranga’s Marriage” is set in a village of _________., (a) Madurai, b.Bangalore, c.Mysore, Q3. What is the name of the narrator’s village?, (a) Hosahalli, (b) Panchavalli, (c) Hadinaru, Q4. How does the narrator speak of his village?, a) Passively, b.Vividly, c.Inadequately, , d.Bhubaneswar, , (d )None of the above, , d.Both (A) and (C), , Q5. What does the narrator mention as a ‘priceless commodity’?, a) To his native language, b.To mangoes of his village, c.To flowers of his village, d.To English language, Q6. Who was Ranga?, a) The narrator’s son, c.The doctor’s son, , b.The accountant’s son, d.None of the above, , Q7. Why was Ranga’s homecoming a big event?, a) Because he brought gifts for everyone, b) Because he was new in the village, c) Because he returned from Bangalore after studying there for six months, d) All of the above, Q8. An old lady checked for Ranga’s ___________., a) Birthmark, b.sacred piercing, c.sacred tattoo, , d.sacred thread, , Q9. After knowing that Ranga was the same, the crowd was __________., a) Disappointed, b.happy, c.angry, d.irritated, Q10. How does the narrator speak of Ranga’s character?, a) Poorly, b.Highly, c.Manipulatively, , d.Does not speaks of his character, , Q11. “As for his namaskara to me, he did not do it like any present-day boy…” What does it, tell about Ranga?, a) He was well mannered, b.He was disrespectful, c. He was forgetful, d.He changed his caste, Q12. What was Ranga’s initial take on marriage?, a) He wanted to marry immediately, b.He wanted to marry a girl chosen by his parents, c.He wanted to remain a bachelor, d.He wanted an arranged marriage, Q13. According to Ranga, what type of girl should one marry?, a) Mature, b.Admirable, c.Both (A) and (B), story, , d.Not mentioned in the, , Q14. According to the narrator, who would make a suitable bride for Ranga?, Page 141 of 175


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a) Narrator’s own daughter, c. Narrator’s niece, , b.Rama Rao’s niece, d.Rama Rao’s daughter, , Q15. How does the narrator describe Ratna?, a) Pretty girl of eleven, b.From a big town, c.Disrespectful, d.Both (A) and (B), Q16. When Ranga reached the narrator’s house, Ratna was __________., a) Sitting, b.painting, c.singing, d.waiting, Q17. Ranga was ________ about Ratna., a) Curious, b.uninterested, c.envious, d.annoyed, Q18. “She was married a year ago.” Hearing this, Ranga was ___________., a) Thrilled, b.disappointed, c.unconcerned, d.surprised, Q19. What is the name of the narrator of the tale?, a) Rangappa, b.Shastri, c.Rama, , d.Shyama, , Q20. “Come, let’s go and see Shastri.” Who was Shastri?, a) The village doctor, b.A village elder, c.The astrologer, d.Not mentioned in the tale, Q21. Why was it not important to know Ranga’s star?, a) Because Shastri already knew, b) Because Shastri was taught beforehand by the narrator, c) Because Shastri was not well versed, d) All of the above, Q22. According to the Shastri, what was Ranga’s concern?, a) Concern for a girl, b.Concern for his studies, c.Concern for a job, d.Concern for his village, Q23. What sort of cue did Shastri suggest for the girl’s name?, a) Something found in the forest, b.Something found in the ocean, c.Something found in the sky, d.None of the above, Q24. Later on, Ranga got to know that Ratna was __________., a) Divorced, b.widowed, c.unmarried, , d.engaged, , Q25. “There’s greater truth in that shastra than we imagine.” Who said this?, a) Shyama, b.Shastri, c.Ratna, d.Ranga, Q26. “Don’t forget, I developed on the hints you had given me.” What does the line suggest?, a) Narrator tutored Shastri for what to tell, b) Everything that Shastri told was based on his predictions, c) Both (A) and (B), d) None of the above, Q27. Why does the narrator call the couple childish?, a) Because they were immature, b.Because they named their child after him, c. Because they were playful, d.Because they invited him for dinner, Page 142 of 175


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Q28. “It’s Shyama’s birthday.” Who has been referred to in this line?, a) Ranga and Ratna’s child, b.The narrator, c.A child in village, d.None of the above, Q29. After reading “Ranga’s Marriage”, who (according to you) played a major role in Ranga, and Ratna’s marriage?, a), Rama Rao, b.Shastri, c.Ranga, d.Shyama, Q30. What sort of intentions does the narrator seem to have towards Ranga?, a) He is mean, b.He feels responsible for his marriage, c.He is manipulative, d.He feels pitiful, Answer Key, Q. No., , Answer, , Q. No., , Answer, , Q. No., , Answer, , 1, , b, , 11, , a, , 21, , b, , 2, , c, , 12, , c, , 22, , a, , 3, , a, , 13, , c, , 23, , b, , 4, , b, , 14, , b, , 24, , c, , 5, , d, , 15, , d, , 25, , b, , 6, , b, , 16, , c, , 26, , a, , 7, , c, , 17, , a, , 27, , b, , 8, , d, , 18, , b, , 28, , a, , 9, , a, , 19, , d, , 29, , d, , 10, , c, , 20, , c, , 30, , c, , Extract based question– Ranga’s Marriage, (I)Ranga, the accountant’s son, is one of the rare breed among the village folk who has been, to the city to pursue his studies. When he returns to his village from the city of Bangalore, the, crowds mill around his house to see whether he has changed or not, 1. Who is Ranga?, a. Accountant, b.Accountant’s son, 2. Who is the rare breed among the village folk?, a. Ranga, b.Ratna, c.Shama, Page 143 of 175, , c.Doctors son, d.Harsha, , d.Tailor


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3. To which city did he go to?, a. Banagalore, b.Hyderabad, c.Mysore, d.Managalore, 4. Why did he go to the city?, a. To work, b.To visit his uncle c.To meet his friends, , d.To study, , (II) Hosahalli is our village. You must have heard of it. No? What a pity! But it is not, your fault. There is no mention of it in any geography book. Those sahibs in England, writing, in English, probably do not know that such a place exists, and so make no mention of it. Our, own people too forget about it. You know how it is —they are like a flock of sheep. One sheep, walks into a pit, the rest blindly follow it. When both, the sahibs in England and our own, geographers, have not referred to it, you can not expect the poor cartographer to remember to, put it on the map, can you? And so there is not even the shadow of our village on any map., 1. Which village is the author talking about?, a) Hoshahalli, b.Hamshahalli, c.Bangalore, d.Mysore, 2. Why is the village not well known?, a) Because it is not mentioned in any book and was ignored by British, b) Because people are not educated, c) Because it is not beautiful., d) Since its population was sparse, 3. Who is a Cartographer?, a) A person who makes cars., b.A person who makes graphs., c.A person who makes maps., , d.A person who makes gems., , 4. What does narrator compare the people to?, a) Monkeys, b.Sheep, c.Dogs, , d.Cats, , (III) Just as the mango is special, so is everything else around ourvillage. We have a creeper, growing in the ever-so-fine water of thevillage pond. Its flowers are a feast to behold. Get two, leaves fromthe creeper when you go to the pond for your bath, and you willnot have to worry, about not having leaves on which to serve theafternoon meal. You will say I am rambling. It is, always like thatwhen the subject of our village comes up. But enough. If any oneof you would, like to visit us, drop me a line. I will let you knowwhere Hosahalli is and what things are like, here. The best way ofgetting to know a place is to visit it, don’t you agree?, 1) Which fruit is mentioned as special by the narrator ?, a. Apple, b.Banana, c.Dates, d.Mango, 2)What is the best way to know a place?, a. To locate it on the map, b. To read about it, c. To visit it., d. To dream about it., 3) What does the author do when the topic of the village come up?, a. Ramble on, b. Dance, c. Sing, d murmurs, 4) What is the use of the leaves from the pond?, a. Eat on them, b. Drape them as clothes, c. Play with them, d. Eat them, (IV) What I am going to tell you is something that happened ten years ago. We did not have, many people who knew English, then. Ourvillage accountant was the first one who had enough, courage tosend his son to Bangalore to study. It is different now. There aremany who know, English. During the holidays, you come acrossthem on every street, talking in English. Those, days, we did notspeak in English, nor did we bring in English words while talking in Kannada, 1) The narrator is talking about an incident that happened ___ years ago, Page 144 of 175


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a. 10, b.15, c.20, d.3, 2) Ten years ago what was the prevalence of English, a. Many people knew it, b.Only a few knew it, c.None knew it, , d.Everyone knew it, , 3)Who was the only one to send his son to the city for higher studies?, a. Accountant, b. Sarpanch, c. Ranga, d Rama Rao, 4) What changed about the village from then to now?, a. Now many people know English, b. Now all people know English, c. All people know Geography, d Still many do not know English, (V) This priceless commodity, the English language, was not sowidespread in our village a, decade ago. That was why Ranga’shomecoming was a great event. People rushed to his, doorstepannouncing, “The accountant’s son has come,” “The boy whohad gone to Bangalore, for his studies is here, it seems,” and“Come, Ranga is here. Let’s go and have a look.”, Attracted by the crowd, I too went and stood in the courtyardand asked, “Why have all these, people come? There’s noperforming monkey here.”, 1) According to the narrator what is the priceless commodity?, a. English, b.French, c.Kannada, d.Allthe, above, 2) What does the author compare the crowds at Ranga’s house too?, a. A crowd watching performing monkey, b. A crowd watching a street fight., c. A crowd watching a film shoot., d. A crowd watching a dance performance, 3) Why was Ranga’s homecoming a great event?, a. Because he was the first to return from city after English Education, b. Because he was the first one to get a job, c. Because he went to the moon, d. Because he was the accountant’s son., 4) Who does I refer to?, a. Ranga, b.Ratna, c.Shyama, d.Masti, (VI) Ratna came. It was a Friday, so she was wearing a grandsaree. I told her to sit in my room, and requested her to sing asong. I sent for Ranga. While she was singing the song—, Krishnamurthy, in front of my eyes — Ranga reached the door.He stopped at the threshold. He, did not want the singing tostop, but was curious to see the singer. Carefully, he peeped in., The light coming into the room was blocked. Ratna looked upand seeing a stranger there,, abruptly stopped.Suppose you buy the best quality mango. You eat it slowly,savouring its peel,, before biting into the juicy flesh. You do notwant to waste any part of it. Before you take, another bite, thefruit slips out of your hand and falls to the ground. How do you, feel? Ranga’s face showed the same disappointment when thesinging stopped., 1) Where did Ratna go?, a. Ranga’s house, b.Shyama’s house, c.To Temple, 2) Why was Ratna wearing a grand Saree?, a. Because it was Friday, b.Because it was her Birthday, , d.To pond, , c.Because it was Saturday d.Because she got bored of the regular dress., , 3) Why did Ratna abruptly stop singing?, a. Because she noticed Ranga, c.Because she noticed she was out of tune, , b.Because she was tired, d.Because she was hungry, , Page 145 of 175


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4) What does the author compare Ratna’s singing to?, a. A sweet juicy mango, b.An Apple, c. Fingernails on chalkboard, , d.Confectionary, , Answer Key, Extract I - 1-b, 2-a, 3-a, 4-d, Extract II - 1-a ,2-a,3-c,4-b, Extract III-1-d, 2-c, 3-a, 4-a, Extract IV-1-a,2-b,3-a,4-a, Extract V-1-a,2-a,3-a,4-c, Extract VI-1-b,2-a,3-a,4-a, , Short Answer Type Questions, Q.1. What does the narrator say about Hosahalli?, Ans. Hosahalli village is the scene of action. There is no mention of it in geography books, written by the sahibs in England or Indian writers. No cartographer has put it on the map. The, narrator highlights its importance by comparing it to the filling of the karigadubu—a festival, meal., Q.2. What are the two special produce of Hosahalli and in what respect?, Ans. First is the raw mango. The sourness of its bite is sure to get straight to the, brahmarandhra, i.e. the soft part in child’s head where skull bones join later. Second specialty, is a creeper growing in the water of the village pond. Its flowers are a feast to behold. You can, serve afternoon meal to the whole family on its two leaves., Q.3. What exactly had happened ten years ago? How important was it then?, Ans. Ten years ago, there were not many people in the village who knew English. The village, accountant was the first one who sent his son Ranga to Bangalore to pursue his studies. It was, quite an important event then. The narrator highlights it by saying that the village accountant, was the first one who had enough courage to send his son to Bangalore to study., Q.4. What happened when Ranga returned to his village from the city of Bangalore?, Ans. Ranga’s homecoming was a great event. The crowds milled around his house to see, whether he had changed or not. People were quite excited as the boy was returning home after, studying English at Bangalore. Everyone was surprised to see that Ranga was the same as he, had been six months ago, when he had first left the village, Q.5. How did the old lady satisfy herself about Ranga?, Ans. The old lady ran her hand over Ranga’s chest. She looked into his eyes. She was satisfied, to find the sacred thread on his body. She was happy that he had not lost his caste., Q.6. “What has happened is disgraceful, believe me” says the narrator. What does he refer to?, How does he illustrate his point of view?, Ans. The narrator refers to the practice of young persons who during the holidays in village, go, on talking in English or bring in English words while talking in Kannada. He calls this mixing, up of languages ‘disgraceful’. He gives the example of the use of the English word ‘change’ to, an illiterate person. The old lady, being asked to come the next day, went away disgruntled., Q.7. Why does the narrator refer to the Black Hole of Calcutta?, Ans. During the British rule, hundreds of persons were kept inside a single room. The next, morning most of them were found dead due to suffocation. The narrator uses the expression, ‘Black Hole of Calcutta’ to suggest the large number of people who had turned out to see, Ranga., Page 146 of 175


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Q.8. How did Ranga greet the narrator? In what respect did he differ from the present- day, boys?, Ans. Ranga greeted the narrator with full devotion. He not only folded his hands, but also bent, low to touch his feet. A present-day boy would stand stiff like a pole without joints, keep head, towards the sun and jerk his body as if it were either a hand or a walking stick. The narrator,, being old fashioned did not approve it., Q.9. When did Ranga plan to marry and why?, Ans. Ranga did not want to get married at an early age. He wanted to find the right girl. She, should be mature enough to understand his love talk. Secondly, he wished to marry a girl he, admired. He was against marrying quite young girls who had no manners or were not careful of, their face or figure., Q.10. What examples did Ranga give to explain the importance of marrying late?, Ans. Ranga gave two examples. An officer about thirty, married a girl about twenty- five., Ranga hoped they would be able to talk lovingly to each other. The second example is that of, Dushyanta falling in love with Shakuntala, who was quite mature., Q.11. “Ranga was just the boy for her and she the most suitable bride for him” says the, narrator. Who is ‘she’? What led narrator to this conclusion?, Ans. ‘She’ here stands for Ratna, the niece of Rama Rao. She was a pretty girl of eleven. Both, her parents having died, her uncle had brought her home. Being a girl from a big town, she, knew how to play the veena and the harmonium. She also had a sweet voice. All these qualities, made her a suitable bride for a young, educated man like Ranga., Q.12. How did the narrator let Ranga have a glimpse of Ratna?, Ans. The narrator arranged the meeting very systematically. First he called Ratna on the, pretext of sending buttermilk through her. Then he asked her to sing a song. Meanwhile Ranga,, whom he had sent for, reached the door. He became curious to see the singer and peeped in., His presence at the door blocked the light and Ratna stopped singing abruptly., Q.13. How did Ranga and Ratna react at their unexpected encounter?, Ans. Ratna stopped singing abruptly on seeing a stranger outside the room. Ranga felt, disappointed when the singing stopped. Ratna stood at a distance with her head lowered. Ranga, repeatedly glanced at her. He blamed himself for the singing to stop and offered to leave. Ratna, was overcome by shyness and ran inside. Ranga enquired about her., Q.14. How did the narrator handle Ranga’s inquiries about Ratna?, Ans. The narrator did not give him a straightforward reply. He said casually that it did not, matter to either of them who she was. The narrator was already married and Ranga was not the, marrying type. This aroused Ranga’s interest and excitement. He expressed the hope that she, was unmarried. His face showed signs of disappointment on learning that she was married a, year ago., Q.15. Why did the narrator tell Ranga that the girl was married a year ago?, Ans. The narrator had made up his mind that he would get Ranga married early. First he, brought Ranga and Ratna face to face to arouse his interest in her. In order to test the strength, of his emotions, he told Ranga that she was married a year ago. The shrivelled face of the, young man betrayed his feelings., Q.16. Why did the narrator visit the village astrologer?, Ans. The narrator wanted to exploit the common human weakness—eagerness to know the, future. He went to the village astrologer and told him to keep ready to read the stars. He tutored, him in all that he wanted the astrologer to say when he would revisit him with Ranga., Q.17. In what mental /emotional state did the narrator find Ranga? What solution did he offer?, How did Ranga react to it?, Ans. Ranga seemed to be lost in thought. Perhaps he was emotionally upset to learn that the, girl he had seen that morning was already married one. The narrator offered to take him to, Page 147 of 175


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Shastri to learn about the stars-whether Guru and Shani were favourable for him or not. Ranga, accompanied him without any protest., Q.18. “What? Only this morning…” Why was this sentence cut off and by whom? What would, have been the likely impact if the speaker had completed the sentence?, Ans. The narrator got angry when the astrologer said with surprise that he had not seen the, former for a long time. The narrator shouted these words. The astrologer cut this sentence off, and completed it in his own way. If he had not done so, the narrator would have ruined their, plan by blurting out everything., Q.19. What according to the astrologer was Ranga’s cause of worry? How did the name Ratna’, crop up?, Ans. According to the astrologer the cause of Ranga’s worry was a girl. She probably had the, name of something found in the ocean. When asked if it could be Kamla the astrologer did not, rule out the possibility. When suggested if it could be Pacchi, moss, the astrologer put a counter, question: “Why not pearl or ratna, the precious stone?” Thus the name Ratna cropped up., Q.20. “There was surprise on Ranga’s face. And some happiness.” What do you think had, caused these feelings?, Ans. When the narrator learnt from Shastri—the astrologer, that the name of the girl Ranga, was worried about could be Ratna, he was at once reminded of Rama Rao’s niece Ratna. He, asked the astrologer if there was any chance of the marriage being fixed there, the astrologer, gave a firm assurance. This caused happiness and surprise on Ranga’s face., , Long Answer questions (120-150 words), Q.1. Comment on the influence of English — the language and the way of life — on, Indian life as reflected in the story. What is the narrator’s attitude to English?, Ans. The story talks about the influence English language had decades ago in his village. Not, many people in the village at that time could understand or talk in English. Only a few, courageous people would send their children to study in cities like the village accountant sent, Ranga to Bangalore. When Ranga came back to the village, everyone was keen on seeing how, their culture had transformed him., As far as cultural influence is concerned, the story mentions how Ranga wanted to, marry a girl who was mature, someone who understands him and is compatible with him. This, is completely in opposition to the arranged marriages that were widely prevalent in those times., The narrator finds it disgraceful when people mix Kannada language with English. He, recounts how one day a lady delivered firewood to Rama Rao’s place and he told her to come, the next morning because he had no “change”. The lady did not know what “change” meant, and left while muttering to herself. The narrator confesses that he too did not know what it, meant until he asked Rama Rao., Q.2. Astrologers’ perceptions are based more on hearsay and conjecture than what they, learn from the study of the stars. Comment with reference to the story., Ans. The story throws light upon how Shastri predicted what was going on in Ranga’s mind., He did it using two sheets of paper, some cowries and a book of palmyra leaves in the form of, his paraphernalia. He even revealed that Ranga has some girl on his mind whose name related, to something that belonged to the ocean. All this made Ranga believe in the power of, Astrology., While in reality, it was our narrator Shyama, who had tutored Shastri to say so in a, meeting prior to the one with Ranga. Shastri made it seem like no big deal when Ranga left and, Shyama called it “his marvellous shastra”. He said he could have guessed it with his numbers, even if Shyama had not staged it for him., Hence, the story portrays Astrologer’s perceptions to be based more on hearsay and, conjecture than what they learn from the stars., Page 148 of 175


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Q.3. Indian society has moved a long way from the way the marriage is arranged in the, story. Discuss., Ans.It is true that Indian society has moved a long way from the way the marriage is arranged, in the story. Earlier, there was no concept of love marriage and only arranged marriages took, place like the one being talked about in the story. Ranga’s marriage was arranged by his uncle, Shyama. In present times, the bride and the groom have a say in the matter unlike decades ago, where even their consent was not considered important., Our society has come a long way since then, especially when it comes to the rights of, females. Earlier, the bride’s families were pressurized into paying dowry which has been, illegalised now. It is also against the law to marry individuals who have not yet attained a, specific age; 18 in case of girls and 21 in case of boys., , Q.4. What kind of a person do you think the narrator is?, Ans.The narrator is a man of his land as he introduces his village with such enthusiasm that, every reader would want to visit it at least once. His hospitality can also be appreciated as he, promises to take good care of his readers. He is someone who believes in maintaining the, authenticity of his culture that is why, he thinks it’s a disgrace to mix Kannada with English., He is a man with good judgement of character. He knew what type of man Ranga was, and that Rama Rao’s niece Ratna would be a perfect partner for him. Shyama seemed like, someone who knows how to make his own way. The whole set-up he staged with the village, Shastri in order to get Ranga and Ratna married, pose as evidence for that. He is also funny by, way of which he teased the village Shastri. Although clever, he seems to be a man with best, intentions at heart., , Page 149 of 175


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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA REGIONAL OFFICE CHANDIGARH, SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER 2021-22 [SET I], CLASS XI, SUBJECT ENGLISH, TIME 90 MINUTES, MM 40, GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS, 1.This paper is divided into three sections: A, B and C.(A-13 marks, B-12 marks, C -15, marks ), 2. All the sections arecompulsory., 3. All the questions are MCQ based, , SECTION A – READING – (13 MARKS), Q.1 Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow-(1x8=8 M), With the successful pre-dawn launch of RISAT-2B satellite, the Indian Space Research, Organisation (ISRO) has added another feather to its cap. The satellite will enhance India’s, capability in crop monitoring during the monsoon season, forestry mapping for forest fires and, deforestation, and flood mapping as part of the national disaster management programme. Given, that overcast skies are a constant during the monsoon season and during times of flood, the ability, to penetrate the cloud cover is essential. While optical remote sensing that relies on visible light, for imaging gets obstructed by clouds, RISAT-2B will not. Much like the RISAT-1 satellite that, was launched by ISRO in April 2012, RISAT-2B will also use microwave radiation. Unlike, visible light, microwaves have longer wavelength and so will not be susceptible to atmospheric, scattering. Microwave radiation can thus easily pass through the cloud cover, haze and dust, and, image the ground. Hence, RISAT-2B satellite will be able to image under almost all weather and, environmental conditions. Since it does not rely on visible light for imaging, it will be able to, image the ground during both day and night. The satellite does not have passive microwave, sensors that detect the radiation naturally emitted by the atmosphere or reflected by objects on, the ground. Instead, RISAT-2B will be transmitting hundreds of microwave pulses each second, towards the ground and receiving the signals reflected by the objects using radar. The moisture, and texture of the object will determine the strength of the microwave signal that gets reflected., While the strength of the reflected signal will help determine different targets, the time between, the transmitted and reflected signals will help determine the distance to the object., 1.As per the given passage, how RISAT-2B satellite will image in the cloudy weather?, I. With the help of its microwave radiation that can pass through cloud cover and dust easily., II. With the help of visible light that creates images., III. With the help of electronic rays that creates image of an object., a.Only I, b. Only II, c. Only II and III, d. Only I and II, e. All I, II and III, 2.What does the writer want to convey from the text given in italic – “the Indian Space, Research Organisation (ISRO) has added another feather to its cap.”?, I. ISRO has worked hard on building its rapport among the other space research organisations, of the world., II. ISRO has made an accomplishment that made nation proud on it., III. ISRO has become the apex space research institute of the world., a.Only I, b.Only II, c.Only II and III, d.Only I and II e.All I, II and III, 3. Which of the following has a similar meaning to “penetrate” in the context of the passage?, a. Enlarge, b. Pinch, c. Excess, d. Invade, e. Trespass, 4. Which of the following is false in the context of the passage?, Page 150 of 175


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I. RISAT-1 uses visible light technology to create images., II. RISAT-2 is helpful in flood mapping and crop monitoring., III. The passive microwave sensors of RISAT-2 detect the radiation., a. Only I, b. Only II, c. Only I and III, d. Only I and II, 5. What is the transmission rate of RISAT-2?, I. 100 microwave pulse/second approx., II. 1000 microwave pulse/second approx., III. 10000 microwave pulse/second approx., a. Only I, , b.Only II, , c.Only II and III, , 6. What can RISAT-2B satellite do?, a. crop monitoring, b. forestry mapping, , d.Only I and II, , c. flood mapping, , e. All I, II and III, , e.All I, II and III, d. All of the above, , 7. What determines the distance to the object?, a. The moisture and texture of the object, b. the strength of the reflected signal, c. the time between the transmitted and reflected signals, d. All of the above, 8. When was the RISAT-1 satellite launched by ISRO?, a. In April 2012, b. In 2012, c. Both of the above, , d. None of the above, , Q.2 Read the passage given below., Most cities in India face water shortage problems. According to some reports, 182 cities, requireurgent attention with regards to water and wastewater management. It is estimated, that 35% of water is lost every day in leakages in cities. The effective water supply after, this loss is only 125 litres/day per capita. This is considerably lower than the demand of, 210 litres/day per capita. The following graph shows the water demand in some major, Indian cities in MLD (million litres per day)., , Wastewater management is becoming a major challenge in cities. Population growth and, urbanisation has put cities under unprecedented pressure. Development of infrastructure and, government regulations have not been able to keep pace with this. The other major concern is, groundwater exploitation. Many towns and cities still depend on hand pumps for their water, supply which depletes the water table., The way forward – Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM), The IUWM approach is a completely new way of looking at urban water management. It, encourages cities to align their socio-economic planning to a ‘hydrological’ context,, Page 151 of 175


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without losing sight of their developmental priorities. It is based on the following key, concepts:, Participation of public, private and social sectors in urban areas in activities that are water, related. The participation is needed to reach a common understanding of the challenges to, water management and identify a common vision., Considering the whole urban water cycle as one system. This covers various actions, such, as:, • matching water quality with the purpose of use, • using natural systems for water and wastewater treatment, • considering storm water/rainwater as a potential source of water, . preventing leakage, . strengthening urban water systems that often face acute shortage of water or floods, . managing the urban demand and use of water, . Regarding wastewater as a resource. Grey water (used water) can be reused for domestic, purposes, urban agriculture and industrial processes., . Optimum infrastructure design. This implies the selection of correct technology for water, supply, wastewater treatment and sanitation. The selection is based on factors such as water, quality, economic condition of households, size of population and availability of skilled, manpower, land and institutions., The IUWM is a holistic approach that links urban water management with overall urban, planning. If the government wishes to adopt IUWM, it has to adjust some of its policies and, regulations, and consider decentralising its activities. It has to also train its technical and, managerial staff and be open to sharing information with public., , On the basis of your understanding of the passage, attempt ANY FIVE QUESTIONS, OUT OF SIX that follow., (1 × 5 = 5M), i) More than a third of the water in cities is lost due to, a. overuse., b. leakage., c. lack of wastewater management., d. pollution in the water., ii) Name two cities which constitute more than 50% of the water demand of all Indian cities, put together., a. Jaipur and Kanpur, b. Mumbai and Delhi, c. Surat and Lucknow, d. Bengaluru and Chennai, iii). IUWM approach is a holistic way of looking at urban water management because it, a. ensures the participation of public, private and social sectors in urban water management., b. supports the use of grey water., c. aligns urban water management with urban planning., d. controls population growth., iv). By ‘hydrological context’ is meant, a. the context of hydroelectric power, b. the scientific study of water, c. the correct technology for water supply, wastewater treatment and sanitation., d. a perspective that recognizes issues related to water., v) Grey water can be reused for, a. domestic work, c. drinking after purification, , b. agriculture, d. infrastructural processes, Page 152 of 175


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vi) Which of the following cities faced acute water crisis and was about to approach Day Zero, in 2018?, a. Canada, b. New York, c. New Delhi, d. Cape Town, SECTION –B – WRITING SKILLS AND GRAMMAR, (12 M), Q. 3. Answer the following questions for the short composition task by choosing the, correct option(1X3=3 M), i., ii., iii., , What comes first of all in a Notice?, a. Main body, b.Date, c.Name of the institution, One of the following is not part of the Noticea. body, b.date, c.heading, What comes in the end of a Notice?, a. Date, b.Heading, c.Name of writer, , d.Heading, d.greetings, d.Main body, , Q. 4. Answer the following questions based on the Long writing task by choosing the, correct options(1X5=5M), i. A formal letter should be …… to have the desired effect on the recipient., a. In the proper format., c. Grammatically correct., , b. To the point and relevant., d. All of these., , ii. What would you say in the opening part of a formal letter having which kind of information?, a. Ask how good the weather is in the recipient’s city., b. Inform the recipient why you are writing the letter., c.discussing the recipient if he is hale and hearty., d. discussing how good the weather is in your city., iii.Where should you write the date on your letter?, a. Under your address, b. Above your address, c. Under the recipient's address, d. None of the above, iv. How to write an informal letter?, a. Write legibly in simple English., c. Leave out the date., , b. Ignore grammar., d. Scribble., , v. This is the part of the letter that includes a word like sincerely and your name, a. Closing, b. Opening, c. Body, d. Heading, Q.5 Answer the following questions by choosing the correct options - (1x4=4 M), i. I didn’t find …………………………… there., a. No one, b. anyone, c. someone, d. none, ii. This paper _____ twice weekly., a. is appearing, b. appearing, c. appears, d. none, iii. friends/auxiliaries/animals/necessary/are our/and/survival/for our., a. Animals are our friends, auxiliaries and necessary for our survival., Page 153 of 175


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b. Animals are our auxiliaries friends, and necessary for our survival., c. Both of the above, d. None of the above, iv. Mary is ill so Sue _______________ (teach) her 1essons today., a. Is teaching, , b.Will teach, , c.Both of the above, , d.None of the above, , SECTION –C – LITERATURE (15 MARKS), Q.6. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : (1x3=3M), She had always been short and fat and slightly bent. Her face was a Criss- cross of wrinkles, running from everywhere to everywhere. No, we were certain she had always been as we had, known her. Old so terribly old that she could not have grown older, and had stayed at the same, age for twenty years. She could never have been pretty; but she was always beautiful., i. Who is ‘She’ in the above lines?, a. narrators’ mother b.narrator's grandmother, these, , c. narrator’s mother-in-law, , d.none of, , ii. What was the physical state of her?, a. Middle-aged, , b.young, , c.old, , d.none of these, , iii. Which of the following is the synonym of ‘Fat’?, a. corpulent, , b.skinny, , c.Lean, , d. none of these, , Q.7 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : (1x3=3M), At the uncle with the camera. A sweet face,, My mother’s, that was before I was born., And the sea, which appears to have changed less,, Washed their terribly transient feet., i. Who is the poet/poetess of the poem?, a. Shirley Toulson, b. Rudyard Kipling, c. Elizabeth Jennings, d. Markus Natten, ii. What are the three of them doing in the photograph?, a. playing, b. standing beside house, c. holding hands and smiling, d. holding hands and went for paddling, iii. Who took the photograph of her mother with her cousin?, a. Her grandfather, b. Her uncle, c.Her mother’s friend, d. Her grandmother, Q. 8. Answer the following textual questions by choosing the correct options(1x3=3 M) - Hornbill, i. Why did the author decide to go for a round-the-world voyage?, a. to duplicate the voyage made 200 years ago by Captain James Cook, b. to see the world, c. to settle down in different country, d. to show his children the world through ship, ii. Which animal did the grandmother used to feed in the village?, a. dogs, b. cows, c. sparrows, d. cats, iii. How did Carter cut the body of Tut?, Page 154 of 175


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a. with the help of chemicals, b. with the help of chisel and hammer, c. with the help of machinery, d. with the help of manpower, Q. 9. Answer the following textual questions by choosing the correct options(1x6=6 M) – Snapshot, i. An old lady checked for Ranga’s ___________., a. birthmark, b. sacred piercing, c. sacred tattoo, d. sacred thread, ii. What were the hallmarks of the Garoghlanian tribe?, a. Trust, b. Honesty, c. Both (A) and (B), d. None of the above, iii. No member of the Garoghlanian family could be _______., a. poor, b. rich, c. a thief, d. crazy, iv. “Her face gave absolutely no sign of recognition.” Who is her?, a. Mrs. S, b. Mrs. Dorling’s daughter, c. Mrs. Dorling, d. Mrs. S’s daughter, v. Mrs. Dorling took the possessions of the things on the pretence of __________., a. using them, b. selling them, c. keeping them safe, d. Both (A) and (B), vi. Later on, Ranga got to know that Ratna was __________., a. divorced, b. widowed, c. unmarried, d. engaged, , Page 155 of 175


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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA REGIONAL OFFICE CHANDIGARH, SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER 2021-22 [SET II], CLASS XI, SUBJECT ENGLISH, TIME 90 MINUTES, MM 40, GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS, 1.This paper is divided into three sections: A, B and C., (A-13 marks, B-12 marks, C -15 marks), 2. All the sections are compulsory., 3. All the questions are MCQ based, MM: 40 MARKS, This paper consists of 3 sections :, Reading Section : 13 marks, Creative Writing Skills & Grammar Section : 12 marks, Literature Section : 15 marks, Total : 40 marks, Note : Its compulsory to attempt all questions., , Reading Comprehension : 13 marks, Q 1. Read the following passage and answer the questions given below: (08 marks), It was a dark and stormy night. The Whites – Mr. and Mrs. White and their adult son, Herbert – are inside enjoying a cozy evening around the fire. Soon Sergeant-Major Morris, arrives for a cup of tea. He's been in the army in India for the past 21 years. He tells the, Whites stories of his adventures in that faraway orient land and shows them a monkey's, paw that has the power to grant three wishes. Mr. White wants the paw, but Morris tells, him it's cursed – people get hurt when their wishes are granted. He tries to burn the paw in, the fire, but Mr. White snatches it up and buys it. After Morris leaves, Mr. White,, following Herbert's suggestion, wishes for two hundred pounds, the amount of money he, would need to pay off the bank and own the house outright., The next morning, Herbert goes off to work as usual and Mrs. White watches for the two, hundred pounds to show up. In the evening a man comes from Herbert’s office saying that, he died in a machine accident and says that the company takes no blame for Herbert's death, but wants to give the Whites some money to help with their loss with two hundred pounds, .Mrs. White screams and Mr. White faints., Full of sadness over Herbert's death, Mr. and Mrs. White bury him in the cemetery two, miles from their home. One-night Mrs. White gets a bright idea: use those other two wishes, to bring Herbert back! She shares her plan with Mr. White. He thinks it's a bad idea – he, could barely look at Herbert's mangled body when he went to identify it. His wife really, turns up the heat, though, and he caves in. Mr. White pulls out the cursed monkey's paw, and wishes Herbert back to life., Nothing happens, so the Whites go back to bed. Soon after, someone – or something –, starts pounding on the door. Mrs. White is sure it's Herbert – it just took him a minute to, get there from the cemetery. Mr. White is sure it's Herbert too, and he doesn't want his son, to get in the house, so he makes his third wish on the monkey's paw. The knocking stops., Page 156 of 175


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Mr. White hears Mrs. White open the door. He hears her scream out in agony because, Herbert is not there. He goes outside with her and sees that the road is completely empty., Sometimes, unreal stories hit us hard and teach us the lessons of life., (414 words), (Source: The Monkey’s Paw by W W Jacobs, Adapted), On the baisis of your reading of the above passage, answer the following questions by, choosing the right alternative out of the option provided below:, 1. Sergeant-Major Morris wanted to burn the monkey’s paw because..........., (a) he did not want to see the White’s grow rich, (b) the wishes when granted gave pain to the owners, (c) the wishes would change their lives, (d) he brought it from a distant land, 2. The man in the evening visits the Whites........, (a) for a cup of tea, (b) attend a condolence meet, (c) to give news of their son’s death, (d) to get some document signed, 3. The story conveys a message that.........................., a) We should give a thought to a wise advice, b) We should not listen to what others speak, c) We should live in harmony, d) We should always help each other, 4. The story has a .............................. element in it ., a.Supernatural, b.comedy, c.satiric, d.humorous, 5. Find a word in the passage that means the same as ‘disfigured’, a. caves in, b. cemetery, c. mangled, d.heated, 6. Find a word in the passage that is an antonym of ‘occident’, a. cozy, b.faraway, c.cursed, d.orient, 7. The actual intent of the family in keeping back the monkey’s paw was to :, a) pay the amount to bank and own the house through the first wish, b) bring back the dead son back to life, c) fulfilling all the desires of Mrs. White, d) not giving it back to Mr. Morris, 8. The expression from the text that tells Mr. White becomes helpless before the demands, of his wife is:, a) He hears her scream out in agony, b) people get hurt when their wishes are granted, c) and he caves in, d) Mrs. White screams, Q2 Read the following case study and answer the questions given below: (5 marks), In the present times of Covid -19, referring internet has gained momentum. Right from the, issues of survival like, work from home to online education of children, every facility is, availed online within the four walls of home. Added to this, purchase of grocery, clothes and, all kinds of house-hold products is being done successfully online. Consequently major, online services are receiving boom., Mobiles/smart phones are the biggest weapons of the new normal of every common man, to fight with the challenging times. With both its blessing and banes, a common man finds, his life empty without these possessions., Page 157 of 175


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The pie chart below illustrates how internet users aged 16+ prefer to access the internet at, home and in other placesThe current graph shows the results of a survey in which, peopleaged 16 and over were asked about their preferreddevices for accessing the internet., The question referredto going online at home and in other places. Participants mentioned four, main devices in their answers: asmartphone, a laptop, a tablet and a desktop computer., Since mobile and portable devices are themost popular choices, it is clear that many, participantsare accessing the internet outside their homes. Thedesktop computer is the least, popular of the four maindevices. In future, we can probably expect to see moreand more people, accessing the internet withsmartphones as their preferred choice., (388 Words), , On the basis of the above stated fact and the pie chart above, answer the following, questions: ( any 5), 1. Major online services are receiving a boom because:, a) Most of the purchases are being done online, b) Online services are convenient, c) Online services offer discount sometimes, 2. The 3% gap between the teens’ choice for internet referring device indicate, that :, a) Laptop is their first choice, b) Laptop is their second choice, c) Both laptop and smart phone are their first choices, 3. The least popular device for referring the internet is:, a) Desktop computer, b) Tablet, c) Smart phone, 4. 67% of the teenagers still depend on the following devices:, a) Laptop, smartphones, desktop, tablet and others, b) Laptop, smartphones, desktop and others, c) Laptop, desktop, tablet and others, 5. A phrase that means the opposite of losing ‘popularity’, a) gaining momentum, b) being accessible, c) a great bane, 6. The expression new ‘normal’ refers to the times:, a) before the pandemic of Corona, b) of existence during the pandemic of Corona, c) after the end of the pandemic Corona, , Page 158 of 175


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Writing Skills & Grammar Section( 12 marks ), Q3. Choose the correct alternative out of the options given below: 8 marks, a) A notice is written in :, i. 1st person, , ii. 2nd person, , iii.3rd person, , iv.1st and 2nd person, , b) Beginning a ‘Notice’, with greetings like HELLO , HI all, is __________ because it, is a __________writing task:, i. correct , informal, ii. incorrect , formal, iii. partially agree , formal, , iv. can’t say , informal, , c)We should write ‘Thank You” at the end of a notice before putting our name and, signature:, (i), , No, , ii. Yes, , iii.Partially agree, , iv.Can’t say, , d) Choose the correct expression used for ending any official letter:, i. yours sincerely, ii.Your’s sincerely, iii. Yours Sincerely iv.Yours sincerely, , e)Which of the following does not fall in the letter for placing orders:, (i), Placing orders for books, (ii), Placing orders for sports equipment, (iii) Placing orders for eatables, (iv), Placing order for computers from a firm, f)The speech begins with formal greetings to the members of the jury:, (i), No, ii.Yes, iii.Partially agree, iv.Can’t say, g) We use this before we end a speech:, (i) Thankyou, (ii) Thank you, (iii) Good evening, (iv) See you all, h) Registering complaints is a/an ________ letter., (i) formal, (ii) informal letter, (iii) enquiry, (iv)reply, , Q4.Choose the correct alternative form of the Verb given in brackets:(2, marks), 1., I shall not go to his house unless he _______(invite) me., a)invites, b) invited, c) invitation, d) inviting, 2., The police ________(catch) the thief last night., a) had caught b. caught, c.will catch, d.catch, 3., He thanked me for what I ______(do)., a) Did, b.will do, c.had done, d.does, 4. It is high time he ________(start) studying., a) will start, b) started, c) had started, d) starts, Q5.Choose the correct alternative out of the options given below: ( 2 marks), 1. How gorgeous is the sunset! ( Transform the sentence into assertive sentence), a) How is the sunset so gorgeous?, b) The sunset is gorgeous, isn’t it?, c) The sunset is very gorgeous., d) How gorgeous the sunset is!, Page 159 of 175


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2. No other metal is as expensive as gold. (Transform the sentence into superlative), a) No other metal except gold is expensive., b) Gold is expensive of all the metals., c) Isn’t gold the most expensive of all metals., d) Gold is the most expensive of all metals., 3. This tea is too hot for me. (Transform the given sentence by removing too), a) This tea is so hot that I cannot take it., b) This tea is very hot for me., c) This tea is hot for me., d)This tea is hot that I cannot take it, 4 Buy one shirt and get one free. (Transform the sentence into a complex, sentence), a) If you buy one shirt, you get another shirt free., b) If you buy one shirt, you get one free., c) A shirt free on purchase of a shirt., d) Buy one shirt to get one free., , Literature Section : 15 marks, Q6. Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow. ( 3 marks), The whole tree trembles and thrills., It is the engine of her family, She stokes it full, then flirts out to a branch end, Showing her barred identity mask, a) What makes the tree tremble?, (i) the lizard, (ii) the poet, (iii ) the goldfinch, b) The ‘engine’ here refers to:, (i), The nest and the little ones in it, (ii), A machine lying under the tree, (iii) The sleek lizard, (iv), The laburnum tree, C) She stokes it full, means:, (i) she shakes the laburnum tree, (ii) she feeds her young one, (iii) her young ones shake the tree, (iv) she enjoys sitting on the tree, , (iv) the machine, , Q7 Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:( 3 marks), The sun can beat down like a hammer this far south in Egypt, and Carter tried to use, it to loosen the resins. For several hours, he set the mummy outside in blazing, sunshine that heated it to 149 degrees Fahrenheit. Nothing budged. He reported with, scientific detachment that ‘the consolidated material had to be chiseled away from, beneath the limbs and the trunk before it was possible to raise the king’s remains., a) What ‘resins’ are being referred to in this extract:, (i) these refer to the oils used for cooking, (ii)these refer to the oils that were poured over king Tut’s body during the funeral, (iii) these refer to the eatables kept in pharoah’s room, Page 160 of 175


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(iv)these refer to the flowers kept over his body, b) Carter was………….., (i) a king, (ii) a localite of Egypt, (iii)A European Archeologist, (iv) King Tut’s close relative, c)The expression ‘scientific detachment’ here refers to:, (i) keeping oneself away from any sentiment, (ii) detachment from loved ones, (iii) detachment from nature, (iv) detachment from the society, Q8. Answer the following questions by choosing the right alternative : 3 marks, a) ‘Mayday calls’ refer to:, (i)Emergency calls made from the ship in danger, (ii) Calls made during the month of May, (iii) Calls made during any day of May, (iv) blank calls, b) Howard Carter’s investigations were resented because:, (i), he was not worried about the excavation, (ii), he had chiselled away the limbs and trunk of the king, (iii), he had chiselled away the skull of the king, (iv), he had not made use of CT Scan, c) The European view of art advocated:, (i), Daoism, ii. Conceptual space, iii.Delicate realism iv.Shanshui, Q9. Answer the following questions by choosing the right alternative : 6 marks, a) The boys returned the horse because:, (i), they were afraid of John Byro, (ii), they were conscience stricken, (iii), they were afraid of Uncle Khoshrove, (iv), they were no longer interested in it, b) Uncle Khoshrove’s saying ‘Pay no attention to it’ was a part of his:, (i)crazy streak, (ii)love for John Byro, (iii)concern for the horse, (iv)affection for the boys, c) The girl at the door knew that she was at the right address because:, (i), the lady inside accepted it, (ii), the daughter of the lady welcomed her, (iii), the lady was wearing the green cardigan of her mother, (iv), the lady was wearing the brown cardigan of her mother, d) The narrator of ‘The Address’ decided to forget the address because :, (i), Her belongings in that address had lost their value, Page 161 of 175


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(ii), (iii), (iv), e), , It was difficult for her to visit the place again, She did not like Mrs. Dorling’s attitude towards her, Because she liked her daughter’s hospitality, , Ranga’s homecoming was a big event in the village (i), because very few people from the village went for higher education, (ii), because people wanted to see him speaking English, (iii) because people wanted to observe his transformation after coming from a city, (iv), because people wanted to express their resentment on his city education, , f) An educated Ranga marries Ratna as the story ends. This tells that :, (i), There were shortcomings in his city education, (ii), It takes time to break off from the cultural ties that binds a person, (iii) Foreign education had invaded rural settings, (iv), Its difficult to disobey the elders of the society, , Page 162 of 175


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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA REGIONAL OFFICE CHANDIGARH, SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER 2021-22 (SET III), CLASS XI, SUBJECT ENGLISH, TIME 90 MINUTES, MM 40, GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS, 1.This paper is divided into three sections: A ,B and C., ( A-13 marks, B-12 marks ,C 15 marks ), 2 .All the sections are compulsory ., 3 .All the questions are MCQ based, ., Q.NO., , SECTION ---- A - READING ( 13 Marks ), , 1, , Read the passage carefully 1. Roshni Bairwa remembers running all the way from her home in Tonk’s, Mahmood nagar Dhani village to the room where the ‘bal samooh’ (children’s, group) met. “My grandparents are getting me married, you have to do something,”, the then 12-year-old told the 20 or so children sitting there., 2. The children, all aged between eight and 16, trooped up to Roshni’s house and, urged her grandparents to stop the impending wedding. Others, including village, elders and teachers, joined in. The wedding was stopped. She had discovered a, way out of the quagmire with the help of a local NGO and the village children., 3. When she was in class XII, the pressure to get married returned. This time her, uncle found a match for her. When she resisted, she was taunted and beaten., People would point to her as the girl who brought shame to her family and asked, their children not to speak to her. “I was 16 years old and alone in the world. I, walked to school with my eyes fixed to the ground. I would think sometimes, I, would cry myself to sleep,” recalls Roshni, who lost her father when she was two, and had been abandoned by her mother shortly after. But even in those dark, moments, Roshni didn’t give up, moving out of the village to Peeplu tehsil in, Rajasthan where she rented a room and attended college., 4. With education and independence came a sense of confidence. “I kept in touch, with the children in the village. Every time there was child marriage, they would, call me and I would go to stop it. I realised I had already been thrown out of the, village, the worst had already happened, what else could the villagers do? So I, went and fought with everyone who was getting their child married,” she says with, a laugh. So far she has stopped over a dozen marriages., 5. Even without the support of the law, young girls have been crusading against the, practice. Earlier this month, 19-year-old Sushila Bishnoi from Barmer succeeded, in getting her marriage annulled, submitting photographs, and congratulatory, messages from her husband’s Facebook account to the court. The court accepted, Page 163 of 175, , MARKS, , 1X8= 8, Marks


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these as evidence that the union took place when both the bride and groom were 12, years old and declared the marriage invalid., 6. Seema Bairwal (name changed) was 15 when she was married to a man a few, years older. Later when she started attending ‘bal samooh’ meetings with NGO, Shiv Shiksha Samiti and Save the Children, it dawned on her that she had a choice., “I learnt that my life is mine. I have the power to say no to marriage., On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer any EIGHT of the, following questions by choosing the correct option Question (i), The brides mentioned in the passage are rebels against, (a) the dowry system, (b) child marriage, (c) purdah system, (d) arranged marriage, Question (ii), When Roshni was twelve years old, she succeeded in her mission with the help of, …………, (a) 20 children aged between eight and sixteen, (b) her grandparents, (c) 20 children, her grandparents, village elders and teachers, (d) children and an NGO, Question (iii), When she was sixteen, the people of the village ………………….., (a) taunted her and beat her up, (b) boycotted her, (c) were angry with her, (d) were sympathetic and understanding, Question (iv), Roshni moved out of the village in order to(a) seek a job, (b) escape the villagers, (c) attend college, (d) marry a boy of her choice, Question (v), ‘Give up’ in para 3 means, (a) stop attending classes, (c) very eager, , (b) stop doing something, (d) voluntary, , Question (vi), ‘Annulled’ in para 5 means, (a) To state officially that something is not legally valid, (b) Help somebody, (c) impending doom, (d) social works, Question (vii ), Roshni lost her father when she was, Page 164 of 175


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(a) Two years old, (c) One year old, , (b) Ten years old, (d) Three years old, , Question (viii), The word having similar meaning to – “about to happen soon” is (paragraph 2), (a) Impending, (b) Remote, (c) Distant, (d) Gone, Question (ix), The word having similar meaning to – “realised” is (paragraph 6), a) sun rise, b) dawned upon her, c) speak, d) open, 2, , Read the passage and on the basis of your understanding answer the, questions given below ., Here’s good news for tiger conservationists, tiger authorities and wildlife lovers, celebrating International Tiger Day. According to the latest census of 2018, released by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on International Tiger Day, India is, home to 2,967 tigers. What makes this figure significant is that it is an increase by, a third as compared to 2014 and more than double as compared to 2006. The latest, census also reveals the states with the highest tiger populations and those with the, lower ones, along with the economic value( Pegged between 4200 crore to 16000, crores annually) of tiger reserves in the country. See the given infographic., The latest tiger census is very encouraging, and points to the successful strategies,, methods and techniques being adopted and pursued by wildlife authorities and, wildlife conservationists to protect the tiger., The tiger census 2018 was taken after a painstaking 15months’ work where the, forest officials surveyed 3,81,400 sq km of forested habitats. During the same, period of time, they also installed 26,760 camera traps, with wildlife biologists, going through 35 million images of wildlife. Of this astounding number of images,, 76,523 were those of tigers. It is estimated that almost 83% of the entire tiger, population was represented in these images., The figures are certainly cause for enthusiasm, and a great deal of it was reflected, in the address by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on International Tiger Day. In it,, he also stressed on the need for striking a healthy balance between development, and environment. Addressing this issue, he went on to say, “There is a very old, debate- development or environment. Both sides present views as if they are, mutually exclusive. In our policies, in our economics, we have to change the, conversation about conservation. I am confident that India will prosper both, economically and environmentally. India will build more roads and India will have, cleaner rivers. India will have better train connectivity and also greater tree, coverage., , Page 165 of 175, , 1x5=5, Marks


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On the basis of your understanding of the passage, attempt any FIVE of the, following questions :, i) Which of the following would be the most appropriate heading for the above, passage?, a) The Return of the Cats, c) The King Makes a Comeback, , b) The Roar of the Lion, d) The Roar is Back, , ii) According to the 2018 survey, tick the statement which is true regarding the, number of tigers in each state., a) Madhya Pradesh vies closely with Karnataka for the first place., b) Uttarakhand trails behind Karnataka by 100 tigers., c) The combined tiger population of Kerala and Tamil Nadu is less than that of, Uttarakhand, d) Assam has more tigers as compared to Tamil Nadu., Page 166 of 175


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iii) India achieved its target of doubling its tiger population years ahead of the, target year., a) 3, , b) 4, , c) 5, , d) 6, , iv) The tiger population statistics of the world reveal that the tiger population of, the top three states of India ____________________________ that of the whole, world., a) is as much as, , b) is less than, , c) is equal to, , d) is more than, , v) Among India’s neighbouring countries, which country has the highest tiger, population?, a) Nepal, b) Bhutan, c) Bangladesh, d) Myanmar, vi) What is the ‘old debate’ that the prime minister refers to?, a) conversation vs conservation, b) environment vs development, c) roads vs rivers, d) more roads vs greater tree coverage, , SECTION B ---- WRITING AND GRAMMAR 12 MARKS, Answer the following questions by choosing the correct option3, , i. Arrange following in proper sequence as parts of a Notice, (i) The word NOTICE, (ii) Name of the institution, (iii) Name of the issuer, (iv) Title, (a) i,ii,iii,iv (b) ii,i,iii,iv, (c) ii,i,iv,iii, d) iv,iii,ii,i, , 1x3=3, marks, , ii .The tone of the notice should be, (a) Relaxed ,detailed and accurate, (b) Precise, crisp and accurate, (c) Precise ,crisp and ambiguous, (d) Relaxed, ambiguous and formal, iii .A notice is, (a) A formal document, (c ) A personal document, 4, , (b) An informal document, (d) None of the above, , i. Which of these is not a part of a letter?, a) Date, b) Greeting, c) Photo, d) Signature, ii . Which of these is mentioned in a letter when an order is placed?, a) Age of the owner, b) Nationality of the owner, c) Health of the owner, d) Mode of payment, iii .The key point of a Formal letter is written in which part of a formal, letter ?, a) Post script, b) Body, c) Opening, d) Closing, iv .Suppose we do not know the recipient’s name, how we can end the letter ?, a) Yours Sincerely, b) Affectionately yours, Page 167 of 175, , 1x5=5, Marks


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c) Yours faithfully, , d ) None of these, , v. forma l letter should be …… to have the desired effect on the recipient ?, (a). In the proper format., (b). To the point and relevant., (c). Grammatically correct., (d). All of the above, OR, i.A Speech must always present-------------a) Facts, b) Opinions, c) Suggestions, d ) Perspectives, ii. Which of these must be avoided by a speaker?, a) Abstract words, b) Short sentences, c) Good pronunciation, d) Steady pace, iii .How do we begin the speech ?, a ) By addressing the audience, c ) Directly starting with content, , b) By giving thanks, d) Writing the heading, , iv .Which of the following is not an effective strategy in writing a speech ?, a) Avoid jargon, b ) Be sensitive to your audience, c) Write whatever comes to mind., d ) Use contractions., v .A speech is an .................. to a group of people for a specific purpose ., a ) Warning b ) Advice, c) Address, d) All the above, , 5, , i. .You can pick ——of the two., a)-many b)-more, c)-either, , d)-some, , 1x4=4, Marks, , ii.——man who is wearing —— white cap is my neighbour., a)-a, the, b) the, a, c) the, the, d ) a, a, iii.What ________you doing yesterday when I rang you?, a) are, b) have, c) were, d) would, iv. Rearrange the following in proper sequence to form a correct sentence., a. its best, b. is simply, c. science, d. the common sense at, 1. a b d c, 2. d b a c, 3. b c d a, 4. c b d a, , SECTION C, 6, , 15 MARKS, , Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :, The Laburnum top is silent, quite still, In the afternoon yellow September Sunlight, A few leaves yellowing ,all its seeds fallen, , Page 168 of 175, , 1x3=3, Marks


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i. How did the poet describe the top of the Laburnum tree in the poem ‘The, Laburnum Top’?, a. Still and Silent, b. Moving and Angry like, c. Silent and Motionless, d. None of the above, ii. What had happened to the leaves of the Laburnum tree?, a. they were green, b. turned yellow, c. fallen down, d. new leaves growing, iii Who is the poet of the poem ‘Laburnum Top”, a. Stephen Spenders, b .Ted Hughes, c .Shirley Toulson, d, Markus Natten, 7, , Read the extract given below and answer the questions that, follow:, , 1x3=3, Marks, , He was just a teenager when he died .The last heir of a powerful family that, had ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries, was laid to rest laden with, gold and eventually forgotten. Since the discovery of his tomb in 1922 , the, modern world has speculated about what happened to him ,with murder being, the most extreme possibility ., i .Who is ‘He’ in the above passage ?, a. Ranga, b King Tut, c Howard Carter, d .Jonathan, ii When was his tomb discovered ?, a 1965, b 1923, c 1922, d 1912, iii Who is the author this chapter?, a .Shahid Ali, b A.R Williams, c Margo minco, d Khushwant Singh, 8, , 9, , QUESTIONS BASED ON TEXTS (HORNBILL), Answer the following questions by choosing the correct option i. How did the sparrows express their sorrow at the death of the grandmother?, a. They didn't come that day, b. they came and sat silently in the verandah, c.They ate the bread crumbs, d. they chirruped a lot, ii. Where did they decide to reach to save themselves and the ship?, a. Australia, b. Mumbai, c., Ile Amsterdam, d. Japan, iii. What does 'Mayday call' mean?, a Call made in the month of May, b Distress call for help, c Both A and B, d None of these, , 1x3=3, Marks, , QUESTIONS BASED ON TEXTS ( SNAPSHOTS), Answer the following questions by choosing the correct option -, , 1X6=6, Marks, , 1 Why couldn’t Aram believe when he saw Mourad with the horse?, A. Because Mourad was crazy, B. Because they were poor to afford a horse, Page 169 of 175


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C. Because he was sleepy, D. Because he was dreaming, II. Who was the true owner of the horse?, A. John Byro, B. Fetvajian, C. Dikran Halabian, D. Zorab, III. Why did the boys return the white horse to its owner?, A. Because they were conscience stricken, B. Because they were afraid, C. Because they found it difficult to hide the horse, D. Because they were accused of theft, IV What was the address that the author's mother asked her to remember?, A. Number 50, Marconi Street, B. Number 46, Baker Street, C. Number 54, Marconi Street, D. Number 46, Marconi Street, V. What message does “The Address” talk about?, A. Importance of things, B. Not to trust someone, C. Human predicament of war, D. None of the above, VI. Why was Ranga’s homecoming a big event?, A. Because he brought gifts for everyone, B .Because he was new in the village, C .Because he returned from Bangalore after studying there for six months, D .All of the above, , Page 170 of 175


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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA REGIONAL OFFICE CHANDIGARH, MARKING SCHEME 2021-22 SET I, CLASS XI, SUBJECT ENGLISH, SECTION A, Q 1., i.a.Only I, , (1*8=8), ii. b.Only II, , vi. d. All of the above, viii. a. In April 2012, , iii.e. Trespass, iv. c. Only I and III, v. a.Only I, vii. c. the time between the transmitted and reflected signals, , Q.2., (1*5=5), i) b .leakage, ii) b. Mumbai & Delhi, iii) c. Align urban water management with urban planning, water, v) a. Domestic work, vi) d. Cape Town, , iv) b. the scientific study of, , SECTION B, Q.3., i.c. Name of the institution, , (1*3=3), iii.c. name of writer, , ii.dGreetings, , Q.4., (1*5=5), i.d. All of these., ii. b. Inform the recipient why you are writing the letter., iii.a.Under your address, iv.a.Write legibly in simple English., v. a.Closing, Q.5., (1*4=4), i.b. anyone, ii. Appears, iii.a. Animals are our friends, auxiliaries and necessary for our survival., iv. c. Both of the above, , SECTION C, Q 6., i. d.narrator's grandmother, , (1*3=3), , ii.d.old, , Q 7., i.a. Shirley Toulson, , iii.a.corpulent, (1*3=3), , ii.c. holding hands and smiling, , Q 8., (1*3=3), i.a.to duplicate the voyage made 200 years ago by Captain James Cook, ii a dogs, ii b with the help of chisel and hammer, , Q.9( 1*6=6), i.d. sacred thread, iv.c. Mrs. Dorling, , ii.c. Both (A) and (B), v.c. keeping them safe, , iii. c. a thief, vi.a.unmarried, , Page 171 of 175, , iii.b. Her uncle


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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA REGIONAL OFFICE CHANDIGARH, MARKING SCHEME 2021-22 SET II, CLASS XI, SUBJECT ENGLISH, , Q 1 Unseen, Comprehe, nsion, , Q 2 Case, Based, Comprehen, sion, , Q 3 MCQs, Writing, Section, , 1)(b) the wishes when granted gave pain to the owners, 2) (c). to give news of their son’s death, 3)(a) We should give a thought to a wise advice, 4) (a) supernatural, 5) (c) mangled, 6) (d) orient, 7(a) pay the amount to bank and own the house through the first, wish, 8 (c) and he caves in, Any 5 out of 6, 1(a) Most of the purchases are being done online, 2(b) Laptop is their second choice, 3(a)Desktop computer, 4(c) Laptop, desktop, tablet and others, 5 a) gaining momentum, 6 (b) of existence during the pandemic of Corona, a) (iii) 3rd person, b)(ii) incorrect , formal, c)(i) No, d)(iv) Yours sincerely, e)(iii) Placing orders for eatables, f)(ii) Yes, g)(ii) Thank you, h) (i) formal, , 8 marks, , 5 marks, , 8 marks, , 2 marks, Q 4 Gap, Filling, , Q NO 5, Transforma, tion of, sentences, , 1. a)invites, 2. b) caught, 3.c) had done, 4. c) started, , 1. ( c)The sunset is very gorgeous., 2. (d) Gold is the most expensive of all metals., 3. (a) This tea is so hot that I cannot take it., Page 172 of 175, , 2 marks


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4., Q6 (, Literature :, Seen, Comprehen, sion), Poetry, Extract, , Q7, Literature :, (Seen, Comprehen, sion) Prose, Extract, , (b)If you buy one shirt, you get one free., 3 marks, a) (iii ) the goldfinch, b) (i) The nest and the little ones in it, c) ii) she feeds her young ones, , a) (ii)these refer to the oils that were poured over king Tut’s body, during the funeral, (b) (iii)A European Archeologist, 3 marks, (c) (i) keeping oneself away from any sentiment, , Q8, MCQ(Flam, ingo), , a (i)Emergency calls made from the ship in danger, b (ii)he had chiselled away the limbs and trunk of the king, c (iii)Delicate realism, , 3 marks, , Delicate realism, Q9 MCQ (, Snapshots), , a), b), c), d), e), , (ii)they were conscience stricken, (i)crazy streak, (iii)the lady was wearing the green cardigan of her mother, (i)Her belongings in that address had lost their value, (iii)because people wanted to observe his transformation, after coming from a city, f) (ii) It takes time to break off from the cultural ties that binds, a person, , Page 173 of 175, , 6 marks


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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA REGIONAL OFFICE CHANDIGARH, MARKING SCHEME 2021-22 SET III, CLASS XI, SUBJECT ENGLISH, SECTION A, Question 1 (1X8 = 8 M), Question (i), Question (ii), Question (iii), Question (iv), Question (v), Question (vi), Question (vii), Question(viii), Question(ix), , (b) child marriage, (a) 20 children aged between eight and sixteen, (a) taunted her and beat her up, (c) attend college, (b) stop doing something, (a) To state officially that something is not legally valid, (a) Two years old, (a) Impending, (b) dawned upon her, , QUESTION 2, , 1X5=5 marks, , i) a) The Return of the Cats, ii) a) Madhya Pradesh vies closely with Karnataka for the first place., iii) b) 4, iv) b) is less than, v) a) Nepal, vi ) b) environment vs development, , SECTION B, QUESTION 3, , 1X3=3 marks, , I (c) ii,i,iv,iii, II b) Precise ,crisp and accurate, III (a) A formal document, , QUESTION 4, , 1X5 =5marks, , i.c) Photo, ii.d) Mode of payment, iii.b) Body, iv .c) Yours faithfully, v.d). All of these, OR, i. a) Facts, ii a ) Abstract words, iii .a ) By addressing the audience, iv c) Write whatever comes to mind., v . c) Address, SPEECH, , QUESTION 5, i.) c) either, , 1X4=4 Marks, ii) b)-the, a, , iii) c)Were, , SECTION C, Page 174 of 175, , iv ) 4) c, b, d, a


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Question 6, , 1X3=3 Marks, , i.a). Still and Silent, ii.b). turned yellow, iii.b .Ted Hughes, , QUESTION 7, , 1X3=3 Marks, , i.b) King Tut, ii.c) 1922, iii.b) A.R Williams, , QUESTION 8, 1X3 = 3 Marks, i.b). they came and sat silently in the verandah, ii.c.) Ile Amsterdam, iii.b)Distress call for help, , QUESTION 9, 1X6 = 6 Marks, I b.) because they were poor to afford a horse, ii a) John Byro, iii a ). Because they were conscience stricken, iv d) Number 46, Marconi Street, v c) human predicament of war, vi.c) Because he returned from Bangalore after studying there for six months, , Page 175 of 175


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